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and the emulation of the architects, edifices were raised to an incredible height. Hence the lofty towers, and the still more elevated spires that occasion such awful grandeur, and sublime sensations in the mind of the astonished beholder. The ceilings of the churches were formed by groined vaulting, a portion of the pressure of which was directed in the length to the ends, and the remaining pressure to the springing points on the sides. In the Roman buildings the walls were most commonly without projections, and of vast thickness, which was necessary in a vaulted building, erected upon a rectilineal plan, in order to counteract the efforts of the resisting arches. Hence, if the building had been groined, the weight of the arches would have been thrown upon the springing points. From this it is evident that a vast quantity of materials must have been employed without effect; but this is not the case with the pointed style of architecture, for the walls were thickened by buttresses opposed only to the pressing points: and to aid the resistance with still more powerful effect, the buttresses were surmounted with high pinnacles, and, from their sloping position, their general form was almost one continued prop, in a straight line to the bottom: this straight line was a tangent to the arch. Those that understand the nature of the centre of gravity will easily perceive, that a plain wall will be overturned with much more ease than one with buttresses, of the same length and height, the same quantity of materials being employed in both. The extremity of the aisles was sustained by strong pilastered buttresses on the outside, and the other extremity rested on the imposts or capitals of the pillars. These pillars, with their superincumbent walls, not being assisted as on the outside with buttresses, were liable to be bent with the pressure of the arches, unless the sides of the nave had been of sufficient thickness, which, in many of our churches, experience has proved to be the contrary, by the bending of the walls inwardly, which is a serious defect, and threatens ruin to many of those venerable piles of building. We cannot therefore expect these edifices to rival, in duration, the immortal constructions of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. As to the groining of the nave, the arches were equally resisted on both sides by the flying buttresses, which pressed forcibly at the imposts of the arches. It would appear, that the method practised in the erection of these edifices,
was to insert the springing stones as the work went on, but to leave the vaulting to be turned after the walls had been carried up to their full height, and the whole roofed in. The roofs of Gothic buildings were very high pitched, a form, more from choice than necessity, rather adopted in compliance with the pointed and pyramidal style of architecture, than rendered necessary by the climate, being generally covered with lead. These roofs are therefore faulty in burdening the walls with an unnecessary load of timber and lead; and they are also deficient in the construction, by the omission of tyebeams, to counteract their tendency to spread and thrust out the walls. After having thus discussed the several styles of building, which have been generally and unmeaningly classed under the appellation of Gothic, we must now make a retrogression to Italy, where the Grecian style had been revived for a considerable time, and was flourishing in great purity. Let us therefore retrace the steps by which it again arose to its ancient splendour and magnificence. Fillipo Brunelleschi, born 1877, may be looked upon as the restorer of ancient ar. chitecture, and the founder of the modern style. After having prepared his mind by the study of the writings of the ancient authors, and the ruins of Roman edifices which he carefully measured, he discovered the orders, and recognized the simple forms and constructions of the ancients, and having thus formed a system upon unshaken principles, he was enabled to construct works with beauty, solidity, and durability. He erected the dome of St. Maria da Fiore at Florence, an undertaking beyond the abilities of any other builder then living: Ar. nolfo, the original architect of this vast cathedral having been two years dead. This dome, rising from an octangular plan, is of great elevation, and is only inferior in size to that of St. Peter's. It is constructed by two vaults, with a cavity between them, and was erected without centring. It is the only elevated dome supported by a wall without buttresses. From this, and many other buildings erected by Brunelleschi, the learned began to study the works of Vetruvius, and a general taste for the principles of the art began to warm the breasts of the Italians. Leo Battista Alberta, born A. D. 1598, was the first modern author who published a learned treatise on architecture, from which he has acquired great reputation, and is justly styled the modern Vitruvius. Following the steps of Brunelleschi, he reformed by his precepts and designs many of the abuses and barbarous practices which then prevailed among his countrymen. Bramante had a considerable share in the restoration of ancient art, and built many magnificent edifices. Pope Julius II. having projected the rebuilding of St. Peter's upon a scale of unequalled magnificence, entrusted the execution of the design, 1513, to Bramante, who conceived the idea of erecting the lofty cupula upon that immense structure. This vast undertaking was carried on successively by Raphael, San Gallo, and Michael Angelo, to whom the final design and completion of the work is principally due. Architecture continued to flourish in the 16th century, under the great architects Vignola, Serlio, Palladio, and Scamozzi. To the unremitted assiduity of these distinguished artists in the study of the Roman edifices, and to their invaluable publications, the world has been much indebted for the elucidation of the principles of ancient art. The list of the celebrated Italian artists closes with Bernini, who flourished in the 17th century. The Grecian style of building was revived in France in the beginning of the 