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which sometimes visit us from countries still olivino by its darker colours, different crysfarther north, prove that nature has not tallization, greater hardness, and speritic confined her works of elegance to regions gravity. It used to be considered as a prowithin the tropics.
duct of fire; but the circumstance of its The whole class of birds differs essentially occurring wrapped up, not imbedded in lava, from all other animals in internal structure, demonstrates that it is one of the constias well as in external form and appearance ; tuent parts of the mother-stone, which has and every point of difference, when accu escaped fusion. rately examined, is evidently adapted to AUGMENT, in grammar, an accident of their peculiar habits. These will be no certain tenses of Greek verbs, being either ticed under the several orders and genera. the prefixing of a syllable, or an increase of To give but a single instance in this place: the quantity of the initial vowels. the aceipitres have sight so piercing, that of these there are two kinds, the augfreqnently, when so high as to be out of mentum temporale, or of a letter, when a human ken, they can descry their prey up- short vowel is changed into a long one, or a on the ground, and their flight is so rapid, diphthong into another longer one; and that they can dart upon it with the celerity augmentum syllabicum, or of a syllable, when of a meteor. Their prey varies according a syllable is added at the beginning of the to their strength and rapacity, from the word. lamb or kid, which the vulture bears away AUGMENTATION, was the name of a in his talons, to the smaller birds and mice, court erected 27 Hen. VIII. so called from on which the hawk and owl tribes feast.
the augmentation of the revenues of the To prevent the depredation that these
crown, by the suppression of religious houses, would otherwise commit, nature has or and the office still remains, wherein there dained that this tribe of birds should be the
are many curious records, though the court least prolitic ; few of them lay more than has been dissolved long since.
AUGMENTATION, iu heraldry, are addiAUGEA, in botany, a genus of the De tional charges to a coat-armour, frequently candria Monogynia class and order. Calyx given as particular marks of honour, and five-parted; corolla o; nectary ten-toothed; generally borne either on the escutcheon or capsule ten-celled. One species, a native a canton; as bave all the baronets of Engof the Cape.
land, who have borne the arms of the proAUGITE, a mineral of the Chrysolite fa vince of Ulster in Ireland. mily, found in basalt, sometimes in grains, but AUGMENTATION, in music, a term confined most commonly in crystals, mostly small to the language of fuguists, and is the and complete. Colour blackish green, some doubling the value of the notes of the subtimes passing into leek green, and rarely to ject of a fugue or canon: or, the giving the liver brown. Specific gravity 3.22 to 3.47. intervals of the subject in notes of twice the Before the blow-pipe it is with difficulty original length. converted into a black enamel: the consti. AUGRE, or AWGRE, an instrument used tuent parts are
by carpenters and joiners to bore large Silica.......
round holes, and consisting of a wooden Lime.
handle and an iron blade, terminated at Alumina....
bottom with a steel bit.
AVIARY, a place set apart for feeding
and propagating birds.
It should be so manganese 2.00
large, as to give the birds some freedom of
fight; and turfed, to avoid the appearance 95.19
of foulness on the floor. See APIs and Bees. Loss.......... 4.81
AVICENA, Ebu Sina, in biography,
has been accounted the prince of Arabian 100.00
philosophers and physicians. He was born
at Assena, near Bokhara, in 978; and died It is found very abundantly in Bohemia, at Hamadan in 1036, being 58 years of Transylvania, Hungary, Scotland, as at Ar- age. thur's Seat, near Edinburgh, and remark The first years of Avicena were employed ably fine in the island of Ruma, one of the in the study of the Belles Lettres, and the Hebrides, and equally beautiful at Arendal, Koran, and at ten years of age he was per: in Norway. Augite is distinguished from fect master of the hidden senses of that
book. Then applying to the study of logic, the upper lip square; capsule coriaceone, philosophy, and mathematics, he quickly rhomboid, one-seeded. There are three made a rapid progress. After studying un- species, natives of the East and West Indies. der a master the first principles of logic, and A. tomentosa, a tree, agrees mostly with the the first five or six propositions of Euclid's mangrove, rising about 15 feet; its trunk is elements, he became disgusted with the not so large, having a smooth, whitish green slow manner of the schools, applied himself bark, and from the stem are twigs propaalone, and soon accomplished all the rest by gating the tree like that: the branches at the help of the commentators only.
