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dairy and for draught. The district of the the weight of a pair, separated from the Pontine marshes is the spot which may be head, is sometimes sixty pounds. considered as their principal station. In Bos grunniens, or yak, (having, with cy. India this animal is occasionally used for lindric horns curving outwards, very long the saddle, as a substitute for the horse.
pendant hair, and extremely villose, horseThe butfalo, like other animals of this ge- like tail), is about the height of an English nus, admits of varieties as to size and figure. bull, which he resembles in the general fiOf these, the most remarkable is the small gure of the body, head, and legs; it is conaked Indian buffalo of Mr. Pennant, which vered all over with a thick coat of lony is the size of a runt, with a nearly naked hair ; the head is rather short, crowned with body, thinly beset with bristly hair; the two smooth round horns, which, tapering rump and thighs quite bare ; the first being from the root upwards, terminate in sharp marked on each side with dusky stripes points; they are arched inwards, bending pointing downwards, the last with two towards each other, but near the extremi. transverse stripes; the horns compressed ties are a little turned back. sideways, taper, and sharp at the point. It They are a very valuable property to the is a native of India. Another variety, still tribes of itinerant Tartars, called Duckba, smaller, is said to occur in the mountains of who live in lents, and tend them from place the Celebes, which are full of caverns. This to place : they at the same time afford their variety is of the size of a middling sheep, herdsmen an easy mode of conveyance, a and is seen in small herds, very wild, and good covering, and wholesome subsistence. difficult to be taken; and even in confine. They are never employed in agriculture, ment are so tierce, that Mr. Pennant re but are extremely useful as beasts of burcords an instance of fourteen stags being den; for they are strong, sure-footed, and destroyed in the space of a single night by carry a great weight. Tents and ropes are one of these animals, which was kept in the manufactured of their hair; and among same paddock. Fig. 4.
the humbler ranks of herdsmen, caps and Bos moschutus, or musk ox, having very jackets are made of their skins. Their tails long pendant hair, and horns (in the male are esteemed throughout the East, as far as approximated at the base) bending inwards luxury and parade have any influence on and downwards, and outwards at the tips. the manners of the people. In India no It is a native of North America, where it man of fashion ever goes out, or sits in form appears to be a very local animal; being at home, without two chowrabadars, or found first in the tract between Churchill brushers, attending him, each furnished river, and that of the Seals, on the west side with one of these tails inounted on silver or of Hudson's bay, and is very numerous be ivory handles, to brush away the Alies. The tween the latitudes 66° and 73° north, which Chinese dye them of a beautiful red, and is as far as any tribes of Indians go. This wear them as tufts to their summer bonnets. animal is but of small size, being rather The yak is the most fearful of animals, and lower than the deer, but larger or thicker very swift; but when chased by men or in body. The hair, in the male, is of a dogs, and finding itself nearly overtaken, it dusky red colour, extremely fine, and so will face its pursuers, and hide its hind parts long as to trail on the ground, and render in some busli, and wait for them ; imagining the animal a seemingly shapeless mass, with that if it could conceal its tail, which was out distinction of head or tail; the legs the object they were in search of, it would are very short; the shoulders rise into a
escape unhurt. lump, and the tail is short, being a kind of Bos caffer, or Cape ox, (having the stump of a few inches only, with very long horns very broad at the base, then spreadbairs. Beneath the hair, on all parts of the ing downwards, next upwards, and at the animal, is a fine cinereous wool, which tips curving inwards); inhabits the interior is said to be more beautiful than silk when parts of Africa, north of the Cape of Good manufactured into stockings and other arti Hope, and is greatly superior in size to the cles. The horns are closely united at the largest English ox, It is of a very strong base, bending inwards and downwards; but and masculine form, with a fierce and maleturning outwards towards the tips, which volent aspect. Its colour is a deep cinare very sharp ; near the base the horns ereous brown ; the hair on the body is raare two feet in girth, but are only two feet ther short, but that on the head and breast long, when measured along the curvature; very long, coarse, and black, hanging down
the dew-lap, like that of a bison ; from the garded as the food of a large portion of ani. hind part of the head to the middle of the mals, the aptness of its derivation is appa. back is also a loose black mane ; the tail is rent. This study, in its inost limited sense, nearly naked at the base; the remainder be- includes the practical discrimination, meing covered with long loose hair. These thodical arrangement, and systematical noanimals are found in large herds, in the de- menclature of vegetables; while in a more sert parts beyond the Cape; and, if met in enlarged view, it comprises the anatomy the narrow parts of woods, are extremely and functions of their several parts, together dangerous, rushing suddenly on the travel with the various qnalities and nses which ler, goring and trampling both man and render them serviceable either to mankind horse under foot. It is also said, that they or the brute creation. In this respect bowill often strip off the skin of such animals tany may be considered as a vast and alas they have killed, by licking them with most boundless study; nor is the merely their rough tongues ; as recorded by some systematical department of botany, or naof the ancient authors of the bison).