16th century, and afterwards flourished under several architects of distinguished merit. Their principal works are the palace of Versailles, St. Cyr, the church of Invalids, the façade of the Louvre, a most beautiful modern structure, the Porte St. Denis, and the church of Genevieve, the present Pantheon. Grecian architecture was restored in England under the celebrated Inigo Jones, born 1572. His distinguished works at Greenwich, Whitehall, and Covent Garden, will ever secure him a name among the architects of the highest reputation. Sir Christopher Wren, an eminent mathematician and philosopher, as well as an architect of the first rank, has executed many of the finest buildings in London and other parts of England, in the modern style. St. Paul's cathedral, inferior to none but St. Peter's, in point of magnitude, but perhaps superior both in skilful construction and figuration, will perpetuate his name to the latest posterity. The exterior dome of St. Paul's is constructed of wood, and sus
tained by a come of 18-inch brick-work, which also supports the lantern above. The interior dome is also construeted of 18-inch brick-work, which had a course the whole thickness for every five feet, and the intermediate parts had two bricks in length in the thickness. This dome was turned upon a centre which supported itself without any standards from below. From the inclined position of its supporting walls it had little or no transverse pressure, yet, for the greater security, it was hooped with iron at the bottom. This is accurately represented in Gwyn's Section. Though modern architecture is, for the far greater part, indebted to the constructions and decorations of Grecian and Roman edifices; yet we still retain considerable traces of the Gothic style in many of our buildings. The spire is of Gothic invention; it is imitated in our churches and some other buildings, by erecting one, or two, or a series of Grecian temples over each other; every superior one being less in its horizontal dimensions than that immediately below. Frustrums of pyramids and cones are also the ornaments of our steeples; but whether the component parts be one, two, or a series of temples, continually diminished, or temples supporting truncated pyramids, the general contour of the aggregate is still pyramidal. The plans of Grecian buildings were simple geometrical forms; but these of our structures are symmetrical and complex figures, more in imitation of those of the Romans. The materials used in our modern buildings are stone, brick, and timber. In rustic buildings the stones are either laid dry or with mortar. In finished edifices, the stones of the facings are squared and laid in mortar, and the backs and cores are most generally made up with brick or ruble. Walls constructed entirely of squared stones are rare; for, allowing the materials may be easily procured in great abundance, a vast expense will be incurred by enormous additional workmanship. This construction of walling is therefore seldom or never used, but in aquatic buildings, where the greatest strength is frequently necessary. The French have not only shewn much ingenuity in the binding and cementing of walls, but also in the cutting of stones with geometrical exactness, so as to fit vaulted surfaces of variously formed figures.
Iron is used for cramping stones, some
times in binding the face and back of a wall together, when there is little heart. In domes it is frequently used in circular chains, in order to remove lateral pressure, and make the weight of the superstructure act perpendicularly upon the supports. It’ is also used in fastening wood together, and wood to stone work. Timber is used also as ligatures to walls: in this situation it is called bond timber, which also serves for securing the internal finishings. Timber is frequently used in foundations, in floors, in roofing, in internal finishing, &c. Timber, besides being used in bond, flooring, and roofing, in conjunc, tion with stone or brick work, is sometimes used as the only material, excepting the chimnies, nails, and other iron fastenings. Mouldings. In architectural decorations, the materials are formed into a variety of shapes; which have in any two places sections of equal and similar figures, at right angles to their surface, in these two places; thin forms of this property are called mouldings. When the section is semicircular, or semielliptical, it is called a torus or astragal: when large, it is called a torus; and when small, an astragal. When the section is a concave curve, and when the concavity recedes beyond either of the extremities of the curve, the moulding is called a scotia or trochilus. When the section is concave, one extremity being above the other, and the upper extremity projecting out beyond the lower, and when the lower extremity recedes from a vertical line equal to the greatest recess of, the concavity, or more, the moulding is called a cavetto. When the section is a convex curve, with one extremity below the other, and the upper extremity projecting farther than the lower, without any part of the convexity being lower than the lower extremity of the section, the moulding is called an ovolo or echinus. When the section is a curve of contrary flexure, like a flat S, the moulding is called an ogee ; and when the concave part of the ogee projects, and the convex part recedes, the ogee in this position is called a sima recta; but when the parts lie the contrary way, it is called a sima inversa. When the section is straight, and is either perpendicular to the horizon, or nearly so, then the flat member is called a fillet, platband, or facia, according to its breadth and
comparison with other contiguous mouldings. When it is very narrow, and either crowns an upper moulding, or divides one member from another, it is called a fillet, or listello ; when it is broader, it is called a plat-band or plinth; and when very broad, it is called a facia or face. Compound Mouldings. When one, two, or a collection of mouldings, with or without fillets, crown a broad flat member, this collection is called a cymatium. Other names are particularly applied to the orders, and are explained under that head.
orders of Architecture.
