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almost entirely out of the soffit of the coro- elliptic curve joining the fillet on each side: na, or recessed upwards, and consequently the tori and scotia are nearly of equal its elevation is almost concealed. The heights: in the Ionic temple on the Ilyssus a height of the cornice from the top of the bead and filletare employed above the upper sima to the lower edge of the dentils is torus, joining the fillet to the scape of the equal, or very nearly so, to that of the archi- column: the upper torus of the basis of the trave. The altitude of the frize without its same temple, and that of the basis of the cymatium, or upper mouldings, may be sup- temple of Erechteus, are both fluted, preposed to be about a fourth part of the whole serving the lower part that joins the upper entablature; for if higher than this, the en- surface of the fillet above the scotia entire. tablature would be too great a portion of The upper scotia of the temple of Minerva the columns for any analogy we are ac
Polias is enriched with a beautiful guilloche. quainted with. In point of beautiful pro- The lower torus of the base of the antæ of portions and elegant decorations, the enta the temple of Erectheus is receded, and blatures of these two last examples exceed that of the base of the antæ of the temple of every other remain; and though their pro- Minerva Polias is channelled with futes, portions are very different from those re- separated from each other by two small cymaining at Athens, yet they are still pleasing. lindric mouldings of a quadrantal section,
In all the Grecian Ionics there seems to having their convexities joining each other. be a constant ratio between the upper part This form of a base is by Vitruvius very of the cornice, from the lower edge of the properly called the Attic base, being corona upwards, and the height of the en- invented and employed by the Athenians tablature: this is nearly as two to nine. If in all their Ionics. It was also adopted by these members were regulated in any other, the Romans, and seems to have been their manner, their breadths would be so variable most favourite base; for it is not only emas sometimes to be so diminutive that their ployed in all the examples of this order at forms could not be perceived, and at other Rome, but most frequently in the Corinthian times so enlarged, as to overload the whole and Composite orders also. However, the when viewed from a proper station. Indeed proportions of the Attic base as employed the great recess of the mouldings under the by the Romans are different from that emcorona makes this a very distinct division, ployed by the Greeks, the upper torus of aud on this account we never think the cor the former being always of a less height than nice too clumsy, though the whole denticu- the lower one, both tori plain, and the scotia lated band and cymatium of the frize are containing a much deeper cavity. The prointroduced below the cornice, which seems portion of the bases of the Ionic and Corinto be the reason of so great an apparent dif- thian orders on the Coliseum, the Ionic on ference between the Asiatic and Attic the theatre of Marcellus, and that on the Ionics. This order, as found in the lonian temple of Fortuna Virilis at Rome, have territory, is complete; but those at Athens nearly that assigned by Vitruvins. The are deficient, from their want of the den- Ionic bases, as employed in the temple of til band, though beautiful in many other Minerva Polias at Priene, and in that of respects.
