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rurious gardens, bears tubular leaves, which The form of leaves is either simple, as in retain water in their hollows, and imprison grasses, lilies, &c. or compound, as in insects, whose putrifying bodies evidently parsley, elder, roses, &c. Simple leaves produce a quantity of bad air, and analogy are either integra, undivided, like those just leads us to suppose that air is destined to be mentioned, or lobed like the vine, hollyserviceable to the constitution of the vege- lock, and many others. table. See Dr. Smith's Introduction, page The following forms of simple leaves re195.
spect their outline only. Many important botanical distinctions
Folium orbiculatum, as nearly circular as are founded upon the situations and forms possible, which is very rare. of leaves. These are explained by the fol
Subrotundum, roundish, is much more lowing terms. Folia radicalia, are radical leaves, as in
Ovatum, ovate, the shape of an egg, very the primrose.
frequent. F. cuulina, stem leaves, and ramea,
Obovatum, obovate, the same figure with branched leaves. The situation of the lat- the broad end uppermost. ter is either alternate, opposite, scattered,
Ellipticum, or ovale, elliptical, or oval, or clustered. Several leaves standing round being broadest in the middle. a stern or branch are termed verticillata,
Oblongum, oblung, several times longer whorled; such are either ternate, quater- than broad, without any very decided form. nate, or quinate, &c.
Spatulatum, spatulate, of a roundish fiF. imbricata, imbricated, lie one over
gure, tapering into an oblong base. the other like tiles upon a house.
Cuneiforme, wedge-shaped, broad at the F. decussata, cross each other in pairs al- summit, tapering down to the base. ternately, as in many plants with opposite
Lanceolatum, lanceolate, narrow and obleaves. F: disticha, two-ranked, spread in two di- long, tapering towards each end, a very
common sort of leaf, as in willows. rections like the yew.
Lineare, linear, narrow,
with parallel F. secunda, unilateral, lean all towards
sides, like most grasses. one side. Some leaves are erect, others re
Acerosum, needle-shaped, linear, and everHexed or recurved; but the greater part spread more or less horizontally. A few green, generally acute and rigid, as in the
fir, juniper, &c. are obliquely twisted, and still fewer are reversed, resupinata, what should be the up- lare, express the number of angles, without
Triangulart, quadrangulure, quinquanguper surface becoming the under, as in the beautiful alstræmeria. Curt. May. t. 139.
any allusion to their measurement. F. petiolata are such as stand on foot.
Deltoides, trowel-shaped, or deltoid, has stalks ; sessilia, sessile leaves, grow imme. three angles, of which the terminal one is
the most acute. diately from the branch or root without any
Rhombeum, rhomboid, nearly square. stalk. F. peltata, peltate leaves, have the foot
Reniforme, kidney-shaped, as that of the stalk inserted into their centre, like the
asaraliacca. handle of a shield to which the name al
Cordatum, heart-shaped, which is ex. ludes, witness the common nasturtium,
tremely common. trapæolum.
Lunulatum, crescent shaped, whether the F. amplexicaulia clasp the stem or branch points are directed backwards or forwards. with their base.
Sagittatum, arrow-shaped, triangular, F. decurrentia ron down the same part in with the posterior angles much elongated. the form of a leafy border, as in many this
Hastatum, halbert-shaped, triangular, the tles.
lateral lobes spreading horizontally. F. connata are united at their base.
Panduriforme, fiddle-shaped, as in the fidF. perfoliata have the stem running dle dock. through them, as in hair's-ear, bupleurum Runcinatum, runcinate, or lion-toothed, rotundifolium.
cut into several transverse acute reflexed F. vaginantia sheath the stem or each segments, like the dandelion. other, as in most grasses.
Lyratum, lyrate, or lyre-shaped, cut into F. equitantia clasp each other in two op- several transverse segments, gradually posite rows, being compressed at the base, larger towards the extremity of the leaf, as in many common species of iris.
which is dilated and rounded.
