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toothed; corolla four-petalled; berry one monly cultivated in Europe. The varieties seeded; female nectary none; nut one, mentioned above have been long known, celled. One species, a large tree of Ja- and others have been introduced, as the pan.

Poland, the Friesland or Dutch, and the AUDIENCE, is the name of a court of Siberian or Tartarian oat. The blue oat is justice established in the West Indies by probably what is called Scotch greys. The the Spaniards, answering in effect to the white sort is most common about London, parliaments of France.

and those countries where the inhabitants These courts take in several provinces, live much upon oat cakes, as it makes the called also audiences, from the names of the whitest meal. The black is more cultivated tribunal to which they belong.

in the northern parts of England, as it is AUDIENCE is also the name of an ecclesi- esteemed a hearty food for horses. The red astical court, held by the archbishop of Can- oat is much cultivated in Derbyshire, Stafterbury, wherein differences upon elections, fordshire, ard Cheshire ; it is a very hardy consecrations, institutions, marriages, &c. sort, and gives a good increase. The straw are heard.

is of a brownish red colour, very heavy, and AUDITORY nerves, in anatomy, a pair esteemed better food for horses than either of nerves arising from the medulla oblon. of the former sorts. In Lincolnshire they gata, with two trunks, the one of which is cultivate the sort called the Scotch greys. called the portio dura, hard portion; the The Poland oat has a short plump grain, but other portio mollis, or soft portion. See the thickness of the skin seems to have ANATOMY.

brought it into disrepute among farmers. AVENA, in botany, oat-grass ; class Tri- Add to this the straw is very short. It was andria Digynia ; natural order, Gramina. sown by Mr. Lisle in 1709. Friesland or Generic character: calyx, glume generally Dutch oat affords more straw, and is thinmany-flowered, two-valved, loosely collect. ner skinned, and the grains mostly double. A ing the flowers; valves lanceolate, acute, white oat, called the potatoe oat in Cumberventricose, loose, large, awnless ; corolla land, where it was lately discovered, protwo-valved; lower valve harder than the mises, from the size of the grain and the length calyx; the size of the calyx roundish, ventri- of the straw, to be the most valuable we cose, acuminate at both ends, emitting from possess; it is now very generally bought for the back an awn, spirally twisted, reflex; sowing. The oat is a very profitable grain, nectary two-leaved ; leaflets lanceolate, gib- and a great improvement to many estates bous at the base ; stamina filaments three, in the North of England, Scotland, and capillary; anthers oblong, forked; pistil

. Wales ; for it will thrive in cold barren germ obtuse : styles two, reflex, hairy; soils, which will produce no other sort of stigma simple ; pericarp none; corolla most grain; it will also thrive on the hottest firmly closed, grows to the seed and does land; in short, there is no soil too rich or not gape ; seed one, slender, oblong, accu too poor, too hot or too cold for it; and in minate at both ends, marked with a longi- wet harvests, when other grain is spoiled, tudinal furrow. There are many species, this will receive little or no damage. The of which we notice A. sativa, cultivated meal of this grain makes a tolerably good oat. Of this there are four varieties, the bread, and is the common food of the counwhite, black, brown, or red, and the blue try people in the north. It is also esteemed bat; panicled; calyxes two-seeded; seeds for pottage and other messes, and in some very smooth, one-awned ; annual; culm or places they make beer with it. The best straw upwards of two feet high ; panicle time for sowing oats is in February or various in different varieties, but always March, according as the season is early or loose and pendulous ; the two glumes or late. The black and red oats may be sown chaffs of the calxy are marked with lines, a month earlier than the white, because pointed at the end, longer than the flower, they are hardier. The advantage of early and unequal; there are usually two flowers, sowing is proved by experiment. White and seeds in each calyx; they are alternate, oats sown the last week in May have proconical, the smaller one is awnless, the duced seven quarters the acre; and in Hert. larger puts forth a strong, two-coloured, fordshire they do not sow them till after bent awn, from the middle of the back. they have done sowing barley, which is No botanist has been able to ascertain satis- found to be a good practice; this oat being factorily the native place of growth of this, or more tender than the others. Mr. Marshall indeed of any other sort of grain now com. mentious the blowing of the sallow as a

direction for the sowing of this grain. He frequently on the trunk itself, below the says, “most people allow foar bushels of leaves. The flower resembles that of the oats to an acre, but I am convinced that geranium; but the fruit is totally different : it three bushels are more than enough; the is a poma, five-celled, and containing many usual produce is about 25 bushels to an seeds. The A. bilimbi is described as a acre, though I have sometimes known more beautiful tree, with green flesh fruit, filled than 30." But 40 bushels and more are with a grateful acid juice: the substance certainly no unusual crop.