Apollo Dedymæus near Miletus, consist of Moderns have added a diameter to the a large torus, three pair of astragals, and two height of the Ionic column, making it nine scotiæ, inverted in respect of each other. instead of eight. The shaft is generally stri- The upper pair of astragals is disposed beated into twenty-four futes, and as many low the torus, and the scotiæ separate each fillets. The height of the entablature in ge. pair of astragals from each other. In the neral may be two diameters; but where temple of Minerva Polias an astragal is emgrandeur as well as elegance is required it ployed above the torus, separating it from should not be less than a fourth. The base the shaft; the torus itself is formed elliptiemployed in the Athenian Ionics consists of cally, and the under part of it is fluted: it two tori, and a scotia or trochilus between has also a flute cut in the upper part near them, and two fillets, each separating the to the bead. In the temple of Apollo DeScotia from the torus above and below: the dymæus the upper torus is of a semicircular fillet above the torus generally projects section and plain, and each bead of every as far as the extremity of the upper torus, pair is separated by a narrow filet. The and the lower fillet beyond the upper torus: base of the Asiatic Ionics differs little from the scotia is very flat, and its section an that which Vitruvius appropriates to this
order. In the former the scotiæ are invert- reader will find the description of the volute ed, which gives a greater variety in the pro- among the descriptions of the plates. When file than when both stand in the same posi- columns are introduced in the flanks of a tion as in the Vitruvian base. The Ionians, building as well as in the front, one of the cabesides the base which they appropriated to pitals of each angular column is made to face this order, sometimes used the Attic base both the contiguous sides of the building, with also, as in the temple of Bacchus at Teos. two volutes upon each side, projecting the This base seems not only to have been the two adjacent volutes by bending them in a most favourite one among the ancients, but concave curve towards the angle; as in the is likewise so among the moderns. It is not temple of Bacchus at Teos, óf Minerva so heavy in the upper part as that denomi- Polias at Priene, of Erectheus, and that on nated Ionic; its contour is pleasing, and its the Ilyssus at Athens, as also that of the general appearance elegant. In the capi- . Manly Fortune at Rome. The capitals of tals of the Athenian Ionics, and in that of all the columns are sometimes made to face Minerva Polias at Priene, the lower edge the four sides of the abacus alike on each of the canal between the volutes is formed side, as in the temple of Concord at Rome, into a graceful curve, bending downward in from which example the Scammozzian capithe middle, and revolving round the spirals tal was formed. The ancients employed which form the volute upon each side. In the this order in temples dedicated to Juno, temple of Erecthens and Minerva Polias at Bacchus, Diana, and other deities, whose Athens each volute has two channels, formed character held a medium between the seby two spiral borders, and a spiral division vere and the effeminate; aud the moderns between them. The border which forms employ it in churches consecrated to female the exterior of the volute, and that which saints in a matronal state; also in courts of forms the under side of the lower canal, justice, seminaries, libraries, and other leaves between them a deep recess, or spi- structures which have a relation to the arts. ral groove, which continually diminishes in Corinthian Order. The invention of this its breadth till it is entirely lost on the side order was attributed to the one Callimaof the eye. In the example of the temple chus, an Athenian sculptor, who passing by of Erectheus, the column is terminated with the tomb of a young lady observed an a fillet and astragal a little below the lower acanthus growing up by the sides of a bas. edges of the volutes, and that of Minerva ket, which was covered with a tile and Polias in the same manner with a single placed upon the tomb; and that the tops ot fillet; and the colorino or neck of each is the leaves were bent downwards by the charged with beautiful honeysuckles, formed resistance of the tyle ; took the hint and exalike in alternate succession, but differing ecuted some columns with foliated capitals, from each other in any two adjacent ones.
near Corinth, which were made still of a The upper annular moulding of the column more slender proportion than the Ionic, is of a semicircular section, and embellished imitating the figure and delicary of virgins. with a guilloche. The echinus, astragal, Vitruvius mentions that the shafts of Corin. and fillet, are common to both Grecian and thian columns have the same symmetry as Roman Ionic capitals, and the echinus is the Ionic, and that the difference of the uniformly cut into eggs, surrounded with symmetry between the entire columns arises borders of angular sections, and into tongues only from the difference of the heights of between every two borders. The astragal their capitals ; the Ionic being one third, is formed into a row of beads, with two and the Corinthian the whole diameter of small ones between every two large ones. the shaft, which, therefore, makes the height These mouldings are cut in a similar manner of the Corinthian two thirds of a diameter in all the Roman buildings, except the Coli more than that of the Ionic; hence, as he seum, and what relates to the taste of the has allowed the Ionic to be eight diameters, foliage. In the temple of Bacchus at Teos, the Corinthian will be eight and two thirds. the great theatre at Laodicea, and in all the The sides of the abacus of the Corinthian Roman Ionics, the channel comecting the capital are concave, and moulded on the two volutes is not formed with a border on fronts. the lower edge, but is terminated with a The lower part of the capital consists of horizontal line, which falls a tangent to the two rows of leaves, and each row of eight second revolutioa of each volute at the plants; one of the upper leaves fronting commencement of this revolution. The each side of the abacus, and the stalk of
