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chiefly of Roman monuments, with some be a vain effort to attempt to discriminate Moorish remains. In the north is an exten the remains of the earliest inhabitants from sive series of arches, formerly a Roman those of the Druidic period, and if the opi. aqueduct. At Evora are well-preserved nion of the last-mentioned author is to be ruins of a temple of Diana, and an aqueduct regarded as binding, there is no foundation ascribed to Quintus Sertorius, whose life for any sound or real knowledge on the subwas written by Plutarch. Among the anti- ject. The following have been esteemed as quities of the middle ages may be noted the the monuments of the Druids : - 1. Single monastery of Batalha, in Estremadura, 60 stones erect. 2. Rock idols and pierced miles north of Lisbon, which is allowed on stones. 3. Rocking-stones, used as ordeals. all hands to be one of the noblest monu 4. Sepulchres of two, three, or more stones. ments of what is called the Gothic style of 5. Circular temples, or rather circles of architecture.

erect stones. 6. Barrows, or tumuli. 7. From this sketch of the antiquities of Cromlechs, or heaps of stones. 8. Rockother nations we turn to those of our basons, imagined to have been used in own; considering them under three divi. Druidic expiations, 9. Caves, used as sions, as belonging, 1st, to England; 2d, places of retreat in time of war. But as to Scotland; and 3d, to Ireland. English most of these relics may also be found in antiquities fall into the following divisions, Germany and Scandinavia, it is difficult to viz. those belonging to the primitive Celtic say whether they are Gothic or Celtie; and inhabitants; those of the Belgic colonies ; as the Germans had no Druids, we cannot those of the Romans; those of the Saxons; with any degree of certainty bestow the reliques of the Danes; and, lastly, Norman name of Druidic upon such monuments. It monuments. Few of these remains are is highly probable, that the earliest inhabithought to throw much light upon the his- tants, as is ever the practice in the infancy tory of the country: but being interesting of society, made use of wood, not of stone, and curious in themselves, they may, in this in their religious as well as in their domestic article, which is intended as a guide to the erections. If we survey the varions savage study, be briefly noticed. A radical mis- regions of the globe, we shall seldom, if ever, take, according to Mr. Pinkerton, in the perceive the use of stone; and it is certainly study of English antiquities has arisen from just to infer, that the savages of the west the confusion of the Celtic and Belgic lan were not more skilful than those of the east, guages and monuments. The Druids have nor those of the old continents and islands deservedly attracted much curiosity and than those of the new.

But as many of research; but it would be erroneous to im- these monuments are found in Germany, pute to them, as is usual, the wbole of our Scandinavia, and Iceland, and as the Icelanearliest remains. Cæsar speaks of Druidism dic writers in particular often indicate their as a recent institution, and if that be the origin and use, which are unknown in the case, it is not improbable that it originated Celtic records, there is every reason to attrifrom the Phænician factories, established in bute them to a more advanced stage of sowooden fortresses, the usual practice of ciety, when the Belgic colonies introduced commercial nations when trading with sa- agriculture, and a little further progress in vage or barbarous people. The tenets cor the rude arts of barbarism. The nature of respond with what little exists of Phænician this work will not admit a formal investiga. mythology, and the missionaries of that re tion of such topics, but a few remarks may fined people might have some zeal in their be offered on Stonehenge, a stupendous modiffusion. Ancient anthors, who give us all nument of barbaric industry. Inigo Jones, our information concerning the Druids, mi- in attempting to prove that it is Roman, only nutely describe their religious rites, but are evinces that no talents can avail when science totally silent concerning any monuments of is wanting, and that antiquities require a stone being used among them. On the con. severe and peculiar train of study. Doctor trary, they mention gloomy groves and Stukely, a visionary writer, assigns Stonespreading oaks as the only scenes of the henge to the Druids ; while Dr. Charlton, Druidic ceremonies; uevertheless antiqua- perceiving that such monuments are found ries have inferred that Stonehenge is a Drui- in Denmark, ascribed it to the Danes. If dic monument, though it be situated in an the latter had considered, that the Belgæ extensive plain, where not a vestige of wood were a Gothic nation of similar language appears, and where the very soil is reputed and institutions, he might with more justice to be adverse to its vegetation, it would have extended its antiquity, From the