tural history in general, when cultivated - BOSCIA, in botany, a genus of the Te on philosophical principles, inferior to any trandria Trigynia class and order. Calyx other science, iu extent or utility, as an four-toothed ; corolla four-petalled ; cap exercise for the discriminative powers of sule four-celled. One species found at the the mind. The necessity of a regular me. Cape.
thod of cla-sification, which is calculated BOSEA, in botany, from Bose, a senator to arrange and dispose the whole vegetaof Leipsic, a genus of the Pentandria Digy- ble kingdom), cannot be doubted, since the nia class and order. Essential character : most experienced and intelligent botanists calyx five-leaved; corolla none ; berry one of the present day have scarcely been able seeded. There is but one species, viz. B. to reckon, within ten thousand, how niany yervamora, golden rod tree, is a strong species of plants there may be in the world. woody shrub, with a stem as large as a man's An attention to the vegetables on all leg, the branches come out very irregularly, sides spread around him, must have been and make considerable shoots in summer ; one of the earliest occupations of man in a these branches retain their leaves till spring, state of nature; and this attention was when they fall off and new leaves are pro- doubtless quickened to a further contemduced soon after. It is a native of the Ca- plation of their beauty and utility when it nary islands, and is also found in some of the was discovered, that independently of af. West India islands.
fording gratification to the senses, some BOSSIÆA, in botany, a genus of the were provided as an aliment for the body, Diadelphia Decandria : calyx two-lipped, and that others contained a soothing balm the upper lip inversely heart-shaped ; ban- for corporeal sufferings. Hence we may ner with two glands at the base ; keel of infer, that the study of plants has, through two petals ; legume pedicelled, compressed, every age and in every clime, excited the many-seeded. One species, a native of attention of mankind; yet it is truly reNew Holland.
marked by a late elegant writer, Dr. PulBOSTRICHUS, in natural history, a ge- teney, that, “in the enlightened ages of nus of insects of the order Coleoptera : an Greece and Rome, and under the most tennæ clavate, the club solid ; thorax con flourishing state of Arabian literature, bovex, slightly margined ; head inflected and tany, as a science, had no existence. Nor hid under the thorax. There are about 30 was it till some tine after the revival of species. They are a very fertile and vo learning, that those combinations and disracious tribe, and destructive to woods, tinctions were effectually discovered, which making those deep irregular channels, so in the end, by giving rise to system, have often observable in the bark and wood of raised the study of plants to that rank it trees. They are found chiefly in Europe holds at present in the scale of knowledge." and America.
