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parts a'ided together make more than the tainty. Professing to derive his doctrine whole number: thus the parts of 20, make concerning the wcertainty of knowledge 22, viz. 1, 2, 4, 5, 10.
from Socrates, Plato, and other pluilosoACACIA, in botany, a species of mimosa. pliers, le maintained, that though there is a See MIMOSA.
real certainty in the nature of things, every Acacia, in the materia medica of the thing is uncertain to the human understandancients, a gum made from the Egyptian ing, and consequently that all contident asacacia-tree, and thought to be the same sertions are unreasonable. He thought it with our gum-arabic.
disgraceful to assent to any proposition, the ACADEMICS, a sect of philosophers truth of which is not fully established, and who followed the doctrine of Socrates and maintained that, in all questions, opposite Plato, az to the uncertainty of knowledge, opinions may be supported by arguments of and the incomprehensibility of truth. equal weight. He disputed against the
Academic, in this sense, amounts to much testimony of the senses, and the authority of the same with Piatonist; the difference be- reason; acknowledging at the same time, tween them being only in point of time. that they furnislı probable opinions sufficient They who embraced the system of Plato, for the conduct of life. However, his secret among the ancients, were called Academici; design seems to have been to establish the whereas those who have done the same, doctrine of Plato, that the knowledge desince the restoration of learning, have as rived from sensible objects is uncertain, and sumed the denomination of Platonists. We that the only true science is that which is usually reckon three sects of Academics ; employed upon the immutable objects of though some make five. The ancient Aca- intelligence, or ideas. demy was that which was founded by Plato; After the death of Arcesilaus, the Platonic and consisted of those followers of this eni- school was successively under the care of dent philosopher, who taught the doctrine Lacydes, who is said to have founded a new of their master without mixture or corrup- school, merely because he changed the tion. The first of these was Speusippus; place of instruction, and held it in the garhe was succeeded by Xenocrates. After den of Attalus, within the limits of the Acahis death the direction of the academy de- demic grove, and of Evander and Egesinus. volved upon Polemo, and then upon Crates, Arcesilaus, however, had opposed the Stoics and terminated with Crantor. After the and other dogmatical philosophers, with death of Crates, a new tribe of philosophers such violence, and extended his doctrine of arose,who, on account of certain innovations uncertainty so far, as to aların not only the in their manner of philosophising, which in generai body of philosophers, who treated some measure receded from the Platonic him as a common enemy to philosophy, but system, without entirely deserting it, have even the governors of the state, who apprebeen distinguished by the appellation of the hended that his opinions would dissolve all Second, or Middle Academy. The first the bonds of social virtue and of religion. preceptor who appears in this class, and His successors, therefore, found it difficult to who, in consequence of the innovations support the credit of the acadeiny; and which he introduced into the Platonic school, Carneades, one of the disciples of this school, has been commonly considered as the foun- relinquished, at least in words, some of the der of this academy, is Arcesilaus. Before more obnoxious tenets of Arcesilaus. the time of Arcesilaus, it was never denied, From this period the Platonic school as. that useful opinions may be deduced from sumed the appellation of the New Academy, the senses. Two sects arose about this which may be reckoned the third in order time, which threatened the destruction of from its first establishment. It was the the Platonic system; one was founded by doctrine of this academy, that the senses, Pyrrho, which held the doctrine of universal the understanding, and the imagination, frescepticism, and the other by Zeno, which quently deceive us, and therefore cannot be maintained the certainty of human know- intallible judges of truth; but that, from the ledge, and taught with great confidence a impressions produced on the mind, by means doctrine essentially different from that of of the senses, called by Carneades phantasies, Plato. In this situation, Arcesilaus thought or images, we infer appearances of truth, or it necessary to exercise a cautious reserve probabilities. These images do not always with regard to the doctrine of his master, correspond to the real nature of things, and and to conceal his opinions from the vulgar, there is no infallible method of determining under the appearance of doubt and uncer. when they are true or false; and conse
quently they afford no certain criterion of the abdomen: the pectoral fins are brown, truth. But, with respect to the conduct of and of a moderate size: the ventral rather life, and the pursuit of happiness, probable sinall, and of a similar colour: the lateral appearances are a sufficient guide, because line is strait, and situated nearer to the back it is unreasonable not to allow some degree than to the abdomen: along the lower part of credit to those witnesses who commonly of the back are ten strong but short spines, give a true report.