top are jointed towards their ends where, Possessed with an extreme avidity to be the leaves come out opposite, on very small acquainted with all the sciences, he studied petioles, two inches and a half long, and medicine also. Persuaded that this art con about an inch broad: the flowers are many sists as much in practice as in theory, he at the top of the branches, white and tetrasought all opportunities of seeing the sick; petalons. It is found on the north and south and afterwards confessed that he had learned sides of Jamaica,growing in low moistground. more from such experience than from all the A. nitida grows forty feet high, a native of books he had read. Being now in his six- Martinico: the creeping roots throw up teenth year, and already celebrated for abundance of suckers. A. resinifera probeing the light of his age, he determined to duces a green coloured gum, so much esresume his studies of philosophy, which medi- teemed by the natives of New Zealand, and cine, &c. had made him for some time neg which is very hot in the mouth. lect: and he spent a year and a half in this AVIGNON berry, taken from the rhampainful labour, without ever sleeping all this nus infectorius, and used in France by dytime a whole night together. At the age of ers for making a yellow colour. They are 21, he conceived the bold design of incorpo- gathered unripe, bruised, and boiled in rating in one work all the objects of human water, mixed with the ashes of vine stalks knowledge; and he carried it into execution to give a body, and then strained through in an Encyclopedia of 20 volumes, to which linen. The colour is chiefly used for silk, he gave the title of the “ Utility of Utili- but it will not well bear the heat of the ties.”
sun. The plant grows, as its name imports, Many wonderful stories are related of his in the neighbourhood of Avignon. skill in medicine, and the cures which he
AULA regis, was a court established performed. Several princes had been taken by William the Conqueror in his own hall. dangerously ill, and Avicena was the only It was composed of the king's great officers one that could know their ailments, and cure of state resident in his palace, who usually them. His reputation increased daily, and attended on his person, and followed him in all the princes of the East desired to retain all his progresses and expeditions; which him in their families, and in fact he passed being found inconvenient and burthensome, through several of them. But the irregula- it was enacted by the great charter, c. 11, rities of his conduct sometimes lost him their that common pleas shall no longer follow the favour, and threw him into great distresses. king's court, but shall be holden in some His excesses in pleasures, and his infirmities, certain place, which certain place was estamade a poet say, who wrote his epitaph, that blished in Westminster Hall, where the aula the profound study of philosophy had not regis originally sat when the king resided in taught him good morals, nor that of medicine that city, and there it has ever since conti the art of preserving his own health.
nued. 3 Black, 37. After his death, however, he enjoyed so AULIC, an epithet given to certain offi. great a reputation, that till the 12th century cers of the empire, who compose a court, he was preferred for the study of philosophy which decides, without appeal, in all pro. and medicine to all bis predecessors. Even cesses entered in it. Thus we say, aulic in Europe liis works, which were very nu- council, aulic chamber, aulic counsellor, merous, were the only writings in vogue in The aulic council is composed of a president. the schools.
who is a Catholic; of a vice-chancellor, preAVICENNIA, in botany, so named in sented by the archbishop of Mentz; and of honour of a celebrated oriental physician, eighteen counsellors, nine of whom are Prowho flourished in the eleventh century at testants, and nine-Catholics. They are diIspahan, a genus of the Didynamia Angios- vided into a bench of lawyers, and always permia class and order. Essential charac- follow the emperor's court, for which reason ter; calyx five-parted; corolla two-lipped, they are called justitium imperatoris, the em
peror's justice, and anlic council. The aulic that in the anterior part. They are intended court ceases at the death of the emperor, as diverticula for the blood, during the sywhereas the imperial chamber of Spire is stole. Their substance is muscular, being perpetual, representing not only the deceas- composed of strong fibres, and their motion ed emperor, but the whole Germanic body, is not synchronous but achronous with that which is reputed never to die.