Icelandic writers we learn, that such circles Trojan war. In later times, a large single were called domh-ringt, that is literally stone erected was esteemed a sufficient medoom-ring, or circle of judgment, being the morial: such single stones also sometimes solemn places where courts were held of all appear as monuments of remarkable battles, kinds and dignities, from the national coun or merely as boundaries. The caves are cil down to the baronial court, or that of a familiar to most nations in an early state of common proprietor of land, for adjusting society. The Belgic relics are followed by disputes between his villani and slaves. The those of the Romans, which are mostly obmagnificence of Stonehenge loudly pro- jects of mere curiosity, and rarely throw the nounces that it was the supreme court of the smallest light on the page of history. . Annation, equivalent to the Champs de Mars phitheatres are said to be still visible at Silet de Mai of the Franks, where the king and chester, in Hampshire, and some other chiefs assembled in the circle, and the men places. The Roman castle at Richborough, capable of arms in the open plain; nor is it the ancient Rutupiæ, in Kent, presents conimprobable that the chiefs ascended the siderable remains of a massy wall cemented transverse stones, and declared their re with surprising firmness. The Roman ruins solves to the surrounding crowd, who, in the in this country are commonly composed of description of Tacitus, dissented by loud stone or flint, with strata of tlat bricks at murmurs, or applauded by clashing their considerable intervals. The Mosaic paveshields. This idea receives confirmation ments, hypocausts, &c. are generally the refrom the circumstance that the Belgæ, pecu- mains of the villas of opulent Romans, scatliarly so called, as being the chief and ruling tered over the country. The greatest numcolony of that people, were seated in the ber of Roman inscriptions, altars, &c. has surrounding province, and Sorbiodunum, been found in the north, along the great now Old Sarum, was their capital city. $i- frontier wall, which extended from the milar circles of stone, but far inferior in size, western sea to the estuary of Tyne. This are found in many parts of Great Britain vast wall is justly esteemed the most imporand Ireland, and several undoubtedly as tant remain of the Roman power in Englate as the Danish inroads and usurpations, land, as that of Antonius is in Scotland. The the practice being continued by that people extent was about 70 miles, and its construcat least till their conversion to Christianity, tion, forts, &c. have been illustrated by the in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Some labour of several antiquaries. Numerous of the smallost, as we learn from the nor are the more minute relics of the Romans in thern antiquaries, were merely places of England, as coins, gems, weapons, ornafamily sepulture. At a later period, the ments, and the like ; among which, however, circles of judgment, which had been pol- the silver dish belonging to the Duke of Jated with human sacrifices and other Pagan Northumberland deserves especial mention. rites, were abandoned, and the great courts One of the grand causes of the civilization were held on what were called moot-hills, or introduced by that ruling people into the hills of meeting, many of which still exist in conquered states was the highways, which the British dominions and in the Nether. form, indeed, the first germ of national inlands. They commonly consist of a central dustry, and without which neither commerce eminence, on which sat the judge and his por society can make any considerable proassistants ; beneath was an elevated plat- gress. Conscious of this truth, the Romans form for the parties, their friends, and con seem to have lent particular attention to purgators, who sometimes amounted to a the construction of roads in the distant prohundred or more ; and this platform was vinces; and those of England, wbich may surrounded with a trench, to secure it from still be traced in various ramifications, prethe access of the mere spectators. Of the sent a lasting monument of the justice of other monuments of this period a more brief their conceptions, the extent of their views, consideration must suffice. When a mo and the utility of their power. A grand narch or distinguished general was buried, a trunk, as it may be called, passed from the barrow or billock was erected to preserve south to the north, and another to the west, his name and memory to future ages; the with branches in almost every direction that size depending on the reputation of the per- general convenience and expedition could son, which attracted a smaller or larger num require. What is called the Watling-street, ber of operators. Such monuments are led from Richborougli, in Kent, the ancient very ancient, and even to this day denote Rutupiæ, N.W. through London to Chester. the sepulclues of some of the heroes of the The Ermin-street passed from London to