and beneath the abdomen twelve or thirteen ACADEMY, in Grecian antiquity, a others, which are followed by a small anal large villa in one of the suburbs of Athens, fin. (See plate I. Ichthyology, fig. 1.) where the sect of philosophers called Acade- ACANTHURUS, in natural bistory, a mics lield their assemblies. It took its genus of fishes, of the order Thoracici, of name from one Academus, or Ecademus, a which the gen. character is, teeth small, in citizen of Athens ; as our modern academies most species lobated: tail aculeated on each take theirs from it. This term was also side: general habit and appearance like the used metaphorically, to denote the sect of genus Chætodon, which see. This genus Academic Philosophers. See ACADEMICS. consists of such species of the Linnæan ge
ACADEMY, in a modern sense, signifies a nus Chætodon, as, in contradiction to the society of learned men, established for the im- principal cliaracter of that genus, have moprovement of arts or sciences. See Society. derately broad and strong teeth, rather than
ACENA, in botany, a genus of the Te slender and setaceous ones: they are also trandria Monagynia class and order of plants. furnished on each side the tail with a strong There is but a single species, which is a spine. There are twelve species, of which Mexican plant.
the principal is A. unicornis ; this is the ACALYPHA, in botany, a genus of largest of the genus, growing to the length plants belonging to the Monoecia Monodel of three feet or more. It is a native of the phia class, and the natural order of Tricoccæ, Indian and Arabian seas, in the latter of called the Tick-fruit. There are fourteen which it is generally seen in large shoals of species: the A. virginica, grows naturally in two or three hundred each, swimming with Virginia, and in Ceylon : the A. virgata is a great strength, and feeding principally on native of the warmest countries, and grows different kinds of sea-weed. This tish was plentifully in Jamaica; its leaves resemble described by Grew, in his Museum of the those of the annual nettle, and sting as Royal Society, under the name of the much. Most of the other species are na Lesser Unicorn Fish.. Fine specimens are tives of the West Indies. The plants have to be found in the British and Leverian no beauty to recommend them, and are preserved in some botanic gardens merely on ACANTHUS, Bear's BREECH, account of variety.
BRANK-Ursine, in botany, a genus of the ACANTHA, among botanists, a name Didynamia Angiospermia class, and belong. given to the prickles of thorny plants. ing to the natural order of Personatæ. There
ACANTHA is also used by zoologists for are ten species: 1. The smootlı acanthus, the spines of certain fishes, as those of the with white flowers, proceeding from about echinus marinus, &c.
tie middle to the top of the stalk, is the ACANTHACEOUS, among botanists, species used in medicine under the name of an epit:iet given to all the plants of the thistle Branca ursina, or Brank-ursine. It is a nakind, on account of the prickles with which tive of Italy, about Naples, of Sicily, Prothey are beset.
vence, and the islands of the Archipelago, ACANTHONOTUS, in natural history, and is cultivated in our gardens, and flowers a genus of fishes of the order Abdominales: in June and July. Turner (in his Herbal in the generic character is, body elongated, Hort. Kew.) informs us, that it was cultiwithout dorsal fin: spines several, on the vated in Sion gardens so long ago as the back and abdomen.
There is but one year 1551. The leaves, and particularly species, the nasus, about 30 inches long, a the roots, abound with a soft, insipid muci. native of the East Indies.
The eyes are
lage, which may be readily extracted, either large, and the nostrils conspicuous: the body, by boiling, by infusion. Rectified spirit which is of a moderate width for about the digested on the leaves, extracts from them third of its length, gradually decreases or a fine deep green tincture, which is more dutapers towards the extremity: both head rable than that which is communicated to and body are covered with small scales, and spirit by other herbs. Brank-ursine is seldom are of a bluish tinge, with a silvery cast on or ever used medicinally in this country. But
where it is common, it is employed for the to the Syngenesia Equalis class and order : same purposes to which the Althæa, or receptacle chatty, down feathery: calyx marsh-mallow, and other mucilaginous ve- imbricate, invested with scales, corol. flos getables are applied among us. In foreign cular. There are seven species. countries the cow-parsnip is said to be sub ACARUS, the tick or mite, in natural hisstituted for it, thongh it possesses very dit tory, so called because it is deemed so small ferent properties. The leaves of this species that it cannot be cut, is a genus of insects beof acantius accidentally growing round a longing to the order of Aptera, in the Linbasket covered with a tile, gave occasion to næan system. Gmelin, in the last edition Callimachus to invent the Corinthian capital of Linnæus's system, has eighty-two species; in architecture. 2. The thistle-leaved acan of which, some are inhabitants of the earthi, thus was found by Sparrman at the Cape of others of water; some live on trees and Good Hope, and has many leaves, proceed- plants, others among stones, and others on ing immediately from the root, resembling the bodies of other animals, and even under those of the thistle. 3. The prickly acan their skin. The generic character is, legs thus grows wild in Italy and Provence, and eight: eyes two, situated on each side the flowers from July to September. Its leaves lead: feclers two, jointed; egg-sliaped. The are divided into segments, terminated with most familiar species are, 1. the A. siro, or a sharp spine, which renders this plant common cheese-mite, which is a favourite troublesome to those who handle it. +. The subject for microscopic observations. This acanthus of Dioscorides, as Linnæus sup- insect is covered with hairs or bristles, which poses it to be, grows naturally in the East, resemble in their structure the awns of baron Lebanon, ác. 5. The holly-leaved acan ley, being barbed on each side with nuthus is an evergreen shrub, about fonr teet merous sharp-pointed processes. The nite lugh, and separating into many branches, is oviparous: from the eggs proceed the with leaves resembling those of the common young aniinals, resembling the parents in all holly, and bearing white flowers, similar to respects, except in the number of legs, those of the common acanthus, but smaller. which at first amount only to six, the pair 6, 7, 8, 9. These species, viz. the entire- from the head not making their appearance leaved, procumbent, forked, and Cape acan. till after casting their first skin. The egga thi, are natives of the Cape of Good Hope. in warm weather batch in about a week, 10. The Madras acanthus is a native of the and the young animal may sometimes be East Indies.
