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contains several water plants, as Hippuris, the great Cape family Protea, Banksia, Myriophyllum, Potamogeton, Lemma, &c. Embothrium, &c.; 27. Lauri, as Laurus, Along with which Jussieu reckons several and some other genera supposed to be allied genera of the structure of whose seed, and to it; 28. Polygonea, composed of Polyconsequently of the primary character of gonum, Rumex, Rheum, &c.; 29. Atripwhose class he was uncertain.
lices, Chenopodium, Atriplex, and others. Class II. Monocotyledones with the stamens Class VII. Dicotyledones, without petals, inserted beneath the germen, or in Linnæan stamens inferior to the germen. language, having the germen superior.
The orders are four, 30 Amaranthii, AmaThe orders are fonr, 7. Aroïdece ; as Arum, ranthus, Celosia, Gomphrena, Herniaria, &c. 8. Typhe, consisting of Typha and Spar- &c.; $1. Plantagines, Psilium, Plantago, ganium; 9. Cyperoidea, as Carex, Scirpus, and Littorella; 32. Nyctagines, Mirabilis, Cyperus, &c, and 10. Graminea, the true Boerhaavia, &c. ; 33. Plumbagines, Plumgrasses.
bago, and Statice. Class III. Monocotyledones with the sta Class VIII. Dicotyledones, of one petal, mens inserted round the pistil, this is upon which is inserted under the germen. the calyx or corolla.
The orders are fifteen, 34. Lysimuchia, The orders are eight, 11. Palmæ, of Anagallis, Primula, &c. with some doubttal which we have spoken at the end of the ones; 55. Pediculures, Veronica, Euphrasia, Linnæan system ; 12. Asparagi, Asparagus, Pedicularis, &c.; 36. Acanthi, Acanthus, Convallaria, &c.; 15. Junci, Juncus, &c. Ruellia, Justicia ; 37. Jasmineæ, Syringa, to which are added Commelina, Butomus, Fraxinus, olea, Jasminum; 38. Vitices, a Sagittaria, Veratrum, and even Colchicum. numerous order, Clerodendrum, Volkame14. Lilia, as Tulipa, Fritillaria, Lilium, &c. ria, Vitex, Verbena, &c.; 39. Labiata, a 13. Bromeliæ, of which the Pine apple and large order containing the Didynamia GymAgave are instances; 16. Asphodeli, con nospermia of Linnæus, with some few from sisting of Aloe, Asphodelus, Hyacinthus, his Diandria, as Salvia, &c.; 40. SerophulaOrnithogalum, Allium, and several others. ria, consists chiefly of the Didynamia An17. Narciesi, Hemerocallis, Amaryllis, Nar- giospermia of Linnæus ; 41. Solanea, Vercissus, Galanthus, and others ; 18. Irides, bascum, Hyocsyamns, Atropa, Solanun, Ferraria, Iris, Ixia, Gladiolus, Crocus ex with some other plants of the Linnæan 5th emplify this order.
class, and a few of the Didynamia compose Class IV. Monocotyledones with the sta this order; 42. Borraginea, contains the mens inserted upon the germen or style, Asperifoliæ, as Borago, Anchuso, Echium, that is, having the germen inferior,
&c. with Cordia, Varronia, Hydrophyllum, The orders are four, 19. Musa, includ- and some others; 43. Conrolouli, Convoling the Plantain-tree and Heliconia; 20, vulus, Ipomæa, Evolvulus, and some doubtCanna, which are the Scitaminex of Lin- ful genera; 44. Polemonia, Phlox, Polemonæus and other writers, and which have niun, &c. with Ipomopsis of Michaux and been lately so ably illustrated by Mr. Ros- Smith; 45. Bignonia, Chelone, bignonia, coe, in the 8th volume of the Linnæan So Martynia, and a few others; 16. Gentiana, ciety's Transactions ; 21. Orchidea, a beau consists of some remarkably bitter plants, tiful and favourite tribe; 22. Hydrocharides, Gentiana, Swertia, Chlora, Lisianthus, Chia rather obscure order, under which Jussieu ronia ; 47. Apocina, the Contortæ of Linenumerates Vallisneria, Stratiotes, Hydro næus, some of which belong to his Pentancharis, and some others which are very dria, as Vinca, Nerium, Apocynum, &c. doubtful, or rather certainly misplaced here. and others have been referred by Dr.