Lincoln, thence to Carlisle, and into Scot- of leaves and flowers. The solitary keep, ·land, the name being supposed to be cor or tower, of the Saxon castle is surrounded Tupted from Herman, which means warrior, with a double wall, inclosing courts and as the chief wars lay in the north. The dwellings of large extent, defended by turFosse Way is supposed to have led from rets and double ditches, with a separate Bath and the western regions, N. E. till it watch-tower, called the Barbican. Among joined the Ermin-street. The last cele- others, the cathedrals of Durham and Winbrated road was the Ikenild, or Ikneld, sup- chester may be mentioned as venerable moposed to have extended from near Norwich, numents of Anglo-Norman architecture; and S. W. into Dorsetshire. The Saxon anti- the castles are numerous and well known. quities in England are chiefly edifices, sa What is called the Gothic, or pointed arch, cred or secular; many churches remain, is generally supposed to have first appeared which were altogether, or for the most part in the thirteenth century, and in the next it constructed in the Saxon period, and some became universal in religious edifices. The are extant of the tenth, or perhaps the ninth windows diffused to great breadth and lofti. century. The vaults erected by Grimbald, ness, and divided into branching interstices, at Oxford, in the reign of Alfred, are justly enriched with painted glass ; the clustering esteemed curious relics of Saxon architec- pillars, of excessive height, spreading into ture. Mr. King has ably illustrated the re. various fret-work on the roof, constitute, mains of the Saxon castles. The oldest with decorations of smaller note, what is seem to consist of one solitary tower, square called the rich Gothic style, visible in the or hexagonal: one of the rudest specimens chapel of King's college, at Cambridge, and is Coningsburg Castle, in Yorkshire; but as many other grand specimens in this kingthat region was subject to the Danes till the dom. The spire corresponds with the intemiddle of the tenth century, it is probably rior, and begins about the thirteenth century Danish. Among the smaller remains of to rise boldly from the ancient tower, and Saxon art, may be mentioned the shrines diminish from the sight in a gradation of for preserving relics, which some suppose pinnacles and ornaments. to present the diminutive rudiments of what We now proceed to Scotland, the origiis styled the Gothic architecture; and the nal population of which is supposed upon illuminated manuscripts, which often afford good authority to consist of Cimbri, from curious memorials of the state of manners the Cimbric Chersonese. About two cenand knowledge. The Danish power in turies before the Christian æra, the Cimbri England, though of considerable duration in seem to have been driven to the south of the north, was in the south brief and transi- Scotland by the Caledonians or Picti, a tory. The camps of that nation were cir- Gothic colony from Norway. The Cimbri, cular, like those of the Belgæ and Saxons, a congenerous people with the Welch, conwhile those of Roman armies are known by tinued to hold the country south of the two the square form: and it is believed, that the firths of Forth and Clyde; but from the only distinct relics of the Danes are some former region they were soon expelled by castles to the north of the Humber, and a the Picti, who, in this corner, became subfew stones with Runic inscriptions. The ject for a time to the Anglo-Saxon kings of monuments styled Norman, rather to dis Bernicia. On the west, the Cumraig king. tinguish their epoch than from any informa- dom of Strath Clyde continued till the tion that Norman architects were employed, tenth century, when it became subject to are reputed to commence after the conquest, the kings of North Britain ; who at the and to extend to the fourteenth century, same time extended their authority, by the when what is called the rich Gothic began permission of the English monarchs, over to appear, which in the sixteenth century the counties of Cumberland and Westmorewas supplanted by the mixed, and this in its land, which abounding with hills and forturn yielded to the Grecian. In general the tresses on the south and east, were little acNorman style far exceeds the Saxon in the cessible to the English power; and while size of the edifices, and the decoration of the Danes possessed the country to the the parts. The churches become more ex north of Humber, could yield little revenue tensive and lofty, and though the windows or support to the Anglo-Saxon monarchs. retain the circular arch, they are larger and From the Picti originates the population of more diversified; the circular doors are fes- the Lowlands of Scotland; the Lowlanders tooned with more freedom and elegance; and having been in all ages a distinct people uncouth animals begin to yield to wreaths from those of the western Highlands, though