and seeds not unlike those of a cucumber: AVERAGE, in commerce, signifies the it grows from top to bottom, at all the knots accidents and misfortunes which happen to and branches. A syrup is made of the ships and their cargoes, from the time of juice, and a conserve of the flowers. their loading and sailing to their return and

AVES, birds, the name of the second unloading; and is divided into three kinds: class of animals, according to the Linnæan 1. The simple or particular average which system. They have been described as aniconsists in the extraordinary expenses in- mals having a body covered with feathers curred for the ship alone, or for the mer and down ; jaws protracted and naked: chandizes alone. Such is the loss of anchors, two wings, formed for flight, and two feet. masts, and rigging, occasioned by the com- They are aereal, vocal, swift, and light, and mon accidents at sea; the damages which destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrohappened to merchandize by storm, prize, tum, womb, bladder, epiglottis

, corpus calloshipwreck, wet, or rotting; all which must

sum and its arch, and diaphragm. The feathers be borne and paid by the thing which suf are disposed over each other in the form of fered the damage. 2. The large and com a quincunx, intermixed with down, distinct mon average being those expenses incurred, from the quill and tail feathers, convex and damages sustained for the common good above, concave beneath, narrower on the and security both of the merchandizes and outside, lax at the fore-end, hollow and vessels, consequently to be borne by the horny at the base, with a central pith, and ship and cargo, and to be regulated upon furnished on each side the elongated shaft the whole. Of this number are the goods with parallel, approximate, distinct, and or money given for the ransom of the ship flat laminæ, composing the vane ; they vary and cargo, things thrown over-board for the

in colour according to age, sex, season, or safety of the ship, the expenses of unlading climate, except the quill and tail feathers, for entering into a river or harbour, and the which are more constant and chiefly chaprovisions and hire of the sailors when the racteristic. The eggs are various in numship is put under an embargo. 3. The small ber, size, and colour, but always covered 'averages which are the expenses for towing with calcareous shell, deposited in an artiand pilotting the ship out, off, or into har- ficial nest, and hatched by the genial warmth bours, creeks, or rivers, one third of which

of the parent. The body is oval, termimust be charged to the ship, and two-thirds nated by a heart-shaped rump, and furnished to the cargo.

all over with aereal receptacles communiAverage is more particularly used for a cating with the lungs or throat, necessary certain contribution that merchants make

for flight or song, and which may be filled proportionably towards their losses. It also

or emptied at pleasure ; the rump has two signifies a small duty which those merchants glands, secretiug an unctuous fluid, which who send goods in another man's ship pay is pressed out by the bill to anoint the disto the master for his care of them, over and composed parts of the feathers ; the bill is above the freight. Hence it is expressed horny, extending from the head, either in the bills of lading, paying so much freight hooked at the end for tearing the prey, or for the said goods with primage and aver slender for searching in the mire, or flat and age accustomed.

broad for gobbling; and is used for building AVERRHOA, in botany, a genus of the nests, feeding the young, climbing, or as Decandria Pentagynia class of plants, whose an instrument of offence and defence ; eyes flower consists of five lanceolated petals, lateral, furnished with orbits, and nictitant the fruit is an apple of a turbinated and ob- membrane ; ears truncate without auricles ; tuse pentagonal figure, containing five cells, wings compressed, consisting of moveable wherein are disposed angular seeds, sepa- joints, and covered with quills and feathers ; rated by membranes. There are two species, legs placed usually near the centre of gratrees, natives only of India, and other warm vity, with toes and claws of various shapes ; parts of Asia: singular for the fruit growing tail serving as the rudder or director of the

are

body, they are nostly monogamous, or live noticed in their proper places. The orders in single pairs, and migrate into milder climates, upon defect of food or warmth, and 1. Accipitres or rapacious kind, a few become torpid in winter. The generic 2. Picæ or pye kind. characters are taken from the bill, tongue, 3. Anseres or duck kind. nostrils, ceræ, caruncles, and other naked 4. Grallæ or crane kind. parts. See Plate I. Aves.

