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port their own entablatures, which must be can be introduced except those of a polythe consequence in insulated columns.
gonal form, which present their interior When the front of a building is to have angles to the horizontal cornice, or the extetwo or more orders in the altitude, the suc rior ones upwards. To find the pitch of the cession ought to be complete, otherwise the pediment Vitruvius directs as follows: diharmony will be destroyed by the violent vide between the extremities of the cymacontrast of the parts. When columns are tium of the corona into nine equal parts, attached, a recedure of the superior order and one makes the height of the tympanum; will not offend the eye in any great degree, but this rule is not correct, as the tympa. nor will the solidity of the structure be im
num will vary its angles according as there paired : this is to be seen in the theatre of are more or less mouldings of the inclined Marcellus ; but when the stories of orders cornices within the extremities of the cyare insulated, it is necessary that the axis of matium of the corona; for since the midthe superior and inferior columns should be dle part by this rule is invariable, and the in the same vertical lines. If the upper or broader the parts are of the inclined corder only insists in the middle of that below nices within each extremity of the cymain two equidistant parts from the middle, tium of the coroua, or rather within the the portions of the entablature of the lower under edge of the fillet of the sima upon order in which there is no superior order each inclined cornice, the less is the base of are generally finished with a balustrade, the tympanum, and consequently the verlevel with the sills of the windows.
tical angle less obtuse, and the base angles In England we have few examples of less acute; but if this height extended to more than two ranges of columns in the the meeting of the two under sides of the same front; for when there are three, it is fillets of the sima, or crowning moulding, difficult to preserve the character of each then the figure of the tympanum would be order in the intercolumnial decorations, invariable. The Vitruvian rule has been without some striking defects. The first thought by many to be too low; but it is to and second orders should stand upon a be recollected, that that of the Parthenon plinth, and the third also when there is one; at Athens, which has an octostyle portico, is the point of view regulating the two upper nearly of this proportion ; that of the temple plinths. In this case pedestals should be of Theseus, which has an hexastyle portico, omitted in the upper orders, and if there is about one-eighth; that of the Ionic is one, or a balustrade under the windows, temple on the Ilyssus, and of the Doric the base and cornice should have but a small portico, which are both tetrastyle, are about projection, and should be continued to pro- one-seventh; the tympanum of the pedi. file upon the sides of the columns. In raising ment of the door on the Tower of the stories of arcades upon each other, with or Winds is about one-fifth of the span. The ders decorating the piers, the inferior co edifices here mentioned are all Athenian lumns should be placed upon a plinth, and the buildings. From this comparison it would superior ones upon a pedestal, in order that appear, that a kind of reciprocal ratio subthe arches may obtain a just proportion. sists between the extension of the base of
Pediments. A pediment is a part of a the tympanum, and its height. Indeed, if building having a horizontal cornice below, a fixed ratio were applied to windows, the and two equally inclined ones, or an arched pediment would frequently consist of a cornice above, joined at the extremities of cornice without the tympanum. It is therethe horizontal one; the cornices including a fore with great reason that we often make plane surface within, called the tympanum, the pitch of pediments of windows more which is therefore either a triangle or the than those which crown porticos, or the segment of a circle.
fronts of buildings. The plinths by which This detinition does not comprehend pediments are sometimes decorated are every species of pediments which have been called acroterions, or acroters: the two absurdly introdnced; but it may be said to which present triangular faces at the exbe the only genuine one, as pediments 're tremes, have their heiglits, according to present the ends of roofs, and were origi. Vitruvius, half of that of the tympanum, and nally intended to discharge the rain from the middle one saddled on the summit is the middle of the building, by compelling it one-eighth part higher than those at the ex. to descend and fall over the flanks or ex tremes. Pediments owe their origin most tremes, and not over the front, which must probably to the inclined roofs of primitive be the case with every other figure that huts. Among the Romans they were only
used as coverings to their sacred buildings, employed in parapets, on the margins of till Cæsar obtained leave to cover his house stairs, or before windows, or to inclose terwith a pointed roof, after the manner of races or other elevated places of resort, or temples. In Grecian antiqnity we meet on the sides of the passage way of bridges. only with triangular pediments, and in Ro- It is remarkable, that there are no remains
man buildings we meet with both the tri- of balusters to be seen in any ancient buildi angular and circular. In rows of openings, ing. In the theatres and amphitheatres of
or niches, both kinds of pediments were the Romans the pedestals of the upper oremployed in the same range, and disposed ders were always continued through the in alternate succession. The horizontal arcades, to serve as a parapet for the speccornices of pediments should never be dis tators to lean over. The lowermost seats continued, as may be seen in many of the next to the arena in the amphitheatres, and street houses of London, in order to give those next to the orchestra in the theatres, room for a fan light, and to lessen the ex were guarded by a parapet or podium. The penses of the frontispiece, by introducing walls of ancient buildings generally termishorter columns and a less massy entabla- nated with the cornice itself, or with a ture: for since the horizontal cornice repre- blocking course, or with an Attic. In the sents the tie-beam, and the inclined ones the monument of Lysicrates at Athens, which is rafters, the columns will appear to have a a small beautiful building, the top is finished tottering effect by spreading them out at with fynials, composed of honeysuchles, the top beyond the extremities of their solid behind, and open between each pair bases.