Fissum, cloven, when the fissures are li- middle; renosum, veiny; Retrosum, ribbed, near or straight.
the principal veins or ribs extending in simLobatum, lobed, when the segments are ple lines from the base to the point; are. rounded.
nium, without vejąs; enerre, without ribs; Sinuatum, sinuated, cut into rounded, di trinerve, three-ribbed; triplinerve, triplylated openings.
ribbed, when the lateral ribs branch of Partitum, deeply divided, almost to the above the base; basi trinerve, when the base.
base is cut away close to the lateral ribs, as Laciniatum, laciniated, cut into various in burdock. irregular portions, as if torn.
A few other terms relating to leaves in Incisum, and dissectum, express somewhat general deserve mention. F. carnosum is a of a more regular kind of division.
fleshy leaf, such as belongs to those called Palmatum, palmate, cut into several ob- succulent plants. The internal polp of these long segments, leaving an entire space at seems to have no share in their peculiar the base.
functions as leaves : but to be a reservcir of Pinnatifidum, pinnatifid, cut into several moisture, and some degree of vitality. F. transverse parallel segments.
nudum means a leaf destitute of all clothing Bipinnatifidum, doubly pinnatifid. or hairiness whatever; the same term ap
Pectinatum, pectinate, pinnatifid with replied to a stein means that it bears no Icares, markably narrow segments, like the teeth and to a flower, that it has no calyx. F. of a comb.
tubulosum is a tubular leaf, as in several Inequale, unequal or oblique, when the species of allium ; lobelia dortmanna has a two halves of a leaf are unequal, and their leaf formed of a double tube ; canaliculatum bases not parallel.
expresses a leaf with a longitudinal furrow; A leaf in its termination is either trunca- carrinutum, one with a prominent line like a tum, abrupt; præmorsum, jaggerl-pointeil, keel at its back; ensiforme, the sword-shaped having various irregular notches, as if bit. or two-edged leaf of the irises ; alcinatum is ten; retusum, ending in a broad shallow used by Dr. Smith “ when the first leaves notch; emarginatum, with a small acute of a plant give place to others totally difnotch ; obtusum, ending in a segmeut of a ferent from them, and from the natural liacircle; acutum, terminating in an acute an bit of the genus, as in many mimosa of New gle; acuminatum, having a taper point; ob. Holland;" the first leaves of these are pin. tusum cum acumine, blunt with a small pated, the subsequent ones dilatations as it point; mucronatum, or cuspidatum, tipped were of the naked foot-stalks ; appendiculawith a spine; or cirrosum, tipped with a tum is used by the same author for a leaf tendril.
“ furnished with an additional organ for A leaf, with regard to its margin, is either some particular purpose," as in dionæa integerrimum, entire, as in the lilac; for it muscipula above-mentioned, and depenthes must be observed, that integrum means an
destillatoria, the leaf of which bears a sort undivided leaf'; spinosum, beset with prickles, of covered pitcher full of water. We omit as in thistles, which is opposed to inerme ; to particularize the more common terms ciliatum, fringed with soft hairs ; cartilagi- which are to be found every where. neum, hard and horny; dentatum, toothed; Compound leaves come principally ander serratum, serrated, the teeth, like those of a the following denominations. saw, pointing forwards; serrulatum, mi F. digitatum is when several leaflets, or nutely serrated; crenatum ard crenulatum, partial leaves, stand on the summit of a potched with little rounded scallops, as in common foot-stalk. Such are either two, ground ivy; erosum, jagged; repandum, three, or more. F. pinnatum, a pinnate wavy; glandulosum, glandular; revolutum, leaf, is composed of leaflets ranged laterally having the margin turned or rolled back on the foot-stalk; when it has no terminal wards, of which incolutum is the reverse; leaflet it is said to be abruptly pinnate ; or conduplicatum, having the margins folded sometimes a tendril takes place of the odd together.