In the early history of Britain, we find BOTANY, is that science which teaches that herbs were cultivated and studied with a knowledge of the vegetable kingdom, as considerable assiduity by the Druids, who its name, derived from botar, an herb or applied this knowledye with much effect grass, expresses. This word may be easily to the purposes of superstition as well as traced to its primitive Bow, or Borxw, to medicine, and thus appropriated to themfeed, and since plants have ever been re selves the offices both of priests and phy.
sicians. Historiąus inform us that tiie mis- have been framed by succeeding botanists, seltoe was held by our ancestors in such but before we enter upon this subject it veneration, that it was only allowed to be will be essential, in the first place, to uncut by a priest, and with a golden knife; derstand the general anatomy of plants, when thus prepared, it was dispensed as a and lastly, the nature and functions of their charm to prevent sterility, and to overcome particular organs. the fatal effects of poison. We learn from It will readily be admitted that the most Pliny that various superstitious rites with convenient mode of coming to a knowledge respect to many other plants were also care of the anatomy of vegetables, is to begin fully observed by the Druids. Vervain from their external covering, the epidermis, and savin were among the number; the or cuticle. Various theories have been former of these being used as a means to formed respecting its uses to the vegetable conciliate friendship, and the latter as an body, but physiologists have mostly agreed antidote to misfortunes. A small portion that it was designed as a guard against the of the mountain-ash was believed to act as injurious effects of the atnuosphere upon ą charm against the powers of witchcraft, the vital parts of plants, since this, as well and this idea is still prevalent in the high as the human cuticle, is merely a dead sub. lands of Scotland, where it is usual to drive stance. The infinite variety of appearances cattle with a switch of this tree in order which the epidermis assumes in different that they may be preserved from the evils plants is peculiarly striking. It is comof enchantment.
monly transparent and smooth ; sometimes The Saxops appear to have made but it is hairy or downy ; sometimes of so hard little proficiency in the investigation of a substance, that even fint has been deplants, though some of the Saxon mayuscript tected in its composition. Hence the herbals shew that the study was not altoge- Dutch rush, equisetum hyemale, serves as a ther disregarded by this people. Their file to polish wood, ivory, and even brass. chief aim was to be acquainted with plants Under the cuticle is found a substance, in a medicinal point of view. Botany in which till very lately has been but slightly deed was involved in the utmost obscurity, noticed by physiologists. This is the celbeing merely studied as an auxiliary to lular integument, analogous to the rete muastrology, even to the middle of the 16th cosum of animals; it is like that of a puipy century, for at that period was published texture and the seat of colour. It is com“ A Lyttel Herbal of the Properties of monly green in the leaves and stems, and Herbs, newly amended and corrected, with is dependent for its hue on the action of certain additions at the end of the bok, light. declarying what herbs hath influence of When the cellular integument is removed, certain starres and constellations, whereby the outer surface of the bark presents itself, may be chosen the best and most lucky which, in plants or branches that are only times and days of their ministration, ac one year old, consists of one simple layer, cording to the Moon being in the signs of often scarcely separable from the wood. Heaven, the which is daily appointed in In the branches and stems of trees it conthe almanack; made and gathered in the sists of as many layers as they are years year M.D.L. xii. Feb. by Anthony Ascham, olil; the innermost of these is called the Physician.” London, 1550. 12".
