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a building as a basement. In the buildings adorn the dies of pedestals with sunk panof the Greeks pedestals never obtained: nels, surrounded with mouldings : the panthe columns of their teniples generally stood nels are frequently charged with bas reliefs on the uppermost of three steps ; indeed or inscriptions. Projecting tablets should there is no existing example with any other never be admitted, as they are not only number than three, except the temple of clumsy, but confuse the contour. The dies Theseus at Athens, which had only two of the pedestals of the arches of Septimius and was supposed to have been erected to Severus and Constantine have straightan inferior deity : whatever innovations headed niches with statues. Pedestals took placc, were after Greece lost its inde- should never be insulated, though the copendence. The Romans in many of their lumns which stand upon them were insulattemples and other edifices, raised the floors ed. In the theatres and amphitheatres of so very high, that they were under the ne the ancients pedestals were used in all the cessity of discontinuing the front stairs, superior orders, while the inferior order which otherwise would have been found stood upon steps. They were employed inconvenient, in occupying too much ground for the purpose of forming a parapet for the around the edifice; and of adopting a pe- spectators to lean over, and for raising the destal, or podium, as a basement; which base of the superior order so bigh, as to be was raised as high as the stair, and pro seen upon a near approach to the building. jected to the front of the steps which pro- In these situations the pedestals were made filed on the sides of the pedestal.

no higher than to prevent accidents. When It is remarkable that Vitruvius, in treat pedestals are continued with breaks under ing of the Doric, Corinthian, and Tuscan the columns, or pilasters in ancient build. orders, never mentions a pedestal; and in ings; the breaks were called stylobatæ; treating of the Ionic, lie only speaks of it and the recess between every two stylobaas a necessary part of the construction, and tæ, the podium, which had the same parts not as part of the order : several modern disposed at the same levels as the stylowriters are also of this opinion.

batæ. It must be confessed, wherever pedestals Arcades. An arcade is an aperture in a are introduced, the grandeur of the order wall with an arched head; which term is is diminished, as all the parts are propor- also sometimes applied in the plural numtionably less ; however there are some si ber to a range of apertures with arched tuations in which they are indispensably heads. When an aperture is so large that it necessary, as in the interior of churches,

cannot be lintelled, it then becomes neceswhere, if they were omitted, the beauty of sary to arch it over. Arcades are not so the columns would be entirely lost, as so magnificent as colonades, but they are great a portion of them would be concealed

stronger, more solid, and less expensive. by the pews. The proportions of pedestals In arcades the utmost care should be taken in the ancient Roman buildings are very of the piers, that they be sufficiently strong variable; modern authors however, have to resist the pressure of the arches, particuthought proper to bring them to a standard larly those at the extremes. The Romans ratio, which Vignola makes one third of the employed them in their triumphal arches, height of the column; but as this propor and many other buildings. Arcades may tion oppeared to make them too high, Sir be used with propriety in the gates of cities, William Chambers reduced it to three

of palaces, of gardens, and of parks; they tenths ; these ratios, however, might vary as are much employed in the piazzas, or squares particular circumstances might require. The of Italian cities, and in general are of great parts of pedestals may be thus propor- use, in affording both shade and shelter in tioned : divide the height into nine equal hot and rainy climates; but, on the con. parts, give one to the cornice, two to the trary, they are a great nuisance to the inbase, and six to the die. The plan of the habitants, as they darken their apartments, die is the same as that of the plinth of the and serve to harbour idle and noisy vagacolumn : the projection of the cornice may' bonds. Lofty arcades may be employed be equal to its height: the base may be with great propriety in the courts of padivided into three parts, giving two to the laces, and noblemen's houses. There are plinth, and one to the mouldings ; which in various ways of decorating the piers of armost cases may project equal to their teight. cades, as with rustics, columns, pilasters, These proportions are cominon to all pe caryatides, persians, or terms surmounted destals. It is sometimes customary to with appropriate entablatures ; and some

