« PreviousContinue »
study of the common law, at Gray's-Inn. His meritat length raised him to the highest digmities in his profession, viz. of Attorney-general, and Lord High Chancellor. But being of an easy and liberal disposition, his servants took advantage of that temper, and their situation under him, by accepting presents in the line of his profession. Being abandoned by the king, he was tried by the house of lords for bribery and corruption, and by them sentenced to pay a fine of 40,000l. and to remain prisoner in the Tower during the king's pleasure. The king, however, soon after remitted the fine and imprisonment: but his misfortunes had given him a distaste for public affairs, and he afterwards mostly lived a retired life, closely pursuing his philosophical studies and amusements, in which time he composed the greatest part of his English and Latin works. Though even in the midst of his honours and employments he forgot not his philosophy, but in 1620 published his great work “NovumOrganum.” After some years spent in philosophical retirement, he was suddenly seized with pains in his head and stomach as he was travelling into the country. These obliged him to stop at Highgate, at the Earl of Arundel's, where he expired on the 9th of April, in the 66th year of his age. No memorial remains of his last hours, excepting a letter addressed to the nobleman in whose house he died, in which he compares himself to Pliny, who lost his life by approaching too near Vesuvius during an eruption. He was buried at St. Albans. To Bacon unquestionably belonged a most commanding genius, capable of invent. ing, methodizing, and carrying forward to considerable maturity, a general plan for the improvement of natural science, by the only sure method of experiment. With a mind prompt in invention, patient in inquiry, and subtle in discrimination, neither affecting nor idolizing antiquity, he formed, and in a great measure executed, his great plan, “The Instauration of Sciences,” in six parts. Of these the first is entitled “The Advancement of Learning:” the second is the “Novum Organum,” or new method of employing the reasoning faculties in the pursuit of truth: the “Sylva Sylvarum,” or History of Nature, is the third part; the fourth is entitled “Scala Intellectus;” a series of steps is pointed out, by which the understanding may regularly ascend in its philosophical inquiries: the fifth part is “ Anticipationes Philosophica,” intended as philosophical hints and suggestions: the sixth part, in
which the universal principles of natural knowledge, drawn from experiments, should be exhibited in a regular and complete system,the author did not attempt to accomplish. The grand edifice, of which he laid the foundation only, he left to be finished by the united labours of philosophers of future ages. With confidence in the merit of his own works, and depending on posthumous celebrity, Bacon begins his last testament with “My name and memory I leave to foreign nations: and to mine own countrymen, after some time is passed over." Upon the superstructure that has been raised on the foundation of experimental philosophy he established will be read by distant ages “Bacon, the father of experimental philosophy.” BAcon, (John) in biography, a celebrated sculptor, descended from an ancient. family in Somersetshire, was born in Southwark, Nov. 24, 1740, where his father, Thomas Bacon, a cloth-worker, resided. When very young, Mr. Bacon discovered a
great inclination for drawing, common to
children; but not being particularly encouraged in it he never made much proficiency in the art. At the age of 14 he was bound apprentice to Mr. Crispe of Bow Church Yard, where he was employed in painting on porcelain. He occasionally assisted in the manufactory of china at Lambeth, particularly in forming small ornamental pieces, which he executed with so much taste as to indicate no ordinary powers. To his honour be it mentioned, that by the encouragement he met with, he was able, principally, to support his aged parents, reduced in their circumstances, though by such an exertion he was obliged to abridge himself of the necessaries of life. At the manufactory at Lambeth he had an opportunity of observing models of different sculptors, which were sent to a pottery on the same premises to be burnt. From the sight of these he immediately conceived a strong inclination for his future profession. Hav.