Class V. Dicotyledones without petals, Smith to Gynandria, as Pergularia, Cynanstamens as in the last class.
chum, and Asclepias; 48. Sapota, Acbras, Order only one, 23 Aristolochiæ, consist. Chrysophyllum, Jacquinia, and others. ing of Aristolochia, Asarum, and Cytinus, Class IX. Dicotyledones, of one petal, in the first of which Jussieu takes for a inserted into the calyx. calyx what other botanists esteem a corolla. Orders four, 49. Guaïacana, consisting of
Class VI. Dicotyledones without petals, Diospyros, Styrax, Halesia, Symplocos, stamens inserted into the calyx.
&c.; 50. Rhododendra, as Kalmia, RhodoThe orders are six, 24. Elæagni, as Hip- dendrum, Azalea; also Rhodora, Ledum, pophiae, Elæagnus, Thesium, &c.; 25. Thy- Bejaria, and Itea, which four last but ill melea, which comprises Daphne, Passerina, accord with the character of the class, and their allies ; 26. Protea, consisting of being really polypetalous ; 51. Erica, as
the vast genus Erica, also Andromeda, Ar- Ranunculus, Helleborus, Aconitum, Pæonia, butus, Pyrola, Clethra, Vaccinium, and Actæa; 62. Papaveracer, consists of Papaothers, several of which are likewise poly ver Chelidonium, and their allies; 63. Crú. petalous; 52. Campanulacer, some of these cifera, the great natural order of cruciform have distinct authers, as Campanula, Tra- plants, constituting the Linnæan Tetradyehelium, Roella, Scævola, Phyteuma; others namia, as Brassica, Cheiranthus, Alyssum, have the same parts cohering, as Lobelia Thlaspi; 64. Capparides, Cleome, Capparis, and Jasione. To this order belong Dr. &c. to which are subjoined as akin to them Smith's Goodenia and Stylidium, see his Reseda, Drosera, Parnassia; 63. Sapindi, Introduction to Botany, 464.
Sapindus, Paullinia ; 66. Accra, Asculus, Class X. Dicotyledones, of one petal, Acer, &c.; 67. Malpighiæ, Bannisteria, crowning the germen. Anthers united into Malpighia, and a few others. These three a tube. Flowers compound. Orders three. last orders are somewhat obscurely defined;
This class comprises the Syngenesia of 68. Hyperica, consists of Ascyrum Brathys, Linnaus, except his last order Monogamia, and Hypericum ; 69. Guttifera, an original which, as we have already mentioned, is order of Jussieu's, and a very natural one, now laid aside. 53. Cichoracer, consists of contains Gambogia, Clusia, Garcinia, Mamsuch of Linnæus's order of Polygamia Æqua- ' mea, Calophyllum, and some others; 70, lis as have ligulate florets, as Sonchus, Hie. Aurantia, Citrus, Limonia, Murræa, genera racium, Leontodon, Tragopogon, Catanan- remarkable for the pellucid spots in their che, &c.; 54. Cinarocephala, the Thistle leaves properly exemplify this order, to tribe, Carthamus, Carlina, Cinara, Carduus, which are added among others Thea and Centaurea, of which last Jussieu makes se Camellia ; 71. Melit, a very natural order, veral genera ; 55. Corymbifera, is a large of which the tubular nectarium bearing the order containing the rest of the Linnæan stamens is the principal character, as TurSyngenesia, most of which are radiated ræa Aitonia, Trichilia, Melia, Swietenia, flowers except the first section. Examples and Cedrela, the two last are kinds of maof this order are Eupatorium, Gnaphalium, hogany ; 72. Vites, consists only of Cissus Conyza, Senecio, Calendula, Chrysanthe- and Vitis ; 73. Gerania, consists of Geramum, Artemisia, Anthenis, Bidens, Helian- nium (including Celargonium and Irodium thus, Arctotis, besides some very anomalous of L'Heritier) and Monsonia, to which are ones with separated flowers, whose anthers subjoined as akin to them Tropeolum, Imare scarcely connected, as Ambrosia, Xan- patiens, and Oxalis; 74. Malvacea, Malva, thium, &c.