times the piers are even so broad, as to ad on the width of the portico, and the supermit of niches. The arch is either sur incumbent building; but with respect to rounded with rustic work, or with an ar the beauty of the building, it should not be chivolt ; sometimes interrupted at the sum- less than one quarter, nor more than onemit with a key-stone in the form of a con- third, of the breadth of the arcade. When sole, or marsh, or some other appropriate the arcades form blank recesses, the backs sculptured ornament. The archivolt rises of which are pierced with doors or winsometimes from a plat-band, or impost, dows, or recessed with niches, the recesses placed on the top of the piers; and at other should be at least so deep, as to keep the times from an entablature, supported by most prominent parts of the dressings encolumns on each side of the arch. In some tirely within their surface. In the upper instances, the arches of arcades are sup- stories of the theatres and amphitheatres of ported entirely by single or coupled co. the Romans, the arcades stood upon the lumns, without the entablature ; as in the podia, or inter-pedestals, of the columns ; temple of Faunus at Rome. This form is perhaps as much for the purpose of profar from being agreeable to the eye; it portioning the apertures, as to form a prowants stability, as the columns would be per parapet for leaning over. incapable of resisting the lateral pressure of Colonades. A colonade is a range of atthe arches, were they not placed within tached or insulated columns, supporting an another walled inclosure, or in a circular entablature. The interval between the cocolonade. In large arches the key-stones lumns, measured by the inferior diameter of should never be omitted, and should be the column, is called the intercolumniation; carried to the sotfit of the architrave, where and the whole area between every two cothey will be useful in supporting the middle lumus is called an intercolumn. When the of the entablature, which otherwise would intercolumniation is one diameter and a have too great a bearing.

half, it is called pycnostyle, or columns When columns are detached, as in the thick set; when two diameters, systyle ; triumphal arches of Septimius Severus, and when two and a quarter, custyle; when Constantine, at Rome, it becomes neces three, diastyle; and when four, aræostyle, sary to break the entablature, making its or columns thin set. A colonade is also projection over the intercolumns, the saine named according to the number of columns as if pilasters had been used instead of which support the entablature, or fasticolumns; or so much as is just sufficient gium : when there are four columns, it is to relieve it from the naked of the wall. called tetrastyle; when six, hexastyle; when This is necessary in all intercolumns of great eight, octostyle; and when ten, decastyle. width, but should be practised as little as The intercolumniations of the Doric order possible, as it destroys the genuine ise of are regulated by the number of triglyphs, the entablature. When columns are with- placing one over every intermediate coout pedestals, they should stand upon a lumn; when there is one triglyplı over the plinth, in order to keep the bases dry and interval, it is called monotriglyph; when clean, and prevent them from being there are two, it is called ditriglyph; and broken.

so on, according to the progressive order of Arcades should never be much more, nor the Greek numerals. The intercolumniamuch less, than double their breadth. The tion of the Grecian Doric is almost conbreadth of the pier should seldom exceed stantly the monotriglyph: from this practwo-thirds, nor be less than one-third of tice there are only two deviations to be that of the arcade; and the angular pier met with at Athens, the one in the Doric should have an addition of a third, or a Portico, and the other in the Propylæa; half, as the nature of the design may re but these intervals only belong to the midquire. The impost should not be more than dle intercolumniations, which are both dione-seventh, nor less than a ninth, of the triglyph, and became necessary, on acbreadth of the arch; and the archivolt not connt of their being opposite to the princimore than one-eighth, nor less than one- pal entrances. As the character of the tenth, of that breadth. The breadth of Grecian Doric is more massy and dignified the bottom of the key stone should be equal than that of the Roman, the monotriglyphic to that of the archivolt; and its length pot succeeds best; but in the Roman it is not less than one and a half of its bottom so convenient, for the passage through breadth, nor more than double. In groined the intercolumns would be too narrow, porticos, the thickness of the piers depends particularly in small buildings; the ditri

glyph is therefore more generally adopted to the diameter of the columns; for, when The aræostyle is only applied to rustic the columns are placed nearer each other structures of Tuscan intercolumniations, than three feet, the space becomes too narwhere the columns are lintelled with wooden row to admit persons of a corpulent habit. architraves.