of fynials : each plant or fynial is bordered Vitruvius observes, that the Greeks never with a curved head, and the bottom of each used mutules, modillions, or dentils, in the interval with an inverted curve. Perhaps front, in which the end of the roof, or fasti- terminations of this nature might have been gium, appears, because that the ends of the employed in many other Grecian buildings, rafters and the ends of the laths wbich sup as some coins seem to indicate; but this is port the tiles only appear at the eaves of the only existing example of the kind. The the building. Now, as mutules and dentils temples in Greece are mostly finished with originated from the projecting ends of the the cornice itself. This was also the case rafters and laths, following the course of na with many of the Roman temples; but as ture, it would have been absurd to intro- there are no remains of balustrades in anduce them into the pediment.
cient buildings, their antiquity may be However just this reasoning appears, we doubted: they are, however, represented in find from the remains of Grecian antiquity the works of the earliest Italian writers, this assertion only verified in the inclined who perhaps may have seen them in the cornices of the pediment: for mutules are ruins of Roman edifices. When a balustrade constantly employed in the horizontal cor finishes a building, and crowns an order, its nice; but neither mntules, modillions, nor height should be proportioned to the archidentils, on the sloping sides : at least, when teclure it accompanies, making it never any of the edifices in Greece appear with more than four-fifths, nor less than twothose innovations, they were introduced thirds of the height of the order, withont during the time it was a province of the reckoning the zocholo, plinth, on which Roman empire. Of this practice at Rome it is raised, as the balustrade itself should be the Pantheon and the frontispiece of Nero completely seen at a proper point of view. are examples of modillions; and the temple Balustrades that are designed for use should of Fortune one where dentils are used. In always be of the height of parapet walls, the inclined cornices of pediments the sides as they answer the same purpose, being of the modillions and dentils are planes per- nothing else than an ornamental parapet. pendicular to the horizon and to the front of This height should not exceed three feet the edifice; and in the same vertical planes and a half, nor be less than three feet. In with those of the modillions or dentils of the balusters, the plinth of the base, the the horizontal cornice.
most prominent part of the swell, and the Balustrades. A balustrade is a range of abacus of their capital, are generally in the small columns, called balusters, supporting same straight line: their distance should not a cornice, used as a parapet or as a screen exceed half the breadth of the abacus or to conceal the whole or a part of the roof: plinths, nor be less than one-third of this it is also sometimes used as a decoration for measure. On stairs or inclined planes the terminating the building. Balustrades are same proportions are to be observed as on
horizontal ones. It was formerly customary Doors. Doors are apertures in exterior to make the mouldings of the balusters fol. walls, used for passage into public and private low the inclination of the plane ; but this is buildings ; and in the interior for communidifficult to execute, and, when done, not cation from one apartment to another. In very pleasant to the eye: though in orna. the fourth book of Vitruvins rules are laid mental iron-work, where it is contined to a down for Doric, Ionic, and Attic doors, all general surface, passing perpendicularly by of which have apertures narrower at the top the ends of the steps, it has a very handsome than at the bottom. These trapazoidal appearance. The breadth of pedestals, closures of apertures have the property of when placed over an order, is regulated by shutting themselves, which, perhaps, might the top of the shafts, the die being always have occasioned the introduction of this equal thereto. When balustrades are placed form, and are useful in modern times for upon the entablature of an order, over the raising the door above the floor in the act of intercolumns or interpilasters, and the base opening, in order to keep it clear of the and cornice of the balustrade continued, so carpet. Examples of them are to be found as to break out and form pedestals over the among the ruins of ancient edifices; they columns or pilasters; the breadth of the have also been introduced by a few modern die of the pedestals should be equal to the architects. The apertures of doors of small breadth of the top of the shafts ; and where dimensions are most commonly closed with there is no order, the breadth of the die is lintels. Doors, in general, are regulated in never more than its height, and very seldom their apertures by the size of a man, so as narrower; and the dies of the pedestals are never to be smaller than that he might pass frequently flanked with balf dies, particu- freely through them; they are 'seldom less larly when the range of balusters is long. than two feet nine inches in width, by six This is not only apparently necessary, but feet six inches in height, except in confined is in reality useful in shortening the range, situations, and where utility is beyond any and forming a better support for the ends of other consideration. the rail.