each leaf springing between each two lower seems to be borrowed from those of the leaves. The height of the abacus is one Doric and Ionic orders. In this entablature seventh, the upper and lower tier of leaves the figure of the mutules supporting the each two sevenths, and the branches and corona is changed into the form of a console, volutes which spring from the stalks be- and highly decorated; and the denticulated tween every two leaves in the upper row, Ionic band with its cymatium, and also that the remaining two sevenths of the diameter. of the frize, are introduced below the conThe breadth of the capital at the bottom is soles ; which in this application are called one, and each diagonal of the abacus two modillions. This disposition is inverting the diameters of the column. Vitruvius makes order of the original but, and also the deno mention of obtunding the corners of the scription given by Vitruvius. The only exabacus, as is generally practised by the ample where dentils are placed above moancients as well as the moderns; we are, dillions, is in the second cornice of the therefore, led to suppose that each pair of tower of the Winds at Athens. As to the the four faces of the abacus were continned architrave and base of this order, they may till they met in an acute angle, at each cor- be the same as those used in the Ionic; inner, as in the temple of Vesta at Rome, and deed the Tonic entablature itself would, on the Stoa or portico at Athens ; the division many occasions, be a very appropriate one of the capital is the same as is frequently for the Corinthian. When the columns are used hy the moderns, but the entire height fluted, the number of the flutes and fillets is thereof is generally made one sixth more generally 24, as in the Ionic order. than the diameter of the column, and that If the entablature be enriched the shaft of the entire column ten diameters. The should be fluted, unless composed of varie. best ancient specimens of the Corinthian gated marble; for a diversity of colours conorder are to be collected from the Stoa, the fuses even a smooth surface, and if decoratarch of Adrian, and that most exquisite and ed, the ornament increases the confusion to singular specimen the monument of Lysi- a much greater degree. When the columns cratus at Athens; also in the Pantheon of are within reach, so as to be liable to be Agrippa, and in the three columns of the damaged, the lower part of the flutes, to Campo Vaccino at Rome; these two, and about one third of their height, is sometimes particularly the last, are allowed to be the filled with cables, as that of the interior most complete existing examples that are order of the Pantheon, with a view to to be found in all the remains of antiquity, strengthen the edges. The taste of the foliage of the Attic Corin.
In rich work of some modern buildings, thian differs considerably from that of the the cables are composed of reeds, husks, Roman : the small divisions of the leaves spiral twisted ribbands, flowers, and various are more pointed, approaching nearer to other ornaments ; but these piceties should the acanthus than those at Rome, which only be employed in the decorations of the are for the most part olive; however, in interior, and even then very sparingly, as other respects, the capitals themselves are their cost would be much better employed very similar, except in the monument of in giving majesty and grandeur to other Lysicrates.
parts of the fabric. As the cornice which The Corinthian capital exhibits the utmost has obtained the name of Corinthian condegree of elegance, beauty, richness, and sists of so many members, it will be necesdelicacy, that has ever been attained in sary on this account to increase the whole architectural composition, though many at height of the entablature more than two tempts have been made to exceed it. The diameters, so as to make the members dis. columns of this order do not appear to have tinct, and at the same time to preserve a had any appropriate entablature in the time just proportion between the cornice, frize, of Vitruvius; for, in B. IV. chap. i. he in- and architrave; making the height of the forms us that both Doric and Ionic entabla- entablature two-ninths of that of the colunin ; tures were supported by Corinthian co- but if the Ionic cornice is to be employed, lumns, and that it was the columns alone or the dentils and their cymatium omitted, which constituted this order, and not the two diameters or a fifth of the height of the entablatures; however, in the remains of column will be sufficient. From hence the Grecian and Roman antiquity, we find absurdity of giving too many members to almost constantly Corinthian columns sup- the cornice will appear; as these slight porting an entablature with a peculiar columns are incapable of bearing an entabspecies of cornice; a composition which lature of the same part of their height as
columns of fewer diameters are; this absur sides of the column alike, and the lower dity will more readily appear when the parts part consisting of two rows of leaves as in of both orders are made of the same the Corinthian capital. Vitruvius speaks of altitudes.