liber, or inner bark, in which the vital funcBut from these times of ignorance and tions for the season are carried on, and in barbarism, in which the fairest of sciences the meanwhile materials for the new liber was converted to the most foolish of pur are secreted and deposited on the inside ; poses, let us now turn to the contempla- the latter is destined to perform the requition of the first gleams of wisdom that site functions in the ensuing spring, when darted through the clouds when rept asun). the last year's liber is united and assimider by the inventors of systematical botany, lated to the outer bark as its predecessors
Conrad Gesner, at Zurich, and Cæsai. had been. It appears also from the expepinus, at Rome, towards the end of the riments and observations of Duhamel, Hope, 16th century, entirely independent of each Knight, aud others, that the liber deposits otber, first conceived the idea of a regular also matter for a new layer of wood. The classification of plants by their flowers and bark owes its strength and tenacity to in. fruit, to which, as Dr. Smith has observed, numerable woody fibres, mostly longitudi" the very existence of botany, as a science, nal, though connected laterally so as to is owing," Upon this plan various systems make a kind of net-work. This reticula
tion is 80 perfect and beautiful in the substance a new layer of wood. Hales daphne laghetto, or lace bark of the West thought this new layer proceeded from the Indies, that it may be stretched laterally wood of the former year; Linnæus presuminto a kind of gauze, sometimes used for ed that it was secreted, internally, next to articles of ornamental dress. The bark the pith. The experiments of Duhamel contains, in appropriate vessels, the princi- and Hope confirmed the sentiments of pal secreted Auids of trees in great perfec- Grew and Malpighi; and at present there is tion. Its medicinal virtues in many in no kind of doubt upon this subject. A layer stances are familiar to us; the Peruvian of wood being formed every year, it is evibark affords “a cooling draught to the dent that the age of a sound tree may be fevered lip;" while that of the cinnamon known from counting its rings when felled ; yields a rich cordial; that which is stripped and it has been observed that hard winters from the oak is used for the purpose of are recorded in this natural register by certanning, for which several other kinds are tain rings being more dense than the rest. of interior utility. When a wonnd is made In the north side of a tree also they are in the bark it heals, though slowly, by the usually more narrow than on the south; and lateral extension of the portion which is left. upon this principle a mode for travellers to
Immediately under the bark is situated find their way through an unknown forest the wood, which forms the great bulk of has been suggested, namely, that by felling a trees and shrubs. This also consists of nu tree they might ascertain the points of the merons layers, as any one must have ob compass; but we humbly conceive that much served in the fir and many other trees.
more obvious means for the same purpose are Each of these layers is moreover composed within the reach of every traveller, and that of other thinner ones ; their substance con the one recommended is somewhat like sists of innumerable woody fibres, and is telling perforated by longitudinal sap-vessels, va
what honr of the day riously constructed or arranged in different
The clock doth strike by algebra.” trees, and intermixed with other vessels containing secreted fluids or air.
Within the centre of the wood is the It would be superfluous to enlarge on the
medulla, or pith, which is a cellular subeconomical uses of wood in every country,
stance, juicy when young, extending from from the most barbarous to the most refin- the roots to the summits of the branches. ed. Of this material the savage forms his
In some plants, as grasses, it is hollow, club and liis spear, while the civilised part merely lining the stem. Linnæus believed of mankind convert it to the purposes of this part to be analogous to the nerves of comfort and luxury. Many conjectures animals, and the immediate cause of the have arisen among philosophers with respect growth and evolution of all their parts; that to the manner in which the circular layers
it was always struggling, as it were, to of wood are annually formed, and the effects overcome the resistance of their woody subwhich heat or cold may have on their for. stance, and that it did accordingly elongate mation. Cold seems to condense the opera
itself and cause the increase of the vegettion, as well as for a time to interrupt it; able body in young and tender parts, where since in the trees of hot countries these
that resistance is least. The formation of rings or layers are scarcely perceptible. In
seeds he conceived only put a tinal stop 10 many trees more or less of the outermost its extension by the production of offspring layers continue for a time of a different from it. Facts are not wanting in support colour and texture from the inner ones, and of this hypothesis ; but there are many more are called by workmen the sap. Such layers conclusive ones against it. The real use and are unfit for any lasting service. The labur- physiology of the part in question still num shews them very distinctly, and the remains in great obscurity. oak likewise. It was long a matter of great uncertainty how, or whence each new layer of wood was added to the former ones. In defining the parts of vegetables it is Malpighi and Grew, the first physiologists found most commodious to begin from the who gave attention to the subject, formed, bottom, proceeding upwards. Hence the without any mutual communication, an root, which is the first part produced by a opinion, which proves to be correct, and germinating embryo, comes first under conto which we have already alluded, that the sideration. Its presence seems necessary hark deposited every year from its own to plants, as it serves to fix and hold then
in the earth, from which they imbibe nou confined to them. The radish and carrot rishment through their elementary tubes. have spindle-shaped roots, producing numerSea-weeds, however, afford an exception to ous fibres for the absorption of nutriment. this, for they are nourished by their surface, Such roots may be transplanted with great the root serving only to fix them to a con. safety in the torpid season of the year. venient spot.
