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and suddenly contracting near the tail, parts of England; the Christopher with
which is short and slightly acuminate. A. white berrries, a native of America ; and
dubius, which very nearly resembles the that with red berries. The racemosa, or
javanicus, except that the head is covered black snake-root, found also in America, of
with very minute, rough, and warted scales, which the root is much used in many disor.
differing in size alone from those on the ders, and is supposed to be an antidote
other part of the animal. The dubius mea against the bite of the rattle-snake. The
sures only about three feet in length. A leaves of the A. aspera, being extremely
specimen is to be seen in the British Mu- rough, the Chinese use them in polishing
seum. Its native place is not ascertained. their tin ware.
A. fasciatus, resembles the dubius so much, ACTINIA, in natural history, a genus of
that some naturalists suppose them both to the Mollusca order of wornis; the charac-
be of the same species, and differing only ters of which are, body oblong, cylindrical,
in age and cast of colours. The specimen fleshy, contractile, fixed by the base ; mouth
in the British Museum is about eighteen terminal, expansile, surrounded with nu-
inches long. See plate Serpentes, fig. 1. merous cirri, and without any aperture.

ACRONICHAL, or ACHRONYCAL, in There are 36 species. These marine ani. astronomy, an appellation given to the ris- mals are viviparous, and have no aperture ing of a star above the horizon, at sunset; but the mouth. They feed on shell-fislı, or to its setting, when the sun rises. Acroé and other marine animals, which they draw nichal is one of the three poetical risings of in with their feelers, in a short time rejecta star; the other two being called cosmical ing through the same aperture the shells and helical.

and indigestible parts. They assume various This term is also applied to the superior forms ; and where the tentacula or feelers planets Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars, when

are all expanded, have the appearance of they are come to the meridian of midnight. full-blown flowers. Many of them are eat

ACROSTERMUM, in botany, a genus able, and some of them very sapid.
of the Cryptogamia Fungi class and order; ACTINOLITE, in mineralogy, a family,
fungus quite simple, nearly erect, emitting comprehending six species, viz. the actino-
the seeds exteriorly from the top. There lite, smaragdite, tremolite, cyanite, saylite,
are four species.

and schalstone. The actinolite occurs ACROSTICUM, rusty-back, wall-rue, or chiefly in beds in primitive mountains, and is forked-fern, in botany, a genus of the Cryp- divided into three sub-species, viz. the astogamia Filices; the character of which is

, bestos, common, and glassy. The asbestos that the fructifications cover the whole in- colours greenish grey, mountain green, ferior surface of the leaf. There are 45 smelt blue, olive green, yellowish, and liverspecies distributed into different classes. brown, Massive, and in capillary crystals, Few of the species have been introduced Soft; brittle; specific gravity 2.5 to 2.9. into gardens. Those of Europe may be Melts before the blow.pipe. The usual copreserved in pots, filled with gravel and Tour of the common is leek green, but its Lirne-rubbish, or planted on walls, and arti- specific gravity is between 3.0 and 3.3. fcial rocks; but most of them being natives The principal colour of the glassy is mounof very hot climates, must be planted in tain green, passing to the emerald green. pots, and plunged into the bark pit. Specitic gravity 2.9 to 3.9.

ACTEA, in botany, a genus of plants of ACTION, in mechanics and physics, is the Polyandria Monogynia class and order. the pressure or percussion of one body Gen. character ; calyx perianth, four-leaved; against another. leaflets roundish, obtuse, concave, cadu

It is one of the laws of nature, that cous; cor. petals four, aceuminate to both action and re-action are equal, that is, ends, larger than the calyx; filaments about the resistance of the body moved is always S0 ; germ superior ovate; no stile ; stigma equal to the force communicated to it; or, thickish, obliquely depressed; pericarp a which is the same thing, the moving body berry, oval-globose, smooth, one-furrowed, loses as much of its force, as it communi. one celled; seeds very many, semi-orbicular, cates to the body moved. lying over each other in two rows. There are If a body be urged by equal and contrary four species, viz. the spicata; racemosa ; ja. actions or pressures, it will remain at rest. ponica, and aspera ; of the first there are But if one of these pressures be greater than varieties, as the black-berried herb Christo- its opposite, motion will ensue toward the pher, or bane-berry, found in the northern parts least pressed.