to the marble, this is called “ 'getting out
stamina six. Female, calyx one-leaved,
holes, which are eight, with the fingers. The little pipe is ordinarily a foot long; that played on thirteen inches; and the portwent six. This instrument has been so long a favourite with the natives of Scotland, that it may be considered as a national instrument. It is not known when it was introduced there, but it has been conjectured that the Danes or Norwegians carried it into the Hebrides, where it has been known from times immemorial. BAGS, sand, in military affairs, filled with earth or sand to repair breaches, and the embrasures of batteries when damaged by the enemies fire, or by the blast of the guns; they are also used to raise a parapet in haste, or to repair one that is beaten down. They are only used when the ground is rocky and does not afford earth enough to carry on the approaches. BAHAR, or BARRE, in commerce, weights used in several places in the East Indies. There are two of these weights, the one the great bahar with which they weigh pepper, cloves, nutmegs, ginger, &c. and contains five hundred and fifty pounds of Portugal, or about five hundred and twentyfour pounds nine ounces avoirdupois weight. With the little bahar they weigh quicksilver, vermilion, ivory, silk, &c. It contains, about four hundred and thirtyseven pounds nine ounces avoirdupois weight. BAIL, in law, the setting at liberty one arrested or imprisoned, upon an action, either civil or criminal, upon sureties taken for his appearance at a day and place assigned; and is either common or special. Common bail is in actions of small prejudice, or slight proof, in which case any sureties are taken. But if the plaintiff make affidavit that the cause of action amounts to 10l. or upwards, in order to arrest the defendant, and make him put in substantial sureties for his appearance, called special bail; it is then required that the true cause of action be expressed in the body of the writ. Special bail, are two or more persons, who, after arrest, undertake generally, or enter into bond to the sheriffin a certain sum, to insure the defendant's appearance at the return of the writ: this obligation is called bail-bond. In criminal cases all persons, by the common law, might be bailed till they were convicted of the offence laid to their charge:
the statutes have made many exceptions to this rule: when these do not intervene bail. may, upon offering sufficient surety, be taken either in cout or, in particular cases, by the sheriff, coroner, or other magistrate, but usually by justices of peace, in the following cases, persons of good fame charged with the suspicion of man-slaughter or other inferior homicide. Persons charged with petit larceny, or any felony not before specified. Accessaries to felony, not being of evil fame, nor under strong presumption of guilt. Bail cannot be taken upon an accusation of treason, nor murder, nor in the case of man-slaughter if the person be clearly the slayer; nor does it extend to such as being committed for felony have broken prison, nor to persons out-lawed, nor to those who have abjured the realm, nor approvers, nor persons taken in the fact of felony, nor persons charged with house-burning, nor persons taken by writ of excommunicato capiendo.
BAILE, or BALE, in the sea language. The seamen call throwing the water by hand out of the ship or boat's hold bailing. They also call those hoops that bear up the tilt of a boat its bails.
BAILLY (JEAN Sylvain), a celebrated French astronomer, historiographer, and politician, was born at Paris the 15th of September, 1736, and has figured as one of the greatest men of the age, being a member of several academies, and an excellent scholar and writer. He enjoyed for several years the office of keeper of the king's pictures at Paris. He published, in 1766, a volume in 4to, “An Essay on the Theory of Jupiter's Satellites,” preceded by a history of the astronomy of these satellites. In the “Journal Encyclopédique,” for May and June 1773, he addressed a letter to M. Bernoulli, astronomer royal at Berlin, upon some discoveries relative to these satellites, which he had disputed. In 1768, he published the Eulogy of Leibnitz, which ob. tained the prize at the Academy of Berlin, where it was printed. In 1770, he printed at Paris, in 8vo, the Eulogies of Charles the Vth, of De la Caille, of Leibnitz, and of Corneille. This last had the second prize at the Academy of Rouen, and that of Moliere had the same honour at the French Academy. -
M. Bailly was admitted into the Academy as adjunct, the 29th of January, 1763, and as associate, the 14th of July, 1770.-In 1775 came out at Paris, in 4to, his “History of the Ancient Astronomy,” in one vo.