various capitals derived from that of the The Corinthian order is appropriate for Corinthian; but does not distinguish coall buildings in which magnificience, ele lumns with such capitals supporting an engance, and gaiety, are requisite; it was em tablature by the name of an order ; indeed, ployed by the ancients in temples dedicated he expressly says that they do not belong to to Venus, Flora, Proserpine, and also to the any species of columns. Serlio was the nymphs of the fountains ; being the most first who added a fifth order by compoundsplendid of all the orders, and bearing the ing columns similar to that of the Arch of most affinity to foliages, flowers, and volutes, Titus, with the entablature of the upperwhich suited the delicacy and elegance of most order of the Coloseum. More recent these deities,
authors have, for the greater part, either Its splendor also recommends it in the adopted the entablature of the frontispiece decorations of palaces, squares, galleries, of Nero, which was supported by Corinthian theatres, banqueting-rooms, and other places columns, or have brought in adventitious consecrated to festive mirth or convivial re parts of other orders, by introducing the creation; it is likewise employed in churches denticulated band of the Ionic with its dedicated to saint Mary, and other virgin cymatium between the modillions and the saints.
cymatium of the frize. It is something Tuscan Order. There are no ancient re remarkable that the columns of Roman mains of any entire order of this kind; the buildings, with compounded capitals, supcolumns of Trajan and Antonine, and one port for the greater part, Corinthian entaat Constantinople, being defective from the blatures: the columns of the arches of Sepwant of their entablaturés. We have the timius Severus, and of the Goldsmiths, supdescription of Vitruvius to the following port Ionic entablatures; and those of the purpose: the column is seven diameters in temple of Bacchus even support an entablaheight, and is diminished at the top a fourth ture with what we now call a Tuscan corpart of a diaineter; their bases have a cir nice. In short Rome affords no example of cular plinth, and are in height half a diame a Composite order, with a similar cornice to ter, which is divided into two parts, giving any one found in the works of any distin. one to the altitude of the plinth, and one to guished modern author, except Vignola who the torus. The capital has also half a dia. crowns his entablature with a bold Ionic meter in height, and one in the breadth of cornice. The capital of this order is more its abacus. The height of the capital is bold and massive in its parts than that of divided into three parts, one of which is the Corinthian, the proportion of the other given to the plinth or abacus, one to the members should be corresponding thereto, echinus, and the third to the hypotrachelian and therefore more appropriate cornice than with the apophygis : the architrave is made that of the frontispiece of Nero can hardly with its vertrical faces over the edge of the be applied : the modillions are very characcolumn, at the neck of the capital, in two teristic, but the denticulated band, shewn thicknesses, in its horizontal dimer n, with
in a modern should be omitted, and a space of two digits or 14 inch between, for this reason also the shaft of the columns for the admission of air to prevent the beams should be a medium between those of the from rotting, and joined together with mor Ionic and Corinthian, though the very retise and tenon. Over the beams and over verse has been assigned to it. the walls the mutules are projected a fourth The medallions employed in this order part of the height of the columns, and an differ from the Corinthian: they are more tepagments are fixed to their fronts. A
massy, being composed of two faces, and correct specimen of Tuscan architecture a cymatium like an architrave. The Ro. may be seen in St. Paul's, Covent Garden; mans decorated their Composite capitals the work of the most distinguished Inigo with acanthus leaves, and the same pracJones. This order is proper for all rustic tice is followed by the moderns. The prostructures.
portions will be fully understood in those of Roman Order. The character of this as the Ionic and Corinthian orders. It is proan order is indicated by its capital; the bable that the Romans employed the Comupper part of which being an entire Ionic posite order in their triumphal arches, and capital of that species, which fronts the four other buildings, to commemorate their vic.
PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING
tories, and to shew their dominion over It is proper, however, to make the basethose whom they conquered ; and for this ment no higher than the order of the next purpose also it may be employed in modern story; for this would be making the base structures to celebrate the achievements more principal in the composition, than of conquerors and virtues of legislators. the body to be supported. If the cellar
story is the basement, and if the height does
not exceed five or six feet at the most, it Are those parts of geometry, mechanics, · may be plain, or with rustics, or formed mensuration,
and chemistry, which shew how into a continued pedestal ; but if the baseto design and construct the parts of a build- ment is on the ground story, the usnal maning so as to be the most durable, the destina ner of decorating it is with rustics suption, situation, and other fixed data of the ported on a base, and surmounted with a intended structure being known. These crowning string-course: the base may either parts of the sciences are the foundation of be a plinth alone, or with mouldings over it: the art of construction.
in like manner the string-course may either Construction may in general be divided be a plat-band or with mouldings under it; into two parts, the science of masonry, and may form a cornice. The rustics are that of carpentry; though there are other either made of a rectangular, or triangular branches, as slatery, plumbry, &c. some- section, by imagining one of the sides of times also employed as constituent parts; these sections to be a line extending across but these may be considered as rather ad- the front of the joint. The joints of the ventitious.
rustics may be from an eighth to a tenth The science of masonry shews how to part of their height. The depth of the construct walls and vaults. A wall should joint of the triangular rustic may be half be built so as to resist a given force, either of its breadth, that is, making the two acting uniformly over the whole, or par- planes by which it is formed a right angle, tially upou the surface: such as to resist and the depth of the rectangular-sectioned the pressure of vaults or roofs umrestrained rustics from one-fourth to one-third of their from the want of tie beams, acting along breadth. The ancients always marked both one continued buttment, as in plain vault. directions of the joints of the rustics; whereas ing; or to resist different forces, acting at the moderns not only employ the ancient intermitted points, as in groin vanlting ; or manner, but they sometimes make them to resist the force of the wind acting uni- with horizontal joints alone. Those with formly over the whole surface. An arch horizontal joints represent rather a boarded should be so constructed as to balance itself surface than that of a stone wall, which equally on all parts of the intrados, whether must have two directions of joints. The it be of uniform thickness, or to support a height of the string.course should not exgiven load.
ceed the height of a rustic with its joint: The science of carpentry comprehends the plintb, or zocholo, ought not to be less the sizing, cutting, disposition, and joining of than the height of the string-course. When timbers. By chemistry we are enabled to the basement is perforated with arcades, jndge of the quality of materials, such as the imposts of the arches may be a platstone, mortar, wood, iron, slate, lead, &c. band, which may be equal to the height of
Taste., Taste consists in introducing a rustic, exclusive of the joint. When the such forms in the construction and embel. string-course is a cornice, the base may be lishments, as appear agreeable to the eye moulded, and the projection of the cornice of the beholder. The arrangement of the may be two-thirds of its height; so as to be plap, figure of rooms, and contour of the less prominent than that which finishes the whole building, and character, as to its des- building. The height of the cornice may tined purpose, depend much on taste. be about one-eighteenth part of the height
Invention. Invention is the art of com of the basement, and that of the base about bining or arranging the various apartments twice as much, divided into six parts, of in the most convenient order.
which, the lower five-sixths form the plinth, Basements. A basement is the lower and the upper sixth the mouldings. story of a building on which an order is Pedestals. A pedestal is a part of some placed; its height will therefore be variable, buildings, with a base, surmounted with a according as it is the cellar story or the rectangular prismatic solid, called the die, ground story; or, when it is the ground and this die again crowned with a cornice, story, according as there are principal for supporting a colonade, or pilastrade, or rooms in both stories or only in one of them. sometimes for supporting the upper part of