seen for a day together struggling to get rid The smooth and prickly acanthi are pe- of its egy-shell
. Tre mite is a very vorarennial plants, and may be propagated either cious animal, teasting equally upon animal by seeds, which should be sown in a light and vegetable substances. It is also exdry soil towards the end of March, and left tremely tenacious of life; for, upon the auto grow, about six inches asumder, till an- thority of Leewenhoek, though highly distuimn, when they should be transplanted creditable to his sense of humanity, we are where they are to remain; or by roots,which assured that a mite lived eleven weeks glued may be planted either in spring or autumn to a pin, in order for him to make observafor the third sort; but the others must only tions on. The A. exulcerans, or itcli be removed in the spring, because if they are mite, is a species of considerable curiosity, transplanted in autumn, they may be in on account of the structure of its limbs : it danger of being destroyed by a cold winter. is slightly rounded, and of a flattened shape, These plants take deep root, and when they with the thigiis of the two upper pair of legs are once established in a garden, they can- extremely thick and short: the two lower not be easily eradicated. The 5th and 10th pair of legs have thick thighs proceeding species are too tender to thrive out of a from a very slender base, and are extended store in England, and cannot be propagated, into a long, stout, curved, and sharp-pointed except by seeds, which do not ripen in Eu- bristle. Dr. Bononio, an Italian physician, rope. The other sorts must be treated in was the first who contended that the itch the same manner with Cape plants.
was occasioned by this insect, an account of ACANTHUS, in architecture, an ornament which may be found in the Philosophical representing the leaves of the herb acan Transactions, No. 283. Dr. Baker is inthus, and used in the capitals of the Corin- clined to think that it constitutes the psoran thian and Composite orders. See ARCHI a species of itch distinct from others con
founded with it. 3. A. autumnalis, or har. ACARNA, in botany, a genus belonging vest-bug, of a bright red colonr, with this
&bdomen boret on its hind part with nuiner syllables over which it is placed. The grave ous white bristles. It attaces ji seif to the accent is marked thus (\), and points out stiu, and is with difficulty di engagesi. On when the voice ought to be lowered. The the part wirere it fixes, it causes a tumour, circuntiex accent is compounded of the about the siza of a small bead, accompanied other two, and marked this (TM or ): it deby a severe itching. The ticic is ct' this
notes a quavering of the voice between high species, which is to be found on dogs and and low. Some call the long and short other animals. Many of the acari attach quantities of syllables, accents; but errothemselves to insects of a larger kind, and neously. hence they take their names, as A. coleopte ACCENT, in music, a term applicable to roue, found on the black beetle. (See plate every inodulation of the voice, both in 1. Entomology, fig. 1 and 2.)
speaking and in singing. It is to the study These insects, winierare often very trouble. of this that the composer and periormer some on plants, and in hot-houses, may be should unceasingly apply; since without aceftectually destroyed by the following mix cent there can be no music, because there ture. Take two cinces of soft green soap, can be no expression. one ounce of common turpentine, and one ACCEPTANCE, in common law, the onime of tour of sulphur; pour upon these tacitly a reeing to some act before done by ingredirnts a gallon of boiling water, work another, which might have been defeated the whole together with a whisk, and let the without such acceptance. Thus if a husmixture be used warm.