Doors of entrance vary in their dimenAttics. An Attic is a part of a building sions according to the height of the story, standing on the cornice, similar in form to or magnitude of the building in which they that of a pedestal ; and is either broken or are placed. In small private houses four continued. The use of an attic is to con feet may be the greatest width, and in most ceal the roof, and to give greater dignity to cases three feet six inches will be sufficient. the design. The Romans employed attics The lintels of doors should range with those in their edifices, as may be seen in the of the windows; and the width of their remains of the triumphal arches, and piazza aperture should not be less than that of the of Nerva. In the arch of Constantine windows. A good proportion of doors is pedestals are raised over the columns as that where its dimensions has the ratio of high as the base of the attic, and these pedes- three to seven; their height should never tals are again surmounted with insulated be less than twice, nor more than twice and statues. In the ruins of Athens there are a half their breadth. In the entrance doors no attics to be found: there is one, how- of public edifices, where there is a freqnent ever, over a Corinthian colonade at Thes- ingress and egress of people, and often salonia, with breaks forming dwarf pilasters crowded, their width may be from six to over the columns; and with statues placed ten feet. Inside doors, or doors of commuon front of the pilasters, as in the arch of nication, should be in some measure proporConstantine. The attic carried round the tioned to the height of the stories; however, two courts of the great temple of Balbec is there is a certain limit for the dimensions of also broken into dwarf pilasters over the their apertures, which they should not excolumns and pilasters of the order; and the ceed; for the difficulty of shutting the door dwarf pilasters have blocking courses over will be increased by its magnitude ; therethem, on whick statues are supposed to bave fore the apertures of doors which are intendbeen placed. Attics are very dispropor- ed to shut in one breadth should never extional in the ruins of these ancient edifices; ceed three feet six inches. In palaces and some of them being nearly one-isalf of the in noblemen's houses, where much company height of the order. The moderns make resort, and in state apartments, all the doors their height equal to that of the entabla- are frequently thrown open : they are made ture; as to the proportion of the height of much larger than other doors, being from the members it may be the same as that fer four to six feet in width, with folding leaves. pedestals.
The proportion of the apertures of such
doors will often be of a less height than that manner of Grecian temples; sometimes the of twice the breadth, as all the rooms in the plan of the portico may be circular, which same story have a communication with one should never have less than three interanother, the whole of the doors in that columniations, as the entablature would apstory will have one common height. pear to overhang its base, in such a degree
The apertures of exterior doors placed in as to offend the eye of a beholder. blank arcades are regulated by the im
Windows. A window is an aperture in posts, the top of the aperture being gene a wall for the admission of light. The size rally made level with the springing of the of windows depends on the climate, the arch; or if the door bas dressings which in spect, the cubature, the proportion, the clude a cornice, the top of the cornice ought destination, and the thickness of the walls to be on the same level with the springing of the place to be lighted; as also on the of the arch. With regard to the situation of number and distribution of windows in the principal entrance, it is evident that the that place. It is not very easy, even with door should be in the middle, as it is not these data, to determine, with mathemationly more symmetrical, but will communi- cal exactness, the necessary quantity of cate more easily with all the parts of the light; but in private houses, were beauty building. In principal rooms doors of com- and proportion are required, the width of munication should at least be two feet dis- windows depends on the height of the printant from the walls if possible, that furniture cipal story; otherwise the apertures will be may be placed close to the door-side of the disproportionate figures of themselves, and room. The most common method of adorn- also to the whole facade in which they are ing doors is with an architrave surrounding placed. the sides of the aperture, or with the archi. The apertures of windows shonld not trave surmounted with a cornice forming an only be of shapely figures, and proportioned architrave cornice, or with the architrave to the building, but the piers also should, in frize and cornice forming a complete entab some measure, be regulated by the breadth lature. Sometimes the ends of the cornice of the apertures; at least, certain proporare supported with consoles, placed one on tionable limits of this breadth ought to be each side of the architrave; and each con- assigned to that of the piers, so as not to sole is most commonly attached to the head offend the eye by their being too clumsy of a pilaster; sometimes the surrounding