Lavatera, Hibiscus, and others constituting Class XI. Dicotyledones, of one petal, the Monadelphia class of Linnæus, with crowning the germen. Anthers distinct. some others related thereto; 75. Magnoliæ,
Orders three, 56. Dipsacer, the powers composed of Magnolia, Liriodendrum, Miof which are generally aggregate, as Dip- cheliæ, with some others; 76. Anona, sacus, and Scabiosa; Valeriana bas simple nearly allied to the last, as Anona, Unona, flowers; 57. Rubiacer, a vast order, is ex Uvaria, and Hilopia ; 77. Menisperma, Cisemplified by Galium, Rubia, Hedyotis, sampelos, Menispermum, &c.; 78. BarbeCinchona, Gardenia, Ixora, Coffea ; 58. Ca- rides, Berberis, Leontice, Epimedium with prifolia, as Linnæa, Lonicera, Sambucus, some supposed to be allied to them; 79. Cornus, Hedera.
Tiliacea, Hermannia, Sparmannia, Grewia, Class XII. Dicotyledones, with several Tilia, &c. ; 80. Cisti, Cistus is the chief and petals, stamens inserted upon the germen.
most certain of these, from which genus Orders two, 59. Aralia, a small order, Jussieu separates Helianthemum ; 81. Rue the fruit pulpy or capsular, contains chiefly tuceæ, Tribulus, Zygophyllum, Ruta, Dic. Aralia, Cussonia, and Panex; 60. Umbel- tannus, and others, many new genera of liferæ, a very large and natural order, suf- this order have been discovered in New ficiently well kpown to those who have at Holland: see Tracts Relating to Natural all considered plants, though not a favourite History, by Dr. Smith, who considers tribe with botanists in general. Some of Oxalis as belonging liere; 82. Caryophyleæ, the chief genera are Thapsia, Scandix, An- the Pink and Campion tribe, which is very gelica, Heracleum, Athamanta, Daucus, natural, as Spergula, Arenaria, Dianthus, Caucalis, and Bupleurum.
Silene, &c. Class XIII. Dicotyledones, with several Class XIV. Dicotyledones, with several petals, stamens inserted under the germen. petals, stamens inserted into the calyx or
Orders twenty-two, 61. Ranunculace 7, the corolla. acrid tribe of Clematis,Thalictrum, Anemone, Orders thirteen, 83. Semperriva, a suc
culent tribe, Cotyledon, Sedum, Sempervi At the end of this system is a large asvum ; 84. Sarifragæ, Saxifraga, Chrysosple semblage of genera, under the denominanium, &c. among which Hydrangea must tion of Plantæ incerta sedis, as not capable surely rather belong to the Caprifolia ; of being referred to any of the foregoing 85. Cacti, consists of Ribes and Cactus, a orders. Some of them, perhaps, when bet. paradoxical association; 86. Portulacea, ter known, may be removed into the body Portulaca, Tamarix, Claytonia, &c. the last of the system, but many must always remain mentioned genus is suspected to be mono in doubt. Nor is this to be esteemed as a cotyledonous ; 87. Ficoidea, of which the fault peculiar to the system of Jussien. It most remarkable is the vast genus Mesem- must be the case with all natural systems, bryanthemum ; 88. Onugræ, Ænothera, Epi- unless it were possible for their contrivers lobium, and Jussiæa exemplify this, and the to have all the genera of plants from every beautiful Fuchsia, with others, are subjoin- corner of the earth before them at one ed, some of which belong to the following view. order; 89. Myrti, a fine and very natural As long as any remain to be discovered, or family, composed of Melaleuca, Septosper- any that are discovered are imperfectly mum, Eucalyptus, Myrtus, Eugenia, &c; known, every such system must be defec90. Melastomæ, as Melastoma, Osbeckia, tive. Besides, it appears that plants are Rhexia, all remarkable for handsome an connected, not in one regular series, but, thers; 91. Salicuria, Lythrum, Lawsonia, as it were, in a circle, touching or approachPeplis, Glaux, &c.; 92. Rosacea, a very ing each other by so many different points, large and fine order, constituting in general that no human sagacity can detect which the Icosandria of Linnæus ; as Pyrus, Rosa, points of connection are most important, Fragaria, Rubus, Prunus, with many more ; so as to obtain an infallible clue through so 