It is to be observed, that the actions of thing demanded as against the person whe bodies on each other, in a space that is car. has it; and on which the thing is recoried uniformly forward, are the same as if vered with damages for the wrong sus. the space were at rest: and any powers or tained; such is an action of waste, sued motions that act upon all bodies, so as to pro. against a tenant for life, the place wasted duce equal velocities in them in the same, being recoverable, with treble damages for or in parallel right lines, have no effect on the wrong done. their mutual actions, or relative motions. ACTS of parliament, statutes, acts,edicts, Thus the motion of bodies aboard a ship, made by the king, with the advice and that is carried steadily and unitormly for consent of the lords spiritual and temward, are performed in the same manner as poral, and commons, in parliament assemif the ship was at rest. The motion of the bled. An act of parliament is the highest earth round its axis has no effect on the ac possible authority, and hath power to bind tions of bodies and agents at its surface, but not only every subject, but the king himself, so far as it is not unitorm and rectilineal. if particularly named therein, and cannot In general, the actions of bodies upon each be altered or repealed but by the same auother depend pot on their absolute, but re thority. Where the common law and the latire motion.

statute law differ; the common law gives Action, in law, denotes either the place to the statute, and an old statute right of demanding, in a legal manner, what gives place to a new one. Penal statutes is any man's due, or the process brought must be construed strictly; thus a statute for the recovering the same.

of Edw. I, having enacted, that those conActions are either criminal or civil. victed of stealing horses should not have

Criminal actions are to have judgment of the benefit of clergy, the judges conceived death, as appeals of death, robbery, &c. that this did not extend to him that should or only judgment for damage to the in- steal but one horse, and a new act for jured party, fine to the king, and imprison- that purpose was passsd in the following ment.

year. Statutes against frauds are to be liUnder the head of criminal actions may berally and beneficially expounded. One likewise be ranked penal actions, which part of a stutute must be construed by anlie for some penalty or punishment on the other, that the whole may, if possible, stand. party sued, whether it be corporal or pe- A saviug clause totally repngnant to the body cuniary.

of the act. If a statute that repeals anAlso actions upon the statute, brought on other is itself repealed afterwards, the first breach of any stutute, or act of parlia- statute is hereby revived. Acts of parliament, by which an action is given that did

ment derogatory from the power of subsenot lie before; as where a person commits quent parliainents bind not.

Acts of parperjury to the prejudice of another, the in- liament that are impossible to be performed jured party shall have an action upon the are of'no validity. statute. And lastly, popular actions, so

ACULEATE, or ACULEATED, an appel. called, because any person may bring them lation given to any thing that has aculei, on behalf of himself and the crown, by in

or prickles: thus fishes are divided into formation, &c. for the breach of some penal those with aculeated and not acnleated statute.

fins. Civil actions are divided into real, per

The same term is applied, in botany, to sonal, and mixed.

the stems and branches of those plants that Real action is that whereby a man claims are furnished with prickles, as the rose, the a title, lands, tenements, &c. in fee, or for raspberry, and barberry trees. The prickle life, and this action is either possessory, or 'differs from the thorn, which is another spe. ancestral; possessory, where the lands are cies of armature, or defence, against ani. a person's own possession or seisin; ances mals, in being only a prolongation of the tral, when they were of the possession or cortex or outer bark of the plant, and not seisin of his ancestors.

connected with nor protruded from the Personal action, is one brought by one man wood. This is apparent from the ease with against another, upon any contract for mo which such prickles are detached from the ney or goods, or on account of trespass, or stem with the bark, while the other, and other offence committed; and thereby the more rigid species of weapon, being an ex. debt, goods, chattels, &c. claimed.

pansion of the ligneous body, cannot be de.. Mixt action, one lying as well for the tached without rendering and tearing the


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substance of the wood. Prickles are either Additions of estate are yeoman, gentle-
straight, as in the solanum indicum : or mad, esquire, and the like.
bent inwards, as in the mimosa cineraria ; Additions of mystery, or trade, are car-
or bent outwards; or downy, that is, co- penter, mason, painter, engraver, and the
vered with a sort of wool. See TOMENTUM. like.