or too small, and at the same time permit a architrave is flanked with pilasters of the less or greater quantity of light, for a orders, or of some other analogical form. greater or less depth of rooms. As to the In this case, the projections of their bases size of the piers, considerable latitude may and capitals are always within that of the be taken ; but in general, they should not architrave: the architrave over the capitals be of less breadth than the apertures, nor of the pilasters is the same as that of the more than twice that breadth. In a small head of the door, and the parts exactly of building, with only three rooms and three the same height, and projections profiling windows in the length, the piers will necesupon the sides of the surrounding architrave. sarily be large. Sometimes, either with or without these In buildings with a great number of windressings, the door is also adorned with one dows in the length, where there are at of the five orders, or with columns support least three windows in one or more princi. ing a regular entablature, frequently sur- pal rooms; and where there are no breaks, mounted with a pediment. Doors are also the breadth of the piers may be from once sometimes adorned with rustics, which may the breadth of the window, to once and a either be smooth, batched, frosted, or ver half that breadth ; but if there are columns, miculated; but their outline must be sharp. pilasters, or breaks, the breadth of the The rustics are disposed in contiguity with pier may be from once to twice that of the each other, or are repeated by equal inter- apertures, according as the breadth of the vals: as to the shafts of columns the rustic pilasters or columns may require, so as to cinctures may either be cylindrical or with leave a proper repose of wall upon the rectangular faces. In doors with rectangu- sides. lar apertures and rusticated heads, the rus. The sills of windows should be from three tics are drawn from the vertex of an equila- feet to three feet six inches distant from teral triangle within the aperture. The en the level of the floor, forming a parapet for trance doors of grand houses are often leaning upon: these limits are the natural adorned with porticos, frequently in the heights of the breasts of windows ; but it
is now common, even in ordinary buildings, the front, an even number of windows to make them from two feet to two feet six would occasion a pier to be above the openinches high only. In noblemen's houses, ing of the door, contrary either to regularithe sills are frequently upon the same le- ty or to the laws of solidity; and in rooms vel with the floor, and sometimes rise a nothing is more gloomy than a pier opposite step or two higher. These circumstances the centre of the floor. Windows placed will alter the proportion of the windows, in blank arcades should have the under and make them much higher than the dou- sides of their lintels in the same horizontal ble square. The width of all the windows plane with the springing of the arch ; or if must be the same in the same façade; but the windows have a cornice, the springing the different heights of the stories will re of the arch ought to be carried as high as quire different heights of windows. Were the top of the cornice. it required to find the quantity of light for The aperture of the windows may be a room of given dimensions, it is evident from two-fifths to three-fourths of the that this will depend upon the area of the breadth of the arcade. In the principal inlet and the cubature of the room ; there- floor, the windows are generally ornafore, supposing that an aperture containing mented; the most simple kind of which is, 20 square feet is sufficient for a room 12 that with an architrave, surrounding the feet square and 10 feet high, that is, 1400 jambs and lintels of the aperture, and cubic feet, the quantity of light will easily crowned with a frize and cornice. In be ascertained for a room of any other cases where the aperture is high, in order given dimensions. Let a room be sup
to make the dressing of a good composiposed 25 feet long, 20 feet broad, and 14 tion, the sides of the architrave are frefeet high, the cubature will be 7000 feet; quently flanked with pilasters or consoles, then, because the cubature of rooms or with both; and sometimes with coshould be as the area of the inlets, the pro- lumns, when there is a set-off or proper portion will stand thus :
base, so as not to have a false bearing. 1410 : 7000 :: 20
When the principal rooms are in the one 20
pair of stairs, the windows of the ground
floor are sometimes left entirely plain, and 1440) 140000(97 the area of the in
at other times they are surrounded with an let required.
architrave; or the rusticated basement, 10400
where there is one, terminates upon their 10080
margins without any other finish. The win
dows in the third story are frequently plain, 320
and sometimes surrounded with an archiOr, instead of working the proposition,
trave. When the windows in the principal divide the cuhature of the room by 72, story have pediments, the windows of the thus :
story immediately above have frequently 72) 7000 (97 as before.
their surrounding architraves crowned
with a frize and cornice. The sills of all 648
the windows in the same floor should be 520
upon the same level. The sills of the win504
dows in the ground story should be elevated 16
five or six feet at the least above the pave
ment. In the exterior of every building, This quotient, divided into three parts, the same kind of finish or character should gives nearly 32 feet for each window, be preserved throughout the same story. which is very sufficient for light; and after Mixtures of windows should be avoided as deducting 12 feet, the breadth of three win much as possible; or where there is a nedows, 13 feet will remain for the four cessity for introducing Venetian windows, piers, which is a very good proportion : they ought to stand by themselves, as in there is also abundant room left for any breaks. kind of furnishing above the windows. Gates. A gate is an aperture in a wall,
An odd number of wiudows, either in the which serves for the passage of horsemen same length of front, or in the same length and carriages. They are employed as inof principal rooms, is always to be prefer lets to cities, fortresses, parks, gardens, red to an even number; for, since it is ne palaces, and all places to which there is a cessary to have the door in the middle of trequent resort of carriages. In gates which