leaflet, as in the pea and vetch. The leaflets A leaf, as to its disk, is either rugosum, are either opposite or alternate: sometimes rugged; bullatum, blistery; plicatum, plait- they are interrupted by an intermediate ed, like a fan; undulatum, waved obtusely series of smaller ones, as in spirea filipenup and down; crispum, elegantly curled dula, dropwort. F. lyrato-pinnntum reand twisted, which is generally a preterna- sembles a lyrate leaf, as in the turnip. F. tual luxuriance, concurum, hollow in the auriculatum is a simple leaf, with a pair of
auricles or leaflets at its base. F. pedatum the first instance, but soon becoming spiral, has three primary leaflets, of which the la- and thus are rendered capable of taking teral ones are lobed in their fore part, as in hold of any thing that comes in their way; heileborus fætidus. The different degrees especially as many of them are so conin which leaves are compounded are thus structed, that after having made a certain expressed: F. compositum is simply com number of turns, they perform as many in pound; decompositum, doubly compound; a contrary direction. Some attach themsupra decompositum, thrice compound, or selves by a dilatation of their extremities more; of all which the umbelliferous tribe
to the smoothest and hardest stone. Thus, afford examples; bigeminatum and tergemi. the vine, the passion-flower, and the family natum are twice and thrice paired; terna- of vetches are elevated to a considerable tum consists of three leaflets; biternatum is height above the ground. Such tendrils twice ternate, and triternatum, thrice ter differ essentially from roots, in never imnate. In the same manner pipinnatum is bibing nourishment, any more than the doubly pinnate, and tripinnatum triply pin- short fibres of the ivy. The gloriosa, or nate.
superb lily, has a spiral tendril at the end of OF THE FULCRA, OR APPENDAGES OF each leaf, and in some few plants the flowerPLANTS.
stalks produce tendrils. Plate I. fig. 22. There are varions appendages to the ber
6. Glandula, a gland, is a small tumour bage of plants, all which are comprehended secreting a sweet, resinous, or fragrant liby Linnæus under the term fulcrum, a prop
quor, as on the calyx of the moss-rose, the or support, which term, in its literal sense,
foot-stalks of passion-florvers whose glands however, applies but to a few of these or. are like little cups, and the leaf of salix gaus.
pentendra; which last being pressed be. 1. Stipula. This is a leafy appendage to
tween paper, leaves the impression of an the true leaves, or to their stalks, for the elegant row of yellow dots. Fig. 23. most part in pairs, more or less constant
7. Pilus, a hair, Fig. 24. Under this are even in the same genus or species : in roses
included all the various kinds of pubescence; they are invariable; in willows very much
bristles, wool, &c. some of which are cuthe contrary. Some species of Cistus have
rious objects for the microscope. Some few stipulas, others none. The peculiar stipula of these bristles discharge a poison, as in of grasses is a membrane crowning the
the nettle, causing great irritation, whenever sheathes of their leaves and embracing their they are touched in such a manner as for stem, but it is not found in all the spe
their points to wound the skin. Hence cies. Plate I, fig. 18.
arose the following lines : 2. Bructea, is a leafy appendage to the
“ Tender-handed touch a nettle, flower or its stalk, conspicuous in the lime And it stings you for your pains ; tree, beautifully coloured in the purple or Grasp it like a man of mettle, pink-topped clary, and very much diversi And it soft as silk remains." fied in different plants. Fig. 19.
OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF INFLORES3. Spina, a thorn, proceeds from the
CENCE OR MODES OF FLOWERING. wood itself, as in the wild pear-tree, which loses its thorns by cultivation. This is fan The various modes in which flowers are cifully expressed by Linnæus, who calls situated upon or connected with a plant, such garden plants tamed, or deprived of are of great botanical importance, not only their natural arms.
.for specific distinctions, but as leading the 4. Aculeus, a prickle, proceeds from the way to a knowledge of natural families or bark only, having no connection with the orders. Yet Linnæus does not allow them wood, as in the rose, bramble, &c. It might to enter into the generic characters of be expected that this should be less per plants, which he founds solely on the seven manent than the foregoing, but the reverse parts of fructification to be hereafter de. is the case, for prickles are not efffaced by scribed. This is one of those classical culture. They rather abound most upon the maxims of the Linnæan school, which rival most luxuriant stems. Plate II. tig. 21. botanists are continnally attempting to un
5. Cirrus, a tendril or clasper, is really dermine and depreciate, conscious of their intended as a support for weak stems, by own deficiency in that technical skill for, which they are enabled to climb rocks, or which Linnæus was pre-eminent. We shall the trunks of lofty trees. These organs take occasion to mention an instance in are either simple or branched, straight in
which be himself weat counter to this law.