93. Leguminosa, a still more extensive or vast a labyrinth. der than the preceding, in which the sys. A natural system of botanical arrangetem under our consideration, as keeping so ment being therefore probably unattainable natural an order entire, has much the ad- in perfection, we are obliged to be content, vantage of the Linnaan artificial system, for daily use, with an artificial one. When which, being founded only on the stamens, we meet with an unknown plant, we count unavoidably disunites it. To this are re its stamens and styles, or observe any ferred Mimosa, Tamarindus, Cassia, Poin- other circumstance attending those organs, ciana, Bauhinia, Sophora, Genista, Lupi- on which the characters of the Linnæan nus, Trifolium, Phaseolus, Astragalus, Vi- classes are founded. Having easily detercia, Hedysarum, Pterocarpus, and many mined the class of our plant, we in like other genera related to each of the above ; manner ascertain its order. We proceed to 94. Terebintaceæ, a rather confused order; compare the parts of its flower and fruit in it we find Rhus, Canarium, Schinus, Pis. with the characters of every genus in that tacia, Zanthoxylum, and even Juglans, is order, till we find one that agrees with put here on account of a slight affinity; them. Having fixed the genus, we in like 95. Rhamni, is a more satisfactory order ; manner read over the characters of the speas Euonymus, Celastrus, Cassine, llex, cies, iu case the genus consists of more than Rhamnus, &c.
one, till we are satisfied we have met with Class XV. Dicotyledones, with stamens the right. Thus we learn the generic and in separate flowers, from the pistils. specific name of our plant, and are enabled
Orders five. 96. Euphorbia, consists of to find any thing recorded concerning it. Mercurialis, Euphorbia, Phyllanthus, Bux Such is the mode of applying the Linus, Croton, Hippomane, with several more, neæan system to use, and in ordinary for the most part acrid, and often milky cases no difficulties attend it. But it may plants; 97. Cucurbitacea, the gourd tribe, happen that we have found a plant whose Bryonia, Cucumis, Passiflora, with a few number of stamens is variable in itself, or more; 98. Urlicæ, composed of Ficus, Mo- perhaps different from their usual number rus, Urtica, Humulus, Cannabis, to which, in the natural genus to which it belongs ; among others, Piper is subjoined as an ally; for all genera ought to be natural, and no 99. Amentaceæ, Salix, Populus, Betula, species must be divided from its brethren on Quercus, Corylus, &c, to which Ulmus, account of characters which only respect Celtis, and Fothergilla are prefixed; 100. the artificial classes and orders. In this Conifere, Casuarina, Juniperus, Cupres case Linnæus has provided us a remedy, by sus, are examples of this very distinct order. enumerating at the head of each class all
such anomalous species, as far as he could ing henbane, nightshade, and tobacco. The recollect or determine them; so that if our whole class Tetradynamia is wholesome, plant does not agree with any of the regular except the fetid cleome, wrongly referred genera of the class, we may seek it among to it. Whenever the stamens are found to these irregular species. If, after all our grow out of the calyx, whether they be attempts, the plant under consideration still numerous, as in Icosandria, or few, as in proves refractory, the system of Jussieu the currant and gooseberry, they infallibly comes to our aid. Not that we can hope, indicate the pulpy fruits of such plants to even though adepts in the science, to de- be wholesome. Whenever the nectary is a termine a plant by the same mode in this distinct organ or structure from the petals, anthor ; beginning with the cotyledons, Linnæus justly observes, that the plants to which, in many cases, we shall find it im which it belongs are to be suspected. The possible to judge of, and which, when papilionaceous or pea flower is remarked found, will often lead us astray in the more by him to belong to a wholesome family, abstruse orders of Jussieu.