An order is a decorated imitation of those primitive huts, which consisted of rows of posts, made of the trunks of trees, disposed in the ground around a quadrangular plat; and supporting a covering, which consisted of four lintelling beams, placed on the top of the posts, with other transverse beams, supported again by two of the opposite lintels; and lastly, of three rows of transverse timbers supporting each other, and the lowermost supported by the ends of the transverse beams on each side, in parallel inclined planes, rising from the ends of the transverse beams, till each plane of timbers on the one side, met its corresponding plane on the other; the lowermost timbers on each side, being disposed in pairs, in the same vertical planes with the transverse beams, forming, the sides of a triangle, and projecting beyond the lintels, and the uppermost inclined planes of timbers, serving to fix the covering of tyle or stone. From this simple construction arose the first order of architecture, called
Doric Order. The columns were imitated from the wooden posts tapering upwards, as trees do by nature; and placed upon a stone base to prevent them from sinking : vertical channels, or flutes, were cut in the shafts, to hold the spears, or staves, which the early Greeks carried along with them. The capital was formed by circular stones, laid on the tops of the columns, and square ones again upon these, to protect the shafts from rain, and to receive the lintelling beam, which became the architrave: the ends of the joists over the architrave were not in vertical channels, froming the triglyphs, for preventing the rain from adhering to them. The cornice was formed by the projecting timbers of the roof; the ends of the bottom tier of these timbers forming the mutules: the lower sides of which, as well as the underside of the band of the triglyphs, were cut into thin cylinders, or conic frustrums, representing the drops of rain falling from the edges. These parts which at first resulted from the primitive habitation, were afterwards converted into more elegant deeorations of simple and natural forms. The general figure of the Attic Doric consists of but few parts, even as practised in the most refined ages of Greece: the fluted shaft, terminating with one, two, or three annular channels: the capital, consisting of the fillets and a bold echinus, having the same common axis with the shaft; and the crowning abacus form the entire column, which therefore consists of a base and shaft. The spacious architrave, resting on the columns, consisting of a crowning band with the guttere and tenia pending therefrom, under the triglyphs; the frize, consisting of a capital, or cymatium, and equidistant triglyph, leaving square recesses between them called metopes; and the cornice, consisting of mutules over the triglyphs and over the metopes; the corona formed of a band and cymatium above; and the sima, or crowning moulding, formed of a large ovolo and fillet, compose the whole entablature; which therefore consists of a cornice, frize, and architrave. This is the general character of the Grecian Doric. It is almost constantly placed upon three steps, proportioned to the height of the order, and not to the human step ; the shafts of the columns diminish with a beautiful curve line from the bottom to the cincture below the annulets: the flutes are without fillets, of a circular or eliptic section, and terminate immediately below the annulets: the annulets of the ca-> pital most commonly follow the contour of the ovolo ; above them, the band, crowning the top of the architrave, is one continued string without breaks; the guttae under the regula, and under the mutules, are generally of a cylindrical form, at least tapering upwards in a very small degree. The triglyphs are placed upon the extremities of the frize, and not over the axis of the extreme columns ; and consist of two whole channels, and two half ones upon the edges; the sides of each glyph, or channel, are two vertical planes, meeting each other in a right angle at the back, and consequently the face of the triglyph at 135 degrees on each side of the glyph ; the tops of the channels are sometimes curved in the front, like a very eccentric semi-ellipsis, placed with its greater axis horizontal ; as in the temple of Theseus, and very frequently
with a horizontal line, joined to each verti cal line at the side, with a quadrant of a
- circle, and the tops of the two half channels
on each edge of the triglyph, are semicircular, not only in front, but in the profilos also, leaving the angle pendant at the top ; as in the temples of Minerva at Athens, and at Sunium, and the temple of Juniter Panellenius ; and sometimes the head of the glyph is horizontal, as in the Doric portico at Athens, and in the temple of Jupiter Nemacus, between Argos and Corinth. In all these examples, the surface forming the head of a glyph is perpendicular to the front, or such, that a right line, perpendicular to the face, and touching the top line of the head in any point, will coincide with the surface of the interior of the glyph. The capital of the triglyphs has a small projection on the face, which is not returned on the edges, and descends lower than that over the metopes; though both are on the same level at the top. The mutules are thin parallelopipeds: their lower surface making an acute angle with the upright of the frize, in the same manner as the under ends of the rafters of the primitive hut would; the pendant guttae hung to them, are in three rows, from front to rear, having six on the front, and also in each of the two back rows. The soffit of the corona is parallel to that of the mutules, and consequently makes an acute angle with the upright of the frize also. The lower part of the corona is most frequently wrought into a fillet, its