ACUMINATE, in natural history, a term Additions of place, or residence, are Lon-
applied to fishes whose tails end in a sharp don, Edinburgh, Bristol, York, Glasgow,

Aberdeen, &c.
AD, a Latin preposition, expressing the

These additions were ordained to prevent
relation of one thing to another.

one man's being grieved, or molested, for
It is frequently prefixed to cther words: another; and that every person might be

certainly known, so as to bear his own
Ad hominem, among logicians, an argu- burden.
ment drawn from the professed belief or If a man is of different degrees, as duke,
principles of those with whom we argue.

earl, &c. he shall have the most worthy; and
Ap talorem, among the officers of the the title of knight, or baronet, is part of the
king's revenue, a term used for such duties, party's name, and therefore onght to be
or customs, as are paid according to the va- rightly used; whereas that of esquire, or
lue of the goods sworn to by the owner. gentleman, being as people please to call

ADAGIO, in music, signifies the second them, may be used, or not, or varied at
degree of music from slow to quick. It is pleasure.
applied to music not only meant to be per-

A Peer of Ireland is no addition of honour
formed in slow time, but also with grace and here; nay, the law-addition to the children

of British noblemen is only that of esquire,
ADAMANTINE spar, in mineralogy, commonly called lord.
one of the species of the ruby family, found Writs without the proper additions, if ex.
only in China. Colour dark hair brown. cepted to, shall abate; only where the pro-
Massive, crystallized in six-sided prisms, and cess of outlawry doth not lie, additions are
six-sided pyramids, having their apex trun not necessary. The addition of a parish,
cated. Specific gravity 3.98. See Ruby. not in any city, must mention the county,

ADAMBEA, in botany, a genus of the otherwise it is not good.
Polyandria Monogynia class and order, of Addition, in heraldry, something added
which there is but a single species, which to a coat of arms, as a mark of honour; and
grows on the coast of Malabar, in sandy and therefore directly opposite to abatement,
stony places; rises to about seven feet, and

ADDUCTOR, in anatomy, a general
sends forth branches which are terminated name for all such muscles as serve to draw
by panicles of fine purple flowers, large and one part of the body towards another. See
resembling roses.

ADANSONIA, in botany, a genus of the

ADELIA, in botany, a genus of the
Monadelphia order, and Polyandria class, Dioecia Gynandria class and order. Male :
named after Michael Adanson, an indefa- calyx three parted; no corolla; stamina
tigable French naturalist. The A. digitata, numerous; united at the base. Female:
Ethiopean sour-gourd, or monkies' bread, calyx five parted; no corolla ; styles three,
called also abavo, is the only species known lacerated. Capsule three-grained.
of this genus.

ADENANTHERA, in botany, a genus

of the Decandria Monogynia class of plants,
ADDITION, in arithmetic, the first of the calyx of which is a single-leaved perian-
the four fundamental rules of that art, where. thium, very small

, and cut into five seg. by we find a sum equal to several smaller ments : the corolla consists of five lanceoones. See ALGEBRA and ARITHMETIC. lated bell-shaped petals; the fruit is a long

Additions, in law, denote all manner of membranaceous compressed pod, containing desigrations given to a man, over and above several round seeds.