5. Gallinæ or poultry kind. Fig. 1, a. Spurious or bastard wings ; 6. Passeres or sparrow kind. b. lesser coverts of the winys, which are We may observe with regard to this class small feathers that lie in several rows on the of animals, the admirable contrivances bones of the wings; c. greater wing coverts throughout the whole of their structure, for or feathers that lie immediately over the promoting their boyancy in air, for enabling quill feathers ; d. scapulars, which take their them to move with celerity, and 'for dirise from the shoulders, and cover the sides recting their course. Their covering is of of the back ; e. primary quill-feathers, that the lightest kind; yet the down with which rise from the first bone; f. secondary quill- they are supplied under their feathers is the feathers, or those that rise from the second warmest that could be devised; for in conbone; g. tertials, which likewise take their sequence of the air entangled as it were in rise from the second bone, forming a conti- its interstices, it is one of the slowest connuation of the secondaries, and seem to do ductors of heat. The outer feathers, by the same with the scapulars that lie over their slanting disposition, and their natural them; these feathers are so long in some of oiliness, form a complete shelter to the the scolopax and tringą genera, that when body from wet; and the hollow structure the bird is flying, they give it the appear of the wing feathers, by increasing their ance of having four wings; h. rump; bulk without increasing their weight, reni. tail-coverts; k. tail-feathers; I. shoulders; ders them more buoyant in the air. mn. crown; n, front; o. bind-head; p. nape; The whole form of the body is adapted 9. chin ; r, throat; 8. scrag or neck above; to its flying with ease and celerity; the t. interscapular region; u. vent.

small head and sharp bill for diminishing the Fig. 2. a. Upper mandible; b. lower resistance of the air; the greater muscular mandible; c. a tooth-like process; d. front- strength, as well as an expansion of the let; e. front; f. crown; c. hind-head; wings, for impelling its body forward with h. nape; i. lores; k. temples; l. cheeks; celerity; and the broad feathers of the m. chin; n. bristles at the base of the tail, moveable in almost every direction, bill.

for steering its course like the rudder of a Fig. 3. a. A bill with the upper mandible slip. hooked at the point, and furnished with a The disposition of the lungs along the tooth-like process; b. the cere or naked back-bone, and their communications with skin which covers the base of the bill, and the cells in the bones of the wings, thighs, in which are placed the nostrils ; c. orbits, and breast, by admitting air in almost every or skin, which surrounds tlie eye: it is ge- part of the body, increases the buoyancy nerally bare, but particularly in the parrot of the whole, and enables the bird to exist and herov,

longer without breathing, which must be in Fig. 4. A fat bill pectinate at the edges, a great measure impeded, if not suspended, and furnished at the tip with a claw or during some of its rapid flights. pail.

It has been observed, that the brilliancy Fig. 5. A foot formed for perching, hay. of the plumage in the feathered tribe is ing three toes before and one behind. only to be looked for in the warmer re

Fig. 6. A walking foot, having a spur on gions of Asia and Africa ; but whoever has thie heel.

seen the beautiful king-fisher dart along the Fig. 7. A climbing foot, having two toes sbaded brook, cannot allow that our own before and two behind.

country has nothing to boast in the brilFig. 8. A palmate or webbed foot.

liancy of its birds. The crimson crown Fig. 9. A semi-palmate or half-webbed and variety of colours of the great woodfoot.

pecker, the beautiful bars of black, blue, Fig. 10. A pinnate or finned foot. and white on the greater wing-coverts of Fig. 11. A lobate foot.

the jay, and the elegant plumage of the There are six orders of birds, each of pheasant, as well as the extreme beauty of which contains several genera that will be the roller, and the Bohemian chatterer,

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