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contains several water plants, as Hippuris, Myriophyllum, Potamogeton, Lemma, &c. Along with which Jussieu reckons several genera of the structure of whose seed, and consequently of the primary character of whose class he was uncertain. Class II. Monocotyledones with the stamens inserted beneath the germen, or in Linnaean language, having the germen superior. The orders are four, 7. Aroideae; as Arum, &c. 8. Typhae, consisting of Typha and Sparganium; 9. Cyperoidea, as Carex, Scirpus, Cyperus, &c. and 10. Graminea, the true grasses. Class III. Monocotyledones with the stamens inserted round the pistil, this is upon the calyx or corolla. The orders are eight, 11. Palmae, of which we have spoken at the end of the
Linnaean system; 12. Asparagi, Asparagus,
Convallaria, &c.; 13. Junci, Juncus, &c. to which are added Commelina, Butomus, Sagittaria, Veratrum, and even Colchicum. 14. Lilia, as Tulipa, Fritillaria, Lilium, &c. 15. Bromelia, of which the Pine apple and Agave are instances; 16. Asphodeli, consisting of Aloe, Asphodelus, Hyacinthus, Ornithogalum, Allium, and several others. 17. Narcissi, Hemerocallis, Amaryllis, Narrissus, Galanthus, and others; 18. Irides, Ferraria, Iris, Ixia, Gladiolus, Crocus exemplify this order. Class IV. Monocotyledones with the stamens inserted upon the germen or style, that is, having the germen inferior. The orders are four, 19. Musa, including the Plantain-tree and Heliconia; 20. Cannae, which are the Scitamineae of Linmaus and other writers, and which have been lately so ably illustrated by Mr. Roscoe, in the 8th volume of the Linnaean Society's Transactions; 21. Orchideae, a beautiful and favourite tribe; 22. Hydrocharides, a rather obscure order, under which Jussieu enumerates Vallisneria, Stratiotes, Hydrocharis, and some others which are very doubtful, or rather certainly misplaced here, Class V. Dicotyledones without petals, stamens as in the last class. Order only one, 23 Aristolochiae, consisting of Aristolochia, Asarum, and Cytinus, in the first of which Jussieu takes for a calyx what other botanists esteem a corolla. Class VI. Dicotyledones without petals, stamens inserted into the calyx. The orders are six, 24. Elaeagni, as Hippophae, Elaeagnus, Thesium, &c.; 25. Thymelea, which comprises Daphne, Passerina, and their allies; 26. Protea, consisting of
the great Cape family Protea, Banksia, Embothrium, &c.; 27. Lauri, as Laurus, and some other genera supposed to be allied to it; 28. Polygonea, composed of Polygonum, Rumex, Rheum, &c.; 29. Atriplices, Chenopodium, Atriplex, and others. Class VII. Dicotyledones, without petals, stamens inferior to the germen. The orders are four, 30 Amaranthi, Amaranthus, Celosia, Gomphrena, Hermiaria, &c.; 31. Plantagines, Psilium, Plantago, and Littorella; 32. Nyctagines, Mirabilis, Boerhaavia, &c.; 33. Plumbagines, Plumbago, and Statice. Class VIII. Dicotyledones, of one petal, which is inserted under the germen. The orders are fifteen, 34. Lysimachir, Anagallis, Primula, &c. with some doubtful ones; 35. Pediculures, Veronica, Euphrasia, Pedicularis, &c.; 36. Acanthi, Acanthus, Ruellia, Justicia; 37. Jasmineae, Syringa, Fraxinus, olea, Jasminum; 38. Pitices, a numerous order, Clerodendrum, Volkameria, Vitex, Verbena, &c.; 39. Labiata, a large order containing the Didynamia Gymnospermia of Linnaeus, with some few from his Diandria, as Salvia, &c.; 40. Scrophularia, consists chiefly of the Didynamia Angiospermia of Linnaeus; 41. Solanea, Verbascum, Hyocsyamus, Atropa, Solanum, with