the Irish clergy endeavoured to render their Roman antiquities in Scotland, particularly language, which was the most smooth and their camps and stations, many of which are cultivated of the two, the polite dialogue of remarkably entire, are ably illustrated in a the court and superior classes. About the late publication of General Roy ; but the year of Christ 258, the Dalriads of Bede, ingenious author has perhaps too implicitly the Attacotti of the Roman writers, passed followed a common antiquarian error, in from Ireland to Argyleshire, and became ascribing all these camps, stations, &c. to the germ of the Scottish Highlanders, who Agricola, while they may be more justly speak the Irish or Celtic language, while the assigned to Lollius Urbicus, A. D. 140, or Lowlanders have always used the Scandina- to the Emperor Severus, A. D. 207, espe.. vian or Gothic. In reference to the an- cially indeed, to the latter, for the Emtiquities of the country, Mr. Pinkerton peror's appearance, in person, to conduct divides the early history into seven distinct two campaigns, probably as far as Inverperiods, viz. 1. The original popnlation of ness, must have occasioned the erection of Scotland by the Cimbri, and by the Picti. works more eminent and darable than 2. The entrance of Agricola into Scot- usual, the soldiers being excited by the aniland, and the subsequent conflicts with the mating controul of a military monarch. ConRomans, till the latter abandoned Britain. stantius Chlorus also, A. D. 306, made a 3. The settlement of the Dalriads or Atta- long progress into Scotland, if we trust the cotti, in Argyleshire, about the year 258, panegyrists. Nay, in the reign of Domitian, and their repulsion to Ireland about the Bolanus, as we learn from Statius the poet, middle of the fifth century. 4. The com erected several works in Britain, probably mencement of what may be called a regular in the north ; so that it is idle to impate history of Scotland, from the reign of Drust, these remains to any one author: but to a A. D. 414. 5. The return of the Dalriads, judicious eye, the claims of Lollius Urbicus, A. D. 503, and the subsequent events of apd of Severus, seem preferable. The most Dalryadic story. 6. The introduction of northerly Roman camp yet discovered, is Christianity among the Caledonians, in the that near the source of the River Ythan, reign of Brudi II, A. D. 565. 7. The union Aberdeenshire; periphery about two Engof the Picti and Attacotti, under Kenneth, lish miles. A smaller station has also been A. D. 843, after which greater civilization observed at Old Meldrum, a few miles to began to take place, and the history be- the S. E. Roman roads have been traced a comes more authentic. The monuments of considerable way in the east of Scotland, as antiquity belonging to these epochs, may be far as the county of Angus, affording some considered in the following order. of the evidence of the existence of the province first epoch, no monuments can exist, except Vespasiana; but the chief remains are withthose of the tumular kind; and it is impos- in the wall. A hypocaust was also discoversible to ascertain the period of their forma. ed near Perth, and another near Musseltion. The remains of the Roman period in burgh, so that there was probably some North Britain chiefly appear in the cele- Roman station near the Scottish capital. brated wall built in the reign of Antoninus The smaller remains of Roman antiquity Pius, between the firths of Forth and Clyde, found in Scotland, as coins, utensils

, &c. are in the ruins of which many curious inscrip numerous. With the fourth epoch may be tions have been found. Another striking said to commence the Pikish monuments of object of this epoch, was a small editice antiquity. The tombs it would be difficult vulgarly called Arthur's Oven, which seems to discriminate from those of the first rightly to have been regarded by some an epoch; but as the Caledonian kings, when tiquaries, as a small temple dedicated to the converted to Christianity, held their chief god Terminus, probably after the erection of residence at Inverness, the singular hill in the wall of Antoninus, for we are not to its vicinity, presenting the form of a boat conceive these walls were the absolute lines reversed, may, perhaps, be a monument of beyond which the Romans possessed no regal sepulture. The places of judgment territory; while, on the contrary, in the among the Gothic nations, or what are now pacific intervals, the garrisons along the wall styled Druidic temples, are numerous; and may have claimed the forage of the exterior there is a remarkable one in the Isle of fields; and the stream of Carron, beyond Lewis, where, probably, the monarchs rewhich this chapel stood, may have been sided in the most early times; but this, perconsidered as a necessary supply of water. haps, rather belongs to the Norwegian setThe remains of the wall and forts, and other' tlement in the ninth century. Some of these