Fig. 3. A root is either annual, biennial, or peren 4th. An abrupt or stumped root, prænial. The first kind live but one season, as morsa, like that of the primrose, is as it barley; the second survive one winter, and were bitten off; hence many plants furnishperish at the end of the following summer, ed with it have obtained the whimsical after perfecting their seed, like wheat; if, name of devil's-bit. Fig. 4. however, any circumstances should prevent 5th. A tuberous or knobbed root, tubetheir flowering they may live several years rosa, a very important sort, appears under a till that event takes place. Perennial roots great diversity of forms. In the potatoe it are such as remain and produce blossoms consists of fleshy knobs connected by comfor an indefinite term of years, like those of mon stalks or fibres; these knobs are bientrees and shrubs in general, and of many nial, formed in the course of one season, herbaceous plants whose stems are annual. and destined to produce fresh plants the
The body of the root is denominated following year. This is the case with the caudex; the fibrous, which is the only essen oval or hand-shaped rod of the orchis tial part, radicula. This latter is strictly tribe. Some herbs, indeed, have perennial annual in all cases, and is what serves for knobs to their roots. Fig. 5. absorbing the nutritious fuids of the soil. 6th. A bulbous root, bulbosa, consists of a It is necessary for the botanist as well as the kind of subterraneous bud, being either farmer and gardener, to be well acquainted solid, as in the crocus; tunicate, as in the with the several kinds of roots, which differ onion; or scaly, like that of the lily. Fig. 6. materially in their nature aud functions. These roots, like the knobs above-mention'Those of a fleshy nature most powerfully ed, are reservoirs of nourishment, or rather resist drought, and are, as Dr. Smith has of the vital powers, during the winter. After suggested, reservoirs of the vital energy of flowering and leafing their herbage and the vegetable. We have, with the permis. fibres decay, and the roots may then be sion of this gentleman, adopted in the fol removed or kept ont of the ground for a lowing pages those leading ideas upon the time withont any hazard. When fresh fibres subject before us, which are detailed and ex are formed it is fatal to disturb them. exemplified more at length in his “Intro 7th. A granulated root, granulata, agrees duction to Physiological and Systematical in physiology with the last, being a cluster Botany,” to which work we must refer those of little bulbs or scales connected by a of our readers who wish for more deep in common fibre, as in the white saxifrage and formation than our limits will allow.
wood sorrel. Fig. 7. Roots are distinguished as follows:
1st. A fibrous root, radix fibrosa, consists entirely of fibres, as in many grasses, and a Buds of trees have a great analogy with number of annual herbaceous plants. These the bulbs and knobs of the roots in herbacan but ill bear a continued deprivation of ceous plants. In them the vital principle is moisture or nourishment. The fibres carry latent till a proper season for its evolution what they absorb directly to the base of the arrives. For this reason buds are essential stem. Botany, Plate I. fig. 1.
to the trees or shrubs of cold countries, and 2nd. A creeping root, repens, is a sort of are formed in the course of the summer in subterraneous stem, spreading horizontally the bosoms of their leaves. The plane-tree. in the ground, throwing out abundance of has them concealed in the base of its footfibres, as in mint and couch-grass. Weeds stalk, which answers the purpose of protecfurnished with such a root are amongst the tion. In most instances they are guarded most pernicious, being so difficult to eradi- by scales, furnished with gum or woollicate. Nature, however, having furnished ness as an additional defence. Till buds them with so powerful a mode of increase begin to vegetate they very powerfully is very sparing in the production of their resist cold, and are scarcely known to suffer seeds. Fig. 2.
at any season, but it is quite otherwise when 3rd. A spindle-shaped root, fusiformis, they have made ever so slight an effort to is common in biennial plants, thongh not develope themselves. Plants are propagat,