some other plants of the Linnaean 5th class, and a few of the Didynamia compose this order; 42. Borraginea, contains the Asperifoliae, as Borago, Anchuso, Echium, &c. with Cordia, Varronia, Hydrophyllum, and some others; 43. Conrolvuli, Convol. vulus, Ipomaea, Evolvulus, and some doubtful genera; 44. Polemonia, Phlox, Polemonium, &c. with Ipomopsis of Michaux and Smith; 45. Bignoniae, Chelone, Bignonia, Martynia, and a few others; 46. Gentiana, consists of some remarkably bitter plants, Gentiana, Swertia, Chlora, Lisianthus, Chironia; 47. Apocinae, the Contorta of Linnaeus, some of which belong to his Pentandria, as Winca, Nerium, Apocynum, &c. and others have been referred by Dr. Smith to Gynandria, as Pergularia, Cynanchum, and Asclepias; 48. Sapota, Achras, Chrysophyllum, Jacquinia, and others. Class IX. Dicotyledones, of one petal, inserted into the calyx. Orders four, 49. Guaiacanar, consisting of Diospyros, Styrax, Halesia, Symplocos, &c.; 50. Rhododendra, as Kalmia, Rhododendrum, Azalea; also Rhodora, Ledum, Bejaria, and Itea, which four last but ill accord with the character of the class, being really polypetalous; 51. Erict, as
the vast genus Erica, also Andromeda, Arbutus, Pyrola, Clethra, Vaccinium, and others, several of which are likewise polypetalous; 52. Campanulaceae, some of these have distinct anthers, as Campanula, Traehelium, Roella, Scaevola, Phyteuma; others have the same parts cohering, as Lobelia and Jasione. Smith's Goodenia and Stylidium, see his Introduction to Botany, 464. Class X. Dicotyledones, of one petal, crowning the germen. Anthers united into a tube. Flowers compound. Orders three. This class comprises the Syngenesia of Linnaeus, except his last order Monogamia, which, as we have already mentioned, is now laid aside. 53. Cichoraceae, consists of such of Linnaeus's order of Polygamia AEqualis as have ligulate florets, as Sonchus, Hieracium, Leontodon, Tragopogon, Catananche, &c.; 54. Cinarocephalae, the Thistle tribe, Carthamus, Carlina, Cinara, Carduus, Centaurea, of which last Jussieu makes several genera; 55. Corymbifera, is a large order containing the rest of the Linnaean Syngenesia, most of which are radiated flowers except the first section. Examples of this order are Eupatorium, Gnaphalium, Conyza, Senecio, Calendula, Cllrysanthemum, Artemisia, Anthenis, Bidens, Helianthus, Arctotis, besides some very anomalous ones with separated flowers, whose anthers are scarcely connected, as Ambrosia, Xanthium, &c. Class XI. Dicotyledones, of one petal, crowning the germen. Anthers distinct. Orders three, 56. Dipsacer, the flowers of which are generally aggregate, as Dipsacus, and Scabiosa; Valeriana has simple flowers; 57. Rubiaceae, a vast order, is exemplified by Galium, Rubia, Hedyotis, Cinchona, Gardenia, Ixora, Coffea ; 58. Caprisolia, as Linnaea, Lonicera, Sambucus, Cornus, Hedera. Class XII. Dicotyledones, with several petals, stamens inserted upon the germen. Orders two, 59. Aralia, a small order, the fruit pulpy or capsular, contains chiefly Aralia, Cussonia, and Panex; 60. Umbellifera, a very large and natural order, suf. ficiently well known to those who have at all considered plants, though not a favourite tribe with botanists in general. Some of the chief genera are Thapsia, Scandix, Angelica, Heracleum, Athamanta, Daucus, Caucalis, and Bupleurum. Class XIII. Dicotyledones, with several petals, stamens inserted under the germen. Orders twenty-two, 61. Ranunculacer, the acrid tribe of Clematis, Thalictrum, Anemone,
To this order belong Dr. .