which is generally true, at least when the The true way to use this system is to plants are boiled or roasted. We think it consider what known genus or family our right, however, to mention one exception plant most approaches in its habit and to the innocence of this family, as it is not leading characters. By turning to such, generally known, The seeds of the laburthrongh the help of the index, and reading num, eaten unripe, are violently emetic and the characters of the corresponding order, 'dangerous. They are, indeed, so bitter we shall be able to judge how far we are and nauseous as seldom to tempt children, right, and shall, at any rate, grow familiar but we have heard of their being eaten, with natural orders and affinities. When we and such was the consequence, which is the have determined the genus of our plant in more important to be known, as the tree is Jussieu, as he has not treated of species, we must still recur to Linnæus for that part Milky plants are generally to be suspectof the subject, as well as for synonyms of ed, except such as have compound flowers; other authors, and references to figures or but even some of these are highly dangerdescriptions.
ons, as the wild lettuce, Lactuca virosa, which By such a manner of associating these yields a kind of opium, and the stinking two great authors, we render them truly hawkweed, Crepis fætida. Crepis rubra serviceable to each other, and to the sci- also, or pink hawkweed, commonly culti. ence; whereas, by placing them in oppo vated for its beauty, may be in the same sition, we only make stumbling-blocks of predicament; but it is too nauseous to be all their defects; for there must be defects eaten. Umbelliferous plants, which grow in in all attempts of the human intellect to dry or elevated situations, are aromatic, safe, keep pace with the infinite wisdom and va and often very wholesome; while those that riety displayed in the works of God. inhabit low and watery places are usually
With respect to the application of either among the most virulent and deadly of all of these methods of arrangement to medi- poisons whatever. Oenanthe crocata poisons cal use, as a means of forming any proba- by its scent in a room, causing headachs, ble judgment of the qualities of plants; the nausea, and swoonings. Cicuta virosa, if eaten more natural any system is, the better it by cattle unawares while under water, kills serves us in this particular. But even the them, as Linnæus informs us, with the most Linnæan classes and orders are many of horrible symptoms. The mallow tribe, or them sufficient for general use, and their Columniferæ, so called from bearing their learned author has occasionally suggested stamens in a columnar form, are all emolother remarks, peculiar to himself, tending lient, abounding with a mucilaginous juice, to the same end.
without taste and smell, very useful in inHis Didynamia Gymnospermia, and the terpal irritations. To this probably Horace ringent flowers with naked seeds, allied alludes when he speaks of læves malvæ, and thereto, which, having only two stamens, not to any external smoothness of the plants are necessarily placed in his second class mentioned, which by their soft and downy Diandria, are all innocent or wholesome: leaves would rather claim the epithet of those of the other order, Angiospermia, molles. The liliaceous family are often very are fetid, narcotic, and dangerous, being dangerous, especially their bulbous roots, akin to a large part of Pentandria Mono- from some of which the wild natives of gynia, known to be poisonous, as contain southern Africa are said to obtain a poison
for their darts. The natural order of gras There are likewise house-bote and ploughses are, as every one knows, wholesome bote, privileges to tenants of cutting wood throughout; for the intoxicating effects re- for making ploughs, repairing tenements, corded of Lolium temulentum can hardly and likewise for fuel. be deemed an exception. The beneficent BOTRYCHIUM, in botany, a genus of Author of Nature has usually indicated the the Cryptogamia Filices class and order : wholesome qualities of plants by an agree- capsule nearly globular, distinct, clustered able smell or taste, while dangerous ones are in a raceme-like spike; one-celled, opening endued with contrary flavours. The berries from the top to the base. There are five of deadly nightshade, Atropa belladonna, species. are indeed an exception to this, but a rare
BOTTLE, a small vessel proper for holdone.