This mixture may band and wife, seized of land in right of the also be of use for preventing the mildew on wife, make a joint lease or feoffment, rethe peach an: apricot; but it should never serving rent, and the husband dies ; after be used on fiuit-trees near the time when which the widow receives or accepts the their fruits are ripening. A strong ley rent ; such receipt is deemed an acceptance, made of wood-ashes will likewise destroy confirms the lease of feoffment, and bars the acari; but plants are greatly injured her from bringing the writ cui in rita. by this, and by briny and spirituous compo ACCEPTANCE, among merchants, is the sitions.
signing or subscribing a bill of exchange, ACAU LOSE, or ACAULOUS, among bo by which the acceptor obliges himself to tanists, a term use such plants as have pay 'tle contents of the bill. no caulis, or stem. See CAULIS.
Bilis payable at sight are not accepted, ACCEDAS ad curium, in law, a writ ly becanse they must either be paid on being ing where a man hath received, or fears presented, or else protested for want of false judgment, in a hundred-court, or court payment. baron. It is issued out of the Chancery, The acceptance of bi!ls payable at a fixed and direct to the sheriff, but returnable day, at usance, or double usance, &c. need in the King's-bench or Common-pleas. It not be dated : because the time is reckoned lies also for justice delayed, and is said to be from the date of the bill; but it is necessary a species of the writ Recordare.
to date the acceptance of bills payable at a ACCELERATION, in mechanics, de certain number of days after siglt, because notes the augmentation or increase of mo the time does not begin to run till the next tion in accelerated bodies.
day after that acceptance: this kind of acThe term aceleration is chiefly used in ceptance is made thus, Accepted such a day speaking of telling bodies, or the tendency und yiar', and signed. See EXCHANGE. of heavy bodies towards the centre of the ACCESSARY, or Accessory, in comearth produced by the power of gravity; mon law, is chiefly used for a person guilty which, acting const:ntly and uniformly upon of a felonious offence, not principally, but tiem, they must necessarily acquire every by participation; as, by advice, command, instant a new increase of motion. See or concealment. There are two kinds of GRVT1110x.
accessaries; before the fact, and after it. ACCELERATOR. See ANATOMY. The first is he who commands, or procures
ACCENT, among grammarians, is the another to commit felony, and is not present raising or lowering of the voice in propounc. himself; for it he be present, he is a prining certain syllables of words.
cipal. We have three kir is of accents, viz, the The second is he who receives, assists, or acute, the gave, and circunflex. The acute comforts any man that has done murder, or accent, marked thus (), shews that the felony, whereof he has knowledge. A man voice is to be raised in pronouncing the may also be accessary to an accessary, by
aiding, tereiving, &c. an accessary in felony. of ornament, as the belt, mantling, sng. An accessary in felony shall have judg- porters, &c. ment of life and memher, as well as the Accompaniment is also used for several principal, who did the felony: but not till bearings abont a principal one, as a saltier, the principal be that attainted, and con bend, foss, &c. victed, or outlawed thereon. Where the ACCOMPLICE, in law, a person who principal is pardoned witr out attainder, the is privy to, or aiding in, the perpetration of accessary cannot be arraigned; it being a some crime. See AccESSARY. maxim in law, Ubi nou est principalis, non
ACCORD, in law, a verbal agreement potest esse accessorius. But if the princi
between two or more, where any one is inpal be pardoned, or have his clergy after at- jured by a trespass, or other offence comtainder, the accessary shall be arraigned. mitted, to make satisfaction to the injured 4 and 5 W. and M. cap. 4 ; and by stat. 1 party; who, after the accord is performed, Amne, cap. 9, it is enacted, that where the will be barred in law from bringing any principal is convicted of felony, or stands new action against the aggressor for the mate, or challenges above twenty of the same trespass. It is safest, however, in jury, it shall be lawful to proceed against pleading, to allege satisfaction, and not ac. the accessary in the same manner as if the
cord alone; because, in this last case, a preprincipal had been attainted; and notwith cise execution in every part thereof must be standing such principal stall be admitted to alleged; whereas, in the former, the des his cleryy, pardoned, or delivered before fendant needs only say, that he paid the attainder. In some cases also, if the prin- plaintiff such a sum in full satisfaction of the. cipal cannot be taken, then the accessary accord, which he received. may be prosecuted for a misdemeanor, and ACCOUNTANT-generul, in the court of punished by fine, imprisonment, &c. stat. Chancery, an officer appointed by act of ib. see stat. 5 Anne, cap. 51. In the lowest parliament to receive all monies lodged in and highest offences there are no accessaries, court, and convey the same to the bank of but all are principals: as in riots, routs,
England for better security. The salary of forcible entries, and other trespasses, which
this officer and his clerks is to be paid out are the lowest offences. So