Pilasters and Antæ. Pilasters are recWhen the solid part of the masonry of a tangular prismatic projections, advancing range of arcades are decorated with the or from the naked part of a wall, with bases ders, the intercolumns become necessarily and capitals like columns, and with an en wide; and the intercolumniation is regu- tablature supp ed by the columns; hence lated by the breadth of the arcades, and they differ from columns, in their horizonthat of the piers.

tal sections being rectangles, whereas those It does not appear that coupled, grouped, of columns are circles, or the segments of or clustered columns, ever obtained in the circles, equal to or greater than semicirworks of the ancients; though, on many oc

cles. casions they would have been much more It is probable that pilasters are of a Rouseful: we indeed find, in the temple of man invention, since there are but few inBacchus at Rome, columns standing as it stances in Grecian buildings where they are were in pairs; but as each pair is only repeated at equal or regular intervals, and placed in the thickness of the wall, and not these only in the latter ages of Greece, as in the front, they may rather be said to be in the monument of Philopapus ; (unless in two rows of columns, one almost imme that of Thrasyllus) but of their application diately behind the other. In the baths of in Roman works there are numberless inDioclesian, and in the temple of Peace at stances : Vitruvius calls them parastatæ. Rome, we find groined ceilings, sustained The Greeks used a kind of square pillars by single Corinthian columns; a support only upon the ends of their walls, which both meagre and inadequate. Vignola uses they called antæ, which antæ projected the same intercolumniation in all his orders: sometimes to a considerable distance from this practice, though condemned by some, the wall of the principal front, and formed is founded upon a good principle; it pre the pronaos or vestibulum. The breadth serves a constant ratio between the columns of the antæ on the flanks of the temples and the intervals.

was always considerably less than on the Of all the kinds of intercolumniation, the front: these antæ had sometimes columns custyle was in the most general request between them, and when this was the case, among the ancients; and though in modern the return within the pronaos was of equal architecture both the custyle and dia breadth to the front. The capitals of the style are employed, yet to former of these antæ never correspond with those of cois still preferred in most cases : as to the lumns, though there are always some chapycnostyle interval, it is frequently rejected racteristic marks, by which the order may for want of room, and the aræostyle, for be distinguished. want of giving sufficient support to the en Pilasters, or parastatæ, when ranged with tablature.

columns under the same entablature, or The moderns seldom employ more than placed behind a row of columns, have their one row of columns, either in external or bases and capitals like those of the columns, internal colonades; for the back range de with the corresponding parts at the same stroys the perspective regularity of the front heights, and when placed upon the angles range : the visual rays, coming from both of buildings, the breadth of the returns is ranges, produce nothing but confusion in the same as that of the front. The trunks the eye of the spectator. This confusion, of pilasters have frequently the same dimiin a certain degree, also attends pilasters nution as the shafts of the columns, such as placed behind a row of insulated columus : in the arches of Septimius Severus, and but in this the relief is stronger, owing to Constantine, and in the frontispiece of Ne. the rotundity of the column, and the flat ro, and the temple of Mars the Avenger, surfaces of the pilasters. When buildings at Rome; in this case, the top of the trunks are executed on a small scale, as is fre. of the pilasters is equal to the breadth of quently the case of temples, and of other the soffit of the architrave, and the upright inventions used for the ornaments of gar- face of the architrave resting on the capital, dens, it will be found necessary to make in the same perpendicular as the top of the the intercolumniations, or at least the cen- pilaster. When the pilasters are updimi. tral one, broader than usual, in proportion nished, and of the same breadth as the co

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