ing liquors. We say a glass bottle, a stone Wnen we speak here of plants as being bottle, a leathern bottle, a wooden bottle, wholesome or poisonous, it must be under- a sucking-bottle. Of glass bottles no menstood only with a reference to our own
tion occurs before the 15th century: for the species, and those animals which most ap- “ Amphoræ vitrex" of Petronius, to the proach us in shape and constitution, as qua- necks of which were affixed labels, expressdrupeds, and even of these some form an
ing the name and age of the wine, appear exception. Thus goats prefer and thrive
to have been large jars, and to have formupon the most acrid plants, which blister the
ed part of the many uncommon articles by stomachs or even hands of the human which the voluptnary Trimaleluo wished to species, as clematis, anemone, ranunculus, distinguish himself. It is, however, singular, &c. Insects in general feed on the most that these convenient vessels were not virulent herbs, which no other animals can
thought of at an earlier period, especially taste, and thus such are turned to account
as among the small funeral urns of the an. in the general plan of nature. The art of cients, many are to be found, which, in cookery renders many vegetables whole- shape, resemble our bottles. some to man, that without it would be far
Beckmann conceives that he discovers otherwise, as the potatoe, which is a species the origin of our bottles in the figure of the of nightshade, or Solanum, and many fruits Syracusan wine-flasks. Charpentier cites, are rendered much more salutary in conse
from a writing of the year 1387 an expresquence of being dressed.
The cassava . sion which seems to allude to one of our bread of the West Indies is made of the glass bottles; but this, attentively consihighly acrid Jatropha, purified by washing dered, refers merely to cups or drinking and daying. A number of further obser- glasses. The name boutiaux, or boutilles, vations might be added; but the above are
occurs in the French language for the first sufficient to shew the use of botanicalscience
time in the 15th century; but if it were in a medical point of view. The necessity more aneient it would prove nothing, as it that those who make use of highly powerful signified originally, and still signifies, resplants for the cure of diseases should know sels of clay or metal, and particularly of one plant from another is evident.
We leather. Such vessels, filled with wine, have known the useless Lythrum salicaria which travellers were accustomed to susgathered, and sold to the apothecary, for pend from their saddles, might be stopped fox-glove, and the sweet inactive chervil with a piece of wood, or closed by means for the powerful lemlock; we have also of wooden or metal tops screwed on them ; known henbane taken for clary. A little and such are still used for earthen pitchers. science will guard against such mistakes. We shall here add, that stoppers of cork The “ Medical Botany” of the late Dr. must have been introduced after the inWoodville, so extensive in its sale among vention of glass bottles. In 1558, they country practitioners, has perhaps done
were little known; and their introduction more to prevent them than most other into the shops of the apothecaries in Gerbooks; but the liberal and dignified phy- many took place abont the end of the 17th sician should be able, by more philosophical century. Before that period, they used means, not only to guard agaiust mistakes stoppers of wax, which were more troubleand mischief, but by new inquiries and some and more expensive. The ancient studies to advance the healing art.
Jewish bottles were cags made of goals' or BOTE, in our old law books, signifies re other wild beasts' skins, with the hair on compence or amends : "thus manbote, is a the inside,-well sewed and pitched togecompensation for a man slain.
ther; an aperture in one of the animal's