monuments are of small circuit, and such are The engraved obelisks found in Forres, and sometimes found at no great distance from in other parts of Scotland, have been ascribeach other; as they were not only some ed to the Danish ravagers, who had not times erected merely as temples to Odin, time for such erections. They are, probaThor, Freyga, and other Gothic deities, but bly, monuments of signal events, raised by every chief, or lord of a manor, having juris- the king or chiefs ; and as some are found diction over many servants and slaves, such in Scandinavia, as recent as the fifteenth small courts became places of necessary awe. century, it is probable that many of the The houses seem to have been entirely of Scottish obelisks are far more modern than wood or turf; but in some spots singular ex. is generally imagined. cavations are found rudely lined with stone: We are next to consider the antiquities of these are called Weems, and it is likely that Ireland. The original population of this they were always adjacent to the wooden country passed from Gaul, and was afterresidence of some chief, and were intended wards increased by their brethren the Guy. as depositories of stores, &c. the roofs being dil from England. About the time that the too low for comfortable places of refuge, Belgæ seized on the south of England, it The stations and camps of the natives are appears that kindred Gothic tribes passed distinguished by their round form, while to the south of Ireland. These are the Firthose of the Romans belong to the square. bolg of the Irish traditions, and appear to Under the next epoch it would be difficult have been the same people whom the Ro. to discover any genuine remains of the Dal. mans denominated Scoti, after they had riads. The houses, and even the churches, emerged to their notice by not only extend, were constructed in wattle-work; and the ing their conquests to the north and east in funeral monuments were cairns or heaps of Ireland, but had begun to make maritime stones. It is probable that Christianity did not excursions against the Roman provinces in immediately dissolve ancient prejudices, and Britain, But Ireland had been so much that even the Atticottic kings were buried crowded with Celtic tribes, expelled from in this rude manner; for the genuine chroni- the continent and Britain, by the progress cles do not affirm that they were conveyed of the German Goths, that the Belgæ alto Hyona, or Ilcolmkild; and the sepulchres most lost their native speech and distinct there shewn of Irish and Norwegian kings character; and from intermarriages, &c. must be equally fabulous. To the sixth became little distinguishable from the oriépoch may probably belong a chapel orginal population, except by superior ferotwo, still remaining in Scotland, for Bede city, for which the Scoti, or those who afinforms us that Nethan III. A. D. 715, ob- fected a descent from the Gothic colonies, tained architects from Ceolfrid, abbot of were remarkable : while the original Gael Jarrow and Weremouth, to build a church in seem to have been an innocent and harmhis dominions, probably at Abernethy; but less people. The epochs in Ireland to which the round tower there remaining seems of its antiquities are referrable are the followmore recent origin. About the year 830, ing: 1. The first historical epoch of IreUngust II. founded the church of St. An- land is its original population by the Celtic drew; and the chapel called that of St. Gauls, and the subsequent colonization by Regulus, (who seems unknown in the Ro- the Belgæ. 2. The maritime excursions of man calendar) may, perhaps, claim even the Scoti against the Roman provinces in this antiquity. It is probable that these Britain. 3. The conversion of Ireland to sacred edifices in stone were soon followed Christianity in the fifth century, which was by the erection of those rude round piles, followed by a singular effect; for while the without any cement, called Piks-houses: yet mass of the people retained all the ferocity they may more properly belong to the of savage manners, the monasteries proseventh epoch, when the Danes may share duced many men of such piety and learnin the honour of the erection, for such edi- ing, that Scotia or Ireland became celefices have been traced in Scandinavia. They brated all over Christendom. 4. This lusseem to have consisted of a vast hall, open tre was diminished by the ravages of the to the sky in the centre, while the cavities Scandinavians, which began with the ninth in the wall present incommodious recesses century, and can hardly be said to have for beds, &c. These buildings are remark- ceased when the English settlement comable, as displaying the first elements of the menced. The island had been split into nuGothic castle; and the castle of Conings- merous principalities, or kingdoms as they burg in Yorkshire forms an easy transition. were styled; and though a chief monarch

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