There are three his proper name and surname, to show of species: A. paronina, which is one of the what estate, degree, mystery, place of abode, largest trees in the East Indies. Its dura. &c. he is.

tion is 200 years, and its timber is much Additions of degree are the same with used on account of its solidity: the powder titles of honour or dignity, as knight, lord, of the leaves is used in their religious cereearl, dike, &c.

monies; the seeds are eaten, and also valued

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as weights, being each of them four grains. his celebrated experiments on adliesion, in This species must be raised on a hot-bed presence of the Dijon Academy, demonstratfrom seeds. It has never flowered in Eng- ing, as indeed Hauksbee had done before land: it is of very slow growth. The other him, not only that water ascends between species, viz. the A. falcata, and A. scandens, two parallel plates of tallow, separated from have not been cultivated in this country. each other of a line, but also that the at

ADENIA, in botany, a genus of the Hex- mospheric pressure is not in the least degree andria Monogynia class and order, that the cause of the phenomenon, which is solely grows in Arabia. There is but one species, attributable to attraction : in proof of this, which is mentioned by Forskal, in his Flor. a polished disk of glass, 30 lines in diame.. Ægypt. He says that the powder of the ter, was suspended to the arm of a balance, young branches mixed in any kind of liquor and brought into contact with a surface of is a strong poison, and that the capparis spi- mercury; the counterpoise required to sepanosa is an antidote to it.

rate it was equivalent to 9 gros and a few ADFECTED equations, in algebra, those grains, and upon moving the apparatus into wherein the unknown quantity is found the receiver of an air-pump, and forming as in two or more different powers: such is perfect a vacuum as possible, precisely the x? - ax? + bx=alb.

same counterpoise was required as before, ADHESION, in philosophy and che In the prosecution of his inquiries on this mistry, is a term generally made use of to subject, he observed, that the same disk of express the property which certain bodies glass, which, when in contact with pure have of attracting to themselves other bo- water, adhered to it with a force equal to dies, or the force by which they adhere to 258 grains, required a counterpoise of only gether: thus, water adheres to the finger, 210, in order to separate it from a solution mercury to gold, &c. Hence arises an im- of potash, notwithstanding the superior denportant distinction between two words, that sity of this last. This inequality of effects in a loose and popular sense are often con on equal diameters, and in an inverse order founded. Adhesion denotes an union to a to that of the respective specific gravities of certain point between two dissimilar sub- the two fluids, appeared not only to be destances, and cohesion that which retains to cisive in favour of Dr. Taylor's method, but gether the component particles of the same to encourage the hope of applying it to the mass. See Cohesion.

calculation of chemical affinities. Adhesion may take place either between In order to verify this proposition, plates two solids, as two hemispheres of glass,which, of the different metals in their highest státe according to an experiment of Desaguliers, of purity were procured, perfectly round, an adhere to each other with a force equal to inch in diameter, of the same thickness, well 19 ounces on a surface of contact one-tenth polished, and furnished with a small ring in of an inch in diameter; or between solids the centre of each, so as to keep them susand fluids, as the suspension of water in ca. pended precisely parallel to the plane of the pillary tubes; or lastly, between two fluids, horizon. Each of these plates was in turn as oil and water. About the same time suspended to the arm of an assay balance, Mr. Hauksbee proved experimentally the and exactly counterpoised by weights placed error which Bernoulli had fallen into, in at in the scale attached to the opposite arm; tributing the adhesion of surfaces and capil- the plate, thus balanced, was applied to the lary attraction to the pressure of the atmos surface of some mercury in a cup, about two phere. Nevertheless, in 1772, M. M. La lines beneath it, by sliding the plate over the grange and Cigna, taking for granted a na mercury as in the silvering of mirrors, so as, tural repulsion between water and oily to exclude every bubble of air ; weighits substances, imagined, if there was an adhe were then successively added, till the adhe. sion between water and oil, or tallow, thatsion between the plate and mercury was bro, it must be occasioned by a cause different ken. Freshı mercury was used for each experifrom attraction: and having ascertained the ment. The following is the table of results : reality of the adhesion, they concluded that Gold adheres to mercury with it was occasioned by the pressure of the air, a force equal to...

446 grains, and that Dr. Taylor's method was not well Silver ....

429 founded.

Tin........ Such as the state of opinions on the sub- Lead

397 ject, when, in 1773, Guyton Morveau made Bismuth.



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