lume: in 1779, the “History of Modern Astronomy,” in two volumes: and in 1787, the “History of the Indian and Oriental Astronomy,” being the second volume of the Ancient Astronomy. Besides these, he was author of many memoirs in the several volumes of the Academy. In the beginning of the revolution in France, in 1789, M. Bailly took an active part in that business, and was so popular and generally esteemed, that he was chosen the first president of the states general, and of the national assembly, and was afterwards for two years together the mayor of Paris; in both which offices he conducted himself with great spirit, and gave general satisfaction. He soon afterward, however, experienced a sad reverse of fortune; being accused by the ruling party of favouring the king, he was arrested and summarily condemned, by an infamous and bloody tribunal, for incivism and wishing to overturm the republic, and died by the guillotine at Paris, on the 11th day of November, 1793, at 57 years of age. The characterof this great man can only be estimated by his works. In his person he was tall; his deportment was grave and sedate, and he blended firmness with sensibility. BAILIFF, an officer appointed for the administration of justice within a certain district, called a bailiwick. Hence the sheriff is considered a bailiff to the crown; and his court, of which he has the care, and in which he is to execute the king's writ, is called his bailiwick, so also his officers who execute writs, warrants, &c. are called bailiffs. BAILIFFs of franchises, those appointed by every lord within his liberty to do such offices therein as the bailiff errant does at large in the county. There are also bailiffs of forests, and bailiffs of manors, who direct husbandry, fell trees, gather rents, pay quit rents, &c. BAILIFF, water, an officer appointed in all port-towns for the searching of ships, gathering the toll for anchorage, &c. and arresting persons for debts, &c. on the water. BAiLiff, however, is still applied to the chief magistrate of several corporate towns. The government of some of the king's cas. tles is also committed to persons called bailiffs, as the bailiff of Dover castle.
BAILIWICK, that liberty which is exempted from the sheriff of the county, over
which liberty the lord thereof appoints his own bailiff, with the like power within his precinct as an under-sheriff exercises under the sheriff of the county: or it signifies the precinct of a bailiff, or the place within which his jurisdiction is terminated: such is the bailiff of Westminster. BAILMENT, is the delivery of things to another, sometimes to be delivered back to the bailer, sometimes to the bailee, and sometimes to a third person: this delivery is called a bailment. The following rules are binding in the law of bailments: a baillee who derives no advantage for his undertaking is responsible only for gross negligence. A bailer who alone receives benefit from the bailment is responsible for slight neglect. When the bailment is beneficial to both parties, the bailee must be answerable for ordinary neglect. No bailee shall be charged for a loss by inevitable accident, or irresistible force, except by special agreement. Robbery by force is considered as irresistible, but a loss by private stealth is presumptive evidence of ordinary neglect. BAINBRIDGE (John), an eminent physician, astronomer, and mathematician. He was born in 1582, at Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire. He studied at Cambridge, where having taken his degrees of bachelor and master of arts, he returned to Leicestershire, kept a grammar-school, and at the same time practised physic; employing his leisure hours in studying mathematics, especially astronomy, which had been his favourite science from his earliest years. By the advice of his friends, he removed to London, to better his condition, and improve himself with the conversation of learned men there; and here he was admitted a fellow of the College of Physicians. His description of the comet, which appeared in 1618, greatly raised his character, and procured him the acquaintance of Sir Henry Savile, who, in 1619, appointed him his first professor of astronomy at Oxford. On his removal to this university, he entered a master commoner of Merton College; the master and fellows of which appointed him junior reader of Linacer's lecture in 1631, and superior reader in 1635. As he resolved to publish correct editions of the ancient astronomers, agreeably to the statutes of the founder of his professorship, that he might acquaint himself with the discoveries of the Arabian astronomers, he began the study of the Arabic language when he was above 40 years of age, Before he had cempleted that work he died, in the year 1643, at 61 years of age. Dr. Bainbridge wrote many works, but most of them have never been published; those that were published, were the three following: viz. 1. “An Astronomical Description of the late Comet, from the 18th of November, 1618, to the 16th of December following;” 4to, London, 1619. 