The following are the several kinds of kon these two-last forms of inflorescence as inflorescence.
aggregate flowers, but it is found more cor1. Verticillus, a whorl, in which the rect to esteem them modes of inflorescence, fowers surround the stem in a garland or though by so doing we lose the advantage ring, though perhaps merely inserted on its of taking parts properly belonging to the two opposite sides, as in the natural order umbel into the generic character. By a to which the mints, the dead nettle, La- contrary mode of proceeding we presume mium, and many others belong. Fig. 25. to think Linnæus swerved from his own
2. Racemus, a cluster or raceme, bears' rule of founding his genera on the actual several flowers, each in its own stalk, loose parts of fructification. ly ranged along one common stalk, like a 9. Panicula, a panicle, Plate III, fig. 33, bunch of currants, and this common stalk is a loose subdivided bunch of flowers, armay be either simple or branched. A ra ranged without order, as in the oat. It is cemus is generally drooping or pendulous, either close or spreading. When its branches and the flowers are all nearly in perfection lean all towards one side, it is called Paniat once. Fig. 26.
cula secunda. 3. Spica, a spike, is composed of nume 10. Thyrsus, a bunch, is a very dense parous crowded flowers, ranged along an up nicle, inclining to an ovate figure, of which right common stalk, expanding progres Linnæus cites the lilac and butterbur as insively and properly, destitute of any partial stances. Dr. Smith adds to these a bunch of stalks ; but this last circumstance cannot grapes, which appears to him to have been be rigidly observed. Wheat and barley inaccurately reckoned a racemus. Fig. 31. are good examples of a genuine spike. Some lavenders have a compound spike.
OF THE FRUCTIFICATION OF PLANTS. Spicula, a spikelet, is a term used only for Under the term fructification are comgrasses, and expresses that assemblage of prehended not only all the parts of the fruit forets in a common calyx which constitutes but also those of the flower, which last are iu. their flowers. Fig. 27.
dispensable for the perfecting of the former. 4. Corymbus, a corymb, fig. 28, may be All these organs are, therefore, essential to a called a fat-topped spike, the long stalks vegetable, which may be de ticient in any of of whose lowermost flowers raise them to those that we have previously described; but a level with the uppermost, or nearly so ; can never be totally destitute of those by this is exemplified in the cabbage and wall which its species is propagated from generaflower. The yarrow and mountain-ash bear tion to generation; for propagation by cuta kind of compound and irregular corym tings, bnds, or roots, is only the extension of bus, to which is nearly allied,
an individual, the life and vigour of wbich 5. Fasciculus, a fascicle, expressive of a gradually wears out unless it be reproduced close bundle of flowers, on little stalks va from seed. The fructification is, therefore, riously connected and level at the top, as in well defined by Linnæus as “a temporary the sweet-william. Fig. 29.
part of vegetables, terminating the old in6. Capitulum, a head or tuft, is com dividual and beginning the new." posed of numerous sessile flowers, collected The parts which constitute these essential into a globular form, as the globe amaran organs are seven. 1. Calyx, fig. 35, the flowerthus and thrift. Fig. 30.
cup, or external covering of the flower. 7. Umbella, an umbel or rundle, consists This also is of seven kinds: 1. Perianthium, of several stalks, called rays, spreading or calyx, properly so called when it is confrom one common centre, like an umbrella. tignous to and makes a part of the flower, Each stalk is either simple and single-flow as the five green leaves which encompass a ered, or, as most commonly occurs, subdi- rose, including their urn-shaped base. 2. vided into an umbellula, or partial umbel. Involucrum, which is remote from the flower, This inflorescence belongs to a natural or as in the umbelliferous tribe; but if the der, thence called Umbellata, to which the idea of these plants as above expressed be parsley, carrot, hemlock, and many others just, the part in question ought rather to be belong. Fig. 31.
