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paws serving for the mouth of the vessel. Calmet. Bottles of this kind are mentioned in scripture, and they were used for carrying water through the deserts of Arabia and other countries, where springs and streams are scarce. Such bottles, indeed, have been in common use both in ancient and modern times. The word used by Job (ch. xxxii. 19) signities, in the original, to swell or distend; it is properly used to express a skin bottle, which would be made to swell by the liquor poured into it, and which would be more distended and enlarged, till they would at last burst, if they had no vent, by the fermentation of the liquor as it advanced towards ripeness. Hence we perceive the propriety of putting new wine into new bottles, &c. according to the appropriate allusion in the gospels, which being moist and strong, would resist the expansion, and preserve the wine to due maturity; whereas old bottles of this kind, being dry and more brittle, would be in danger of bursting, and were best adapted to receive old wine, the fermentation of which had ceased. These leather bottles are supposed, by a sacred historian, not only to be frequently rent, when grown old and much used, but also to be capable of being repaired (Josh. ix. 4.) Modern travellers, as well as ancient authors, frequently take notice of these leathern bottles. The Arabs, says Sir John Chardin, and all those who lead a wandering life, keep their water, milk, and other liquors, in these bottles, the manner of repairing which he also describes. They serve, according to this writer, to preserve their contents more fresh than in any other way. They are made, he says, of goat-skins: when the animal is killed, they cut off its feet and its head, and in this manner they draw it out of the skin without opening the belly. They afterwards sew up the places. where the legs were cut off, and the tail, and when it is filled, they tie it about the neck. These nations, and the country people of Persia, never go a journey without a small leathern bottle of water hanging by their side like a scrip. The great leathern bottles are made of the skin of an he-goat, and the small ones, that serve instead of a bottle of water on the road, are made of a kid's skin. In speaking of the Persians, the same traveller says, that they use leathern bottles, and find them useful in keeping water fresh, especially if people, when they travel, take care to moisten them, wherever they find water. The evapora
tion thus furnished, serves also to keep the water cool. He says, that the disagreeable taste of the leather is taken off, by causing it to imbibe rose-water when it is new, and before it is applied to use. Formerly, it is said, the Persians perfumed these leathern vessels with mastic, or with incense. From him also we learn, that they put into these goat-skin and kidskin vessels every thing which they want to carry to a distance in the East, whether dry or liquid; they are thus preserved fresher than if they were conveyed in boxes or pots: the ants and other insects are prevented from getting among them, and they are thus kept free from dust; and for these reasons butter, honey, cheese, and other such aliments, are inclosed in vessels made of the skins of these animals. Aecordingly the things, particularly the balm and homey, which were somewhat liquid that were carried to Joseph as a present, were probably inclosed in little vessels
made of kid-skins. Homer also refers to
this mode of preserving various kinds of provision in leathern vessels. Glass bottles are better for cider than those of stone. Foul glass bottles are cured by rolling sand or small shot in them; musty bottles by boiling them. Bottles are chiefly made of thick coarse glass; though there are likewise bottles of boiled leather made and sold by the case-makers. Fine glass bottles, covered with straw or wicket, are called flasks. The quality of the glass has been sometimes found to affect the liquor in the bottle.
BOTTOM, in navigation, is used to denote as well the channel of rivers and harbours, as the body or hull of a ship : thus, in the former sense, we say, a gravelly bottom, clayey bottom, sandy-bottom, &c. and in the latter sense, a British bottom, a Dutch bottom, &c.
By statute, certain commodities imported in foreign bottoms, pay a duty called petty customs, over and above what they are liable to, if imported in British bottoms.
BOTTOMRY, in commerce, a marine contract for the borrowing of money upon the keel or bottom of a ship; that is to say, when the master of a ship binds the ship itself, that if the money be not paid by the time appointed, the creditor shall have the said ship.
Botto MRY is also where a person lends money to a merchant, who wants it in traffic, and the lender is to be paid a greater sum at
the return of the ship, standing to the hazard of the voyage. On which account, though the interest be greater than what the law commonly allows, yet it is not usury, because the money being furnished at the lender's hazard, if the ship perishes, he shares in the loss.
BOTTONY, a cross bottony, in heraldry, terminates at each end in three buds, knots, or buttons, resembling, in some measure, the three-leaved grass.
BOTTS. See OEstris.
BOUCHE of court, the privilege of having meat and drink at court, scot-free. This privilege is sometimes only extended to bread, beer, and wine ; and was anciently in use as well in the houses of noblemen as in the king's court.
BOUGUER (Peter), in biography, a celebrated French mathematician, born at Croisci in, Lower Bretagne, in February, 1698. His father, John, was professor of hydrography, and author of “A Complete Treatise on Navigation.” Young Bouguer learnt mathematics of his father, from the time he was able to speak, and thus became a proficient in those sciences while he was yet a child. He was sent very early to the Jesuits’ college at Vannes, where he had the honour to instruct his regent in the mathematics, at eleven years of age. Two years after this he had a public contest with a professor of mathematics, upon a proposition which the latter had advanced erroneously; and he triumphed over him; upon which the professor, unable to bear
the disgrace, left the country. Upon the
death of his father, he was appointed to succeed in his office of hydrographer, after a public examination of his qualifications; being then only fifteen years of age; an occupation which he discharged with great respect and dignity at that early age. In 1727, at the age of twenty-nine, he obtained the prize proposed by the Academy of Sciences, for the best way of masting of ships. This first success of Bouguer was soon after followed by two others of the same kind; he successively gained the prizes of 1729 and 1731 ; the former, for the best manner of observing at sea the height of the stars, and the latter, for the most advantageous way of observing the declination of the magnetic needle, or the variation of the compass.
1731, the place of associate geometrician, vacant by the promotion of Maupertuis to that of pensioner; and in 1735 he was promoted to the office of pensioner-astronomer. The same year he was sent on the commission to South America, along with Messieurs Godin, Condamine, and Jussieu, to determine the measure of the degrees of the meridian, and the figure of the earth. In this painful and troublesome business, of ten years duration, chiefly among the lofty Cordelier mountains, our author determined many other new circumstances, beside the main object of the voyage; such as the expansion and contraction of metals and other substances, by the sudden and alternate changes of heat and cold among those mountains; observations on the refraction of the atmosphere from the tops of the same, with the singular phenomenon of the sudden increase of the refraction, when the star can be observed below the line of the level; the laws of the density of the air at different heights, from observations made at different points of these enormous mountains; a determination that the mountains have an effect upon a plummet, though he did not assign the exact quantity of it; a method of estimating the errors committed by navigators in determining their route; a new construction of the log for measuring a ship's way; with several other useful improvements. Other inventions of Bouguer, made upon different occasions, were as follow : the heliometer, being a telescope with two object glasses, affording a good method of measuring the diameters of the larger planets with ease and exactness: his researches on the figure in which two lines or two long ranges of parallel trees appear: his experiments on the famous reciprocation of the pendulum; and those upon the mauner of measuring the force of the light; &c. &c. The close application which Bouguer gave to study, undermined his health, and terminated his life the 15th of August, 1758, at 60 years of age. His chief works, that have been published, are, 1. “The Figure of the Earth, determined by the observations made in South America;” 1749, in 4to. 2. “Treatise on Navigation and Pilotage;” Paris, 1752, in 4to. This work has been abridged by M. La Caille, in one volume, 8vo. 1768. 3. “A Treatise on Ships, their Construction and Motions;" in 4to., 1756. 4. “An Optical Treatise on the Gradation of Light;” first in 1729; then a new edition in 1760, in 4to. and a great
number of papers inserted in the Menloirs of the Academy. BOUNTY, a bounty in political economy, is a sum of money paid by the state for the raising or the exporting of some species of rude produce or manufacture. In this country every person who raises a certain quantity of flax is entitled to a bounty; and when corn is below a eertain price, a bounty of so much per bushel is paid on its exportation. The intention of bounties is to encourage the production of those articles on which they are paid, by securing a profitable return to the producer. The effect of a bounty on the production of any article is to render it cheaper in the home market—thus, if the fair or customary profit on the capital employed be 10 per cent., and the bounty amount to 5 per cent. on the capital, it is evident the grower can afford to sell the article 5 per cent. cheaper than he otherwise could. The effect of a bounty on the exportation of any article is to render it dearer in the home market—for by means of it the surplus of the home market can be removed on easier terms than could otherwise be possible to the foreign market, and thus a reduction of price is prevented. But if the redundance of the home market could not be exported, and the price consequently was reduced, production would be discouraged, and the supply being more scanty, the price might be as high or higher than it is rendered by the bounty. For a more particular inquiry into the effects of a bounty on exportation see Corn LAws. The objection to all bounties is the following: “that every branch of trade in which the merchant can sell his goods for a price which replaces to him, with the ordinary profits of stock, the whole capital enployed in preparing and sending them to market, can be carried on without a bounty. Every such branch is evidently upon a level with all the other branches of trade which are carried on without bounties, and cannot therefore require one more than they. Those trades only require bounties in which the merchant is obliged to sell his goods for a price which does not replace to him his capital together with the ordinary profit, or in which he is obliged to sell them for less than it really costs him to send them to market. The bounty is given in order to make up this loss, and to encourage him to continue, or perhaps to begin
a trade, of which the expense is supposed to be greater than the returns, of which every operation eats up a part of the ca. pital employed in it, and which is of such a nature that if all other trades resembled it, there would soon be no capital left in the country. See DRAw BAck, PREMIUM.
BOW, a weapon of offence made of steel, wood, horn, or other elastic matter, which, after being bent by means of a string fastened to its two ends, in returning to its natural state, throws out an arrow with prodigious force.
The use of the bow is, without all doubt, of the earliest antiquity. It has likewise been the most universal of all weapons, having obtained among the most barbarous and remote people, who had the least communication with the rest of mankind.
The figure of the bow is pretty much the same in all countries, where it has been used ; for it has generally two inflexions or bendings, between which, in the place where the arrow is drawn, is a right line. The Grecian bow was in the shape of a x, of which form we meet with many, and generally adorned with gold or silver. The Scythian bow was distinguished from the bows of Greece and other nations by its incurvation, which was so great, as to form an half-moon or semicircle. *
The matter of which bows were made, as well as their size, differed in different countries. 'l'he Persians had very great bows made of reeds; and the Indians had also, not only arrows, but bows made of the reeds or canes of that country; the Lycian bows were made of the cornel tree; and those of the AEthiopians, which surpassed all others in magnitude, were made of the palm-tree.
Though it does not appear that the Romans made use of bows in the infancy of their republic, yet they afterwards admitted them as hostile weapons, and employed auxiliary archers in all their wars.
In drawing the bow, the primitive Grecians did not pull back their hand towards their right ear, according to the fashion of modern ages, and of the ancient Persians, but placing their bow directly before them, returned their land upon their right breast. This was also the custom of the Amazons.
The bow is a weapon of offence amongst
the inhabitants of Asia, Africa, and America, at this day; and in Europe, before the