of the heart. See ANATOMY. AVOIRDUPOIS, AVERDUPOIS
AURICULAR medicines, such as are weight, a sort of weight used in England, used in the cure of distempers in the ear. the pound whereof is made up of sixteen . AURIGA, the Waggoner, in astronomy,
a constellation of the northern hemisphere, This is the weight for the larger and consisting of 23 stars, according to Tycho, coarser commodities, such as groceries, 40 according to Hevelius, and 66 in the cheese, wool, lead, &c. Bakers who live Britannic Catalogue. This constellation is not in corporation-towns, are to make their represented by the figure of an old man, in bread by avoirdupois weight, those in cor a posture somewbat like sitting, with a goat porations, by troy weight. Apothecaries and her kids in his left hand, and a bridle in buy by avoirdupois weight, but sell by troy. his right. The avoirdupois ounce is less than the troy AURORA borealis, or AURORA septenounce, in the proportion of 700 to 768 ; but trionulis, in physiology, the northern dawn the avoirdupois pound is greater than the
or light, sometimes called streamers, is an troy pound in the proportion of 700 to 576, extraordinary meteor, or luminous appearor as 17 to 14 nearly: for
ance, shewing itself in the night-time in the
northern part of the heavens: and most 1 lb. avoirdupois = 7000 grains troy.
usually in frosty weather. It is usually of 1 lb. troy ... .........=5760
a reddish colour, inclining to yellow, and 1 oz. avoirdupois = 4371..... do.
sends out frequent corruscations of pale light, 1 oz. troy....... = 480
which seem to rise from the horizon in a AVOWEE, one who has a right to pre- great velocity up to the zenith. The au
pyramidal undulating form, and shoot with sent to a benefice. See Advowson.
rora borealis appears frequently in form of AURELIA, in natural history, a term an arch, chiefly in the spring and autumn, formerly employed by naturalists to express after a dry year. The arch is partly bright, that intermediate state in which all lepidop- partly dark, but generally transparent; terous, and most other insects, remain for and the matter of which it consists is also some time, between the caterpillar form and found to have no effect on the rays of light the period in which they are furnished with which pass through it. Dr. Hamilton obwings, with antennæ, and other organs ap- serves, that he could lainly discern the pertaining to the perfect insect. Aurelia smallest speck in the Pleiades through the and crysalis are synonymous words, both al- density of those clouds which formed the luding to the golden splendour of the case in aurora borealis in 1763, without the least which the creature, during that state, is diminution of its splendour, or increase of contained. This brilliant appearance seems twinkling. to be confined to the Papilio tribe, so that This kind of meteor, which is more unthe terms anrelia and chrysalis are altoge common as we approach towards the equather inapplicable, in a general manner, to tor, is almost constant during the long wininsects in that state. These terms are now ter, and appears with the greatest lustre in discarded in favour of the more expressive the polar regions. In the Shetland isles, one pupa, which Linnæus has adopted in the “merry dancers,” as the northern lights their stead; a term which implies that the are there called, are the constant atteninsect, like an infant, remains in its swaddling dants of clear evenings, and afford great clothes.
relief amidst the gloom of the long winter - AURICLE, in anatomy, that part of the nights. They commonly appear at twilight, ear which is prominent from the head, cal near the horizon, of a dun colour, approachled by many authors auris externa.
ing to yellow; they sometimes continue, AURICLES of the heart. These are a kind in that state for several hours, without any of appendages of the heart at its base, and perceptible motion; and afterwards they are distinguished by the names of the right break out into streams of stronger light, and left. The right auricle is much larger spreading into columns, and altering slowly than the left, and this is placed in the hinder, into 10,000 different shapes, and varying