considered as a bractea. S. Amentum, a cat8. Cyma, a cyme, consists of stalks kin, is formed of numerous scales attached springing from one common centre, but to one cylindrical receptacle, and falling off which are afterwards irregularly subdivided, with it: in catkins which bear seed the as in the laurustinus and elder, fig. 32. Lin scales are often enlarged and hardened into næus was led by some considerations to rec a cone, as in the fir. 4, Spatha, a sheath,
bursts longitudinally, and is more or less The functions of these two parts are perremote from the flower, as in the snow-drop, haps, though similar, not exactly analogous. narcissus, and arum. 5. Glumu, a husk, is Those of the calyx probably resemble what the peculiar chaffy calyx of grasses and their are performed by the leaves, and this part is allies; to it belongs the arista or awn, which presumed by Dr. Smith even to secrete however is not constant in the same species woody matter for strengthening the fruitof grass or corn: an elegant feathery awn is stalk. The corolla, indeed, seems destined seen in the stipa pennata, feather-grass. 6, to answer some exclusive purpose to the Perichatium, a scaly sheath, investing the essential organs of impregnation with regard fruit-stalk in some mosses, as hypnum. 7. to air and light. It fades when they wither, Volvu, the wrapper of the Fungus tribe, is and is altogether of temporary duration, either of a membranous kind sheltering Nectarium, the nectary, fig. 37, is frequenttheir fructification, as in the common mush. ly a part of, or an appendage to the corolla ; room, or more coriaceous, investing the sometimes the petal itself secretes honey; base of their stalk as in many tungi. sometimes a set of glands perform this func
2. Corolla, fig. 36, the delicate, generally tion; and in other cases there is a peculiar coloured, leaves of a flower, is always situ- petal-like apparatus for preparing or holding ated within the calyx when both are present. the nectarious juice. Linnæus has remarkThis term comprehends both the petal, ed that plants whose nectary is distinct petalum, and the nectary, nectarium. A from the petals are commonly poisonous, tlower consists of one petal, or of several, which in general holds good with those of the former denominated monopetalous is the more elaborate nectaries. German either campanulate, funnel-shaped, salver- writer, named Sprengel, has proved the shaped, wheel-shaped, ringent like the corolla to be in many instances an attracmouth of an animal, or personate, closed by tion as well as accommodation for insects a palate. Its parts are the tube and the in their search after honey: he remarks cerlimb. A polypetalous corolla is either cru. tain spots, called by him maculæ indicantes, ciform, as in a wall-flower, rosaceous, papi- which he conceives are designed to direct lionaceous, as in the pea kind, or incom these little animals to their prey. The scent plete, when some parts are found in analo of flowers may perhaps contribute to the gous flowers are wanting. The parts of a same end. There can be no doubt that the polypetalous corolla are the claw and the use of the honey is to attract insects, to border. The great point to be considered promote the impregnation of the flower, with respect to the corolla in general is, and not, as some have thought, for the nouwhether it be regular or irregular; in some rishment of the seeds or other organs, being flowers, however, it varies in the same
frequently quite out of the reach of both. species from one shape to the other, witness Stamina, fig. 38, the stamens, are situatthe genera antirrhinum and bignonia. ed withinside of the corolla, and are various
Neither the calyx nor corolla is indispen- in number in different flowers, from one to sably necessary to a flower. Both are want. several hundreds. These are the essential ing in hippuris, and one or other is deficient organs of impregnation. A stamen usually in many genera. Hence botanists are led
consists of two parts, filamentum, the fila. into a perplexity how, in some cases, to de- ment, and anthera, the anther, the latter nominate the part which is present. When of which only is essential. Its most comits green colour and thick texture agree mon shape is oblong, composed of two cells with the generality of flower-cups, we do or cavities, which burst by a longitudinal not hesitate to esteem it such ; but a calyx fissure on the outside. A more unusual strucis often beautifully coloured, and there is ture is when the anther opens by pores tosome doubt whether the splendid leaves of wards the summit, as in the genus erica, or tulips and lilies be not a true calyx; at least heath, of which such a profusion of beautiful they answer to the Linnæan definition, that species from the Cape of Good Hope enriches their parts are opposite to the stamens, our green-houses. Some of their anthers, whereas those of a corolla should be alter moreover, are furnished with variously formpate with the latter. The Linnæan hypo- ed and very elegant crests and spurs, which thesis, however, though sanctioned by Jus. afford the botanist marks for discriminating sieu, of the corolla proceeding from the the species. , The genus of firs, Pinus, has inner bark, and the calyx from the outer, is a jagged crest to its anthers, which serves entirely subverted by recent and more cor also to distinguish some of the difficult spesect observations on vegetable pbysiology. 'cies from each other. The situation of an