Ranunculus, Helleborus, Aconitum, Paeonia, Actaea; 62. Papaveracea, consists of Papaver Chelidonium, and their allies; 63. Cruciferas, the great natural order of cruciform plants, constituting the Linnaean Tetradynamia, as Brassica, Cheiranthus, Alyssum, Thlaspi; 64. Capparides, Cleome, Capparis, &c. to which are subjoined as akin to them Reseda, Drosera, Parnassia; 65. Sapindi, Sapindus, Paullinia: 66. Accra, Asculus, Acer, &c.; 67. Malpighir, Bannisteria, Malpighia, and a few others. These three last orders are somewhat obscurely defined; 68. Hyperica, consists of Ascyrum Brathys, and Hypericum ; 69. Guttifera, an original order of Jussieu's, and avery natural one, contains Gambogia, Clusia, Garcinia, Mammea, Calophyllum, and some others; 70. Aurantia, Citrus, Limonia, Murraea, genera remarkable for the pellucid spots in their leaves properly exemplify this order, to which are added among others Thea and Camellia; 71. Melit, a very natural order, of which the tubular nectarium bearing the stamens is the principal character, as Turrea Aitonia, Trichilia, Melia, Swietenia, and Cedrela, the two last are kinds of mal. hogany; 72. Vites, consists only of Cissus and Vitis; 73. Gerania, consists of Geranium (including Celargonium and Irodium of L'Heritier) and Monsonia, to which are subjoined as akin to them Tropeolum, Impatiens, and Oxalis; 74. Malvaceae, Malva, Lavatera, Hibiscus, and others constituting the Monadelphia class of Linnaeus, with some others related thereto; 75. Magnolia, composed of Magnolia, Liriodendrum, Micheliae, with some others; 76. Anoma, nearly allied to the last, as Anona, Unona, Uvaria, and Hilopia; 77. Menisperma, Cissampelos, Menispermum, &c.; 78, Barberides, Berberis, Leontice, Epimedium with some supposed to be allied to them; 79. Tiliacea, Hermannia, Sparmannia, Grewia, Tilia, &c.; 80. Cisti, Cistus is the chief and most certain of these, from which genus Jussieu separates Helianthemum; 81. Rutucea, Tribulus, Zygophyllum, Ruta, Dictamnus, and others, many new genera of this order have been discovered in New Holland: see Tracts Relating to Natural History, by Dr. Smith, who considers Oxalis as belonging here; 82. Caryophylea, the Pink and Campion tribe, which is very natural, as Spergula, Arenaria, Dianthus, Silene, &c. Class XIV. Dicotyledones, with several petals, stamens inserted into the calyx or corolla. Orders thirteen, 83. Semperriva", a suc
culent tribe, Cotyledon, Sedum, Sempervivum; 84. Surifragae, Saxifraga, Chrysosplenium, &c. among which Hydrangea must surely rather belong to the Caprifolia; 85. Cacti, consists of Ribes and Cactus, a paradoxical association; 86. Portulaceae, Portulaca, Tamarix, Claytonia, &c. the last mentioned genus is suspected to be monocotyledonous; 87. Ficoidea, of which the most remarkable is the vast genus Mesembryanthemum; 88. Onagrar, Enothera, Epilobium, and Jussia'a exemplify this, and the beautiful Fuchsia, with others, are subjoined, some of which belong to the following order; 89. Myrti, a fine and very matural family, composed of Melaleuca, Septospermum, Eucalyptus, Myrtus, Eugenia, &c.; 90. Melastomar, as Melastoma, Osbeckia, Rhexia, all remarkable for handsome anthers; 91. Salicuriae, Lythrum, Lawsonia, Peplis, Glaux, &c.; 92. Rosaceae, a very large and fine order, constituting in general the Icosandria of Linnaeus; as Pyrus, Rosa, Fragaria, Rubus, Prunus, with many more; 93. Leguminosae, a still more extensive order than the preceding, in which the system under our consideration, as keeping so natural an order entire, has much the advantage of the Linnaean artificial system, which, being founded only on the stamens, unavoidably disunites it. To this are referred Mimosa, Tamarindus, Cassia, Poinciana, Bauhinia, Sophora, Genista, Lupimus, Trifolium, Phaseolus, Astragalus, Vicia, Hedysarum, Pterocarpus, and many other genera related to each of the above ;
94. Terebintaceae, a rather confused order;
in it we find Rhus, Canarium, Schinus, Pistacia, Zanthoxylum, and even Juglans, is put here on account of a slight affinity; 95. Rhamni, is a more satisfactory order; as Euonymus, Celastrus, Cassine, Ilex, Rhamnus, &c. Class XV. Dicotyledones, with stamens in separate flowers, from the pistils. Orders five. 96. Euphorbiae, consists of Mercurialis, Euphorbia, Phyllanthus, Buxus, Croton, Hippomane, with several more, for the most part acrid, and often milky plants; 97. Cucurbitaceae, the gourd tribe, Bryonia, Cucumis, Passiflora, with a few more; 98. Urtica, composed of Ficus, Morus, Urtica, Humulus, Cannabis, to which, among others, Piper is subjoined as an ally; 99. Amentaceae, Salix, Populus, Betula, Quercus, Corylus, &c. to which Ulmus, Celtis, and Fothergilla are prefixed; 100. Coniferae, Casuarina, Juniperus, Cupressus, are examples of this very distinct order.