cymatium is dif. ferently formed in different examples; but most frequently with a small ovolo and fillet, both of which are channelled upwards, in order to produce a greater variety of light and shade. The sima, or crowning moulding, most frequently consists of a large ovolo, and a fillet overit. * The general propositions of the Doric order are the following. The columns are six diameters in height: the superior diameter is four-fifths, and the altitudinal dimension of the capital two-fifths of the inferior diameter, including the annulets, echinus, and abacus. The ho of the capital is divided into two equal parts, giving the upper one to the abacus, and the lower one to the echinus and annulets: divide the lower one into five parts, giving one to the annulets, and four to the ovolo: divide the height of the entablature into four parts, giving one to the cornice, which comprehends the distance between the fillet of the echinus or crowning moulding and the under side of the gutte; divide the remaining three into two equal parts, giving one to the height of the frize, as seen in front, and one to the architrave. . The Doric order was the only order known in Greece, or its colonies, anterior to the Macedonian conquest. The Ionic succeeded, and appears to have been the favourite order, not only in Ionia, but all over Asia Minor. The Corinthian (says Mr. Wood) came next in vogue, and most of the buildings of this order seem posterior to the time of the conquest of those countries by the Romans. The first Doric building was the temple of Juno, erected by Dorus, king of Achaia, and Peloponnesus in the ancient city of Argos, from whom this order derives its name. It was also used in other cities of this Prince's dominions, but its proportions were not established, till an Athenian colony erected a temple to Apollo Pamionos, in Ionia, so called from Ion, their leader, after the form of the temples they had seen in Achaia. In this building the relative dimensions of the columns were adjusted, from the ratio which the foot of a man bears to his height, making their diameter one sixth part of their altitude. Ionic Order. The ambitious desire of novelty soon led the way to the invention of another species; and, in erecting the temple of Diana, they sought a new order from similar traces, imitating the proportion and dress of women. The diameter of the columns was made an eighth part of their height; the base was made with folds representing the shoe; the capitals with volutes, in form of the curled hair worn upon the right and left; and the cymatium, for the locks pending on the forehead from the crown. This new order they called Ionic, after the name of the country in which it was invented: so far we are informed by Vitruvius. It is probable, that in erecting this temple the triglyphs and mutules, the bold characteristic marks of the original hut, would be omitted, and the more deli. cate dentils, representing the ends of the lath to which the tyles were fixed, employed, representing a beautiful row of teeth; for in all the ancient Ionian fragments of this order we find the cornices constantly denticulated, and therefore the dentils are no less characteristic marks than the capitals: they are generally omitted, however, in the remains of those to be found at Athens. The other parts and proportions of the Ionian order are more arbitrary than
in the Dorian. The parts of the Ionic order on the temple by the Ilyssus are few, and of a bold character; the height of the volutos is three-fifths, and the whole height of the capital two-thirds, of the diameter of the column. The architrave consists of one broad facia, and its crowning cymatium: the parts of the cornice as seen in front are the corona, including its cymatium, and sima. The capital, or cymatium of the frize, is wrought under the cornice, and consists of a sima reversa, and bead below it. The height of the architrave is about two-fifths of the entablature; and by dividing the upper threefifths again into five parts, the plain part of the frize will occupy three parts, and the cornice two parts. In the Ionic order of the temple of Erechtheus, and of the temple of Minerva Polias, the architrave consists of three faciac, and cymatium; the cymatium of the frize is mostly wrought under the corona. If the height of the entablature from the bottom of the lower facia to the top of the cymatium of the corona be divided into nineteen parts, the architrave and the part of the frize that is seen will each be eight parts, and the corona, including the larimer and cymatium, the other three parts. The volutes of the capitals of these orders, both for singularity and beauty, exceed every other remain of antiquity. The Asiatic Ionian order differs greatly from the Attic one. In most of the remains of this order, as represented in the Ionian antiquities, the frizes are all wanting, except in one example, and consequently the whole height of the entablatures of those without the frizes cannot be ascertained, though the architraves and cornices belonging to each other have been accurately measured. The one which has the entire entablature belongs to the great theatre at Laodicea: the frize is pulvinated, and is something less in height than one-fifth of that of the entablature. The architraves of the temple of Bacchus at Teos, and the temple of Minerva Polias at Priene, are each divided into three facae below the cymatium. In all the Asiatic Ionics the crowning moulding is constantly a sina recta, of a less projection than it has height: the dentils are never omitted, and their height is nearly a mean proportion between the height of the sima recta and that of the larimer, corona, or drip, being always greater than the height of the corona, and less than that of the sima recta. The cymatium of the denticulated band is wrought