2. “Procli Sphaera, Ptolomaei de Hypothesibus Planetarum Liber singularis.” To which headded Ptolomy’s “Canon Regnorum.” He collated these pieces with ancient manuscripts, and gave a Latin version of them, illustrated with figures: printed in 4to, 1620. 3. “Camicularia.” A treatise concerning the Dog-star, and the canicular days: published at Oxford, in 1648, by Mr. Greaves, together with a demonstration of the heliacal rising of Sirius, the Dog-star, for the parallel of Lower Egypt. Dr. Bainbridge undertook this work at the request of Archbishop Usher, but he left it imperfect; being prevented by the breaking out of the civil war, or by death. There were also several dissertations of his prepared for and committed to the press the year after his death, but the edition of them was never completed. BAIT, in fishing, a thing prepared to take and bring fishes to. See ANGLING. BAITING is applied to the act of smaller or weaker beasts attacking and harrassing greater and stronger ones. Bulls and bears are baited by mastiffs, or bull-dogs. The practice of bull-baiting, and other sports of the same kind, which cannot be too strongly reprobated, may be traced to an early period of our history. In the twelfth century, it was a common practice on every holiday. In the reign of Henry VIII. many herds of bears were maintained for the purpose of baiting. Queen Mary had a great exhibition of bear-baiting immediately after mass, with which to entertain her sister Elizabeth, then a prisoner in Hatfield-house ; and the same princess, soon after her accession to the throne, entertained the foreign ambassadors with the baiting of bulls and bears. The custom of bull-baiting was most ingeniously defended by Mr. Windham in the House of Commons in the session of 1803, when a bill was brought in to stop that inhuman practice. Whales are baited by a kind of fish called oriae or killers, ten or twelve of which will attack a young whale at once, and not leave him till he is killed. BAKER (Thom As), a mathematician of
some eminence, was born at Ilton, in Somersetshire, in 1625. He entered upon his studies at Oxford, in 1640, where he remained seven years. He was afterwards appointed vicar of Bishop's-Nymmet, in Devonshire, where he lived a studious and retired life for many years, chiefly pursuing the mathematical sciences; of which he gave a proof of his critical knowledge, in the book he published, concerning the general construction of biquadratic equations, by a parabola and a circle; the title of which book at full length is, “The Geometrical Key; or the Gate of Equations unlocked : or a new Discovery of the Construction of all Equations, howsoever affected, not exceeding the fourth degree; viz. of Linears, Quadratics, Cubics, Biquadratics, and the finding of all their roots.” . A little before his death, the Royal Society sent him some mathematical queries; to which he returned such satisfactory answers, as procured the present of a medal, with an inscription full of honour and respect. Mr. Baker died at Bishop's Nymmet, 1690, in the 65th year of his age. BAKER (HENRY), an ingenious and diligent naturalist, was born in London about the beginning of the 18th century. He was brought up under an eminent bookseller, but being of a philosophical turn of mind, he quitted that line of business soon after the expiration of his apprenticeship, and took to the employment of teaching deaf and dumb persons to speak and write, &c. in which occupation, in the course of his life he acquired a handsome fortune. For his amusement he cultivated various natural and philosophical sciences, particularly botany, natural history, and microscopical subjects, in which he especially excelled, having, in the year 1744, obtained the Royal Society's gold medal, for his microscopical experiments on the crystallizations and configurations of saline particles. He published various papers in the Transaction of the Royal Society, of which he was a worthy member, as well as of the Society of Antiquaries. He was author of many pieces on various subjects, the principal of which were, his Treatise on the Water Polype, and two Treatises on the Microscope; viz. “The Microscope made easy,” and “Employment for the Microscope,” which have gone through several editions. Mr. Baker married Sophia, youngest daughter of the celebrated Daniel Defoe, by whom he had two sons, who both died before him. He terminated an honourable