At the end of this system is a large assemblage of genera, under the denomination of Plantae incerta sedis, as not capable of being referred to any of the foregoing orders. Some of them, perhaps, when better known, may be removed into the body of the system, but many must always remain in doubt. Nor is this to be esteemed as a fault peculiar to the system of Jussieu. It must be the case with all natural systems, unless it were possible for their contrivers to have all the genera of plants from every corner of the earth before them at one view. As long as any remain to be discovered, or any that are discovered are imperfectly known, every such system must be defective. Besides, it appears that plants are connected, not in one regular series, but, as it were, in a circle, touching or approaching each other by so many different points, that no human sagacity can detect which points of connection are most important, so as to obtain an infallible clue through so vast a labyrinth. A natural system of botanical arrangement being therefore probably unattainable in perfection, we are obliged to be content, for daily use, with an artificial one. When we meet with an unknown plant, we count its stamens and styles, or observe any other circumstance attending those organs, on which the characters of the Linnaean classes are founded. Having easily determined the class of our plant, we in like manner ascertain its order. We proceed to compare the parts of its flower and fruit with the characters of every genus in that order, till we find one that agrees with them. Having fixed the genus, we in like manner read over the characters of the species, iu case the genus consists of more than one, till we are satisfied we have met with the right. Thus we learn the generic and specific name of our plant, and are enabled to find any thing recorded concerning it. Such is the mode of applying the Linneaean system to use, and in ordinary cases no difficulties attend it. But it may happen that we have found a plant whose number of stamens is variable in itself, or perhaps different from their usual number in the natural genus to which it belongs; for all genera ought to be natural, and no species must be divided from its brethren on account of characters which only respect the artificial classes and orders. In this case Linnaeus has provided us a remedy, by enumerating at the head of each class all such anomalous species, as far as he could recollect or determine them; so that if our plant does not agree with any of the regular genera of the class, we may seek it among these irregular species. If, after all our attempts, the plant under consideration still proves refractory, the system of Jussieu comes to our aid. Not that we can hope, even though adepts in the science, to determine a plant by the same mode in this author ; beginning with the cotyledons, which, in many cases, we shall find it impossible to judge of, and which, when found, will often lead us astray in the more abstruse orders of Jussieu. The true way to use this system is to consider what known genus or family our plant most approaches in its habit and leading characters. By turning to such, throngh the help of the index, and reading the characters of the corresponding order, we shall be able to judge how far we are right, and shall, at any rate, grow familiar with natural orders and affinities. When we have determined the genus of our plant in Jussieu, as he has not treated of species, we must still recur to Linnaeus for that part of the subject, as well as for synonyms of other authors, and references to figures or descriptions. By such a manner of associating these two great authors, we render them truly serviceable to each other, and to the science; whereas, by placing them in opposition, we only make stumbling-blocks of all their defects; for there must be defects in all attempts of the human intellect to keep pace with the infinite wisdom and variety displayed in the works of God. With respect to the application of either of these methods of arrangement to medical use, as a means of forming any probable judgment of the qualities of plants; the more natural any system is, the better it serves us in this particular. But even the Linnaean classes and orders are many of them sufficient for general use, and their learned author has occasionally suggested other remarks, peculiar to himself, tending to the same end. His Didynamia Gymnospermia, and the ringent flowers with naked seeds, allied thereto, which, having only two stamens, are necessarily placed in his second class Diandria, are all innocent or wholesome: those of the other order, Angiospermia, are fetid, narcotic, and dangerous, being akin to a large part of Pentandria Monogynia, known to be poisonous, as contain
ing hembane, nightshade, and tobacco. The whole class Tetradynamia is wholesome, except the fetid cleome, wrongly referred to it. Whenever the stamens are found to grow out of the calyx, whether they be numerous, as in Icosandria, or few, as in the currant and gooseberry, they infallibly indicate the pulpy fruits of such plants to be wholesome. Whenever the nectary is a distinct organ or structure from the petals, Linnaeus justly observes, that the plants to which it belongs are to be suspected. The papilionaceous or pea flower is remarked by him to belong to a wholesome family, which is generally true, at least when the plants are boiled or roasted. We think it right, however, to mention one exception to the innocence of this family, as it is not generally known, The seeds of the laburnum, eaten unripe, are violently emetic and
dangerous. They are, indeed, so bitter
and nauseous as seldom to tempt children, but we have heard of their being eaten, and such was the consequence, which is the more important to be known, as the tree is so common. Milky plants are generally to be suspected, except such as have compound flowers; but even some of these are highly dangerous, as the wild lettuce, Lactuca virosa, which yields a kind of opium, and the stinking hawkweed, Crepis foetida. Crepis rubra also, or pink hawkweed, commonly cultivated for its beauty, may be in the same predicament; but it is too nauseous to be eaten. Umbelliferous plants, which grow in dry or elevated situations, are aromatic, safe, and often very wholesome; while those that inhabit low and watery places are usually among the most virulent and deadly of all poisons whatever. Oenanthe crocata poisons by its scent in a room, causing headachs, nausea, and swoonings. Cicuta virosa, if eaten by cattle unawares while under water, kills them, as Linnaeus informs us, with the most horrible symptoms. The mallow tribe, or Columniferae, so called from bearing their stamens in a columnar form, are all emollient, abounding with a mucilaginous juice, without taste and smell, very useful in internal irritations. To this probably Horace alludes when he speaks of laves malvae, and not to any external smoothness of the plants mentioned, which by their soft and downy leaves would rather claim the epithet of
molles. The liliaceous family are often very
dangerous, especially their bulbous roots, from some of which the wild natives of southern Africa are said to obtain a poison for their darts. The natural order of grasses are, as every one knows, wholesome throughout; for the intoxicating effects recorded of Lolium temulentum can hardly be deemed an exception. The beneficent Author of Nature has usually indicated the wholesome qualities of plants by an agreeable smell or taste, while dangerous ones are endued with contrary flavours. The berries of deadly mightshade, Atropa belladonna, are indeed an exception to this, but a rare one. Wmen we speak here of plants as being wholesome or poisonous, it must be understood only with a reference to our own species, and those animals which most approach us in shape and constitution, as quadrupeds, and even of these some form an exception. Thus goats prefer and thrive upon the most acrid plants, which blister the stomachs or even hands of the human species, as clematis, anemone, ranunculus, &c. Insects in general feed on the most virulent herbs, which no other animals can taste, and thus such are turned to account in the general plan of nature. The art of cookery renders many vegetables wholesome to man, that without it would be far otherwise, as the potatoe, which is a species of nightshade, or Solanum, and many fruits are rendered much more salutary in consequence of being dressed. The cassava bread of the West Indies is made of the highly acrid Jatropha, purified by washing and daying. A number of further observations might be added; but the above are sufficient to shew the use of botanical science in a medical point of view. The necessity that those who make use of highly powerful plants for the cure of diseases should know one plant from another is evident. We have known the useless Lythrum salicaria gathered, and sold to the apothecary, for fox-glove, and the sweet inactive chervil for the powerful hemlock; we have also known henbane taken for clary. A little science will guard against such mistakes. The “Medical Botany” of the late Dr. Woodville, so extensive in its sale among country practitioners, has perhaps done more to prevent them than most other books; but the liberal and dignified physician should be able, by more philosophical means, not only to guard against mistakes and mischief, but by new inquiries and studies to advance the healing art. BOTE, in our old law books, signifies recompence or amends : thus manbote, is a compensation for a man slain.
There are likewise house-bote and ploughbote, privileges to tenants of cutting wood for making ploughs, repairing tenements, and likewise for fuel. BOTRYCHIUM, in botany, a genus of the Cryptogamia Filices class and order: capsule nearly globular, distinct, clustered in a raceme-like spike; one-celled, opening from the top to the base. There are five species. BOTTLE, a small vessel proper for holding liquors. We say a glass bottle, a stone bottle, a leathern bottle, a wooden bottle, a sucking-bottle. Of glass bottles no mention occurs before the 15th century: for the “Amphorae vitrea” of Petronius, to the necks of which were affixed labels, expressing the name and age of the wine, appear to have been large jars, and to have formed part of the many uncommon articles by which the voluptuary Trimalchio wished to distinguish himself. It is, however, singular, that these convenient vessels were not thought of at an earlier period, especially as among the small funeral urns of the an. cients, many are to be found, which, in shape, resemble our bottles. Beckmann conceives that he discovers the origin of our bottles in the figure of the Syracusan wine-flasks. Charpentier cites, from a writing of the year 1387 an expres
sion which seems to allude to one of our
glass bottles, but this, attentively considered, refers merely to cups or drinking glasses. The name boutiaux, or boutilles, occurs in the French language for the first time in the 15th century; but if it were more ameient it would prove nothing, as it signified originally, and still signifies, vessels of clay or metal, and particularly of leather. Such vessels, filled with wine, which travellers were accustomed to suspend from their saddles, might be stopped with a piece of wood, or closed by means of wooden or metal tops screwed on them; and such are still used for earthen pitchers. We shall here add, that stoppers of cork must have been introduced after the invention of glass bottles. In 1553, they were little known; und their introduction into the shops of the apothecaries in Germany took place about the end of the 17th century. Before that period, they used stoppers of wax, which were more troublesome and more expensive. The ancient Jewish bottles were cags made of goats' or other wild beasts' skins, with the hair on the inside,-well sewed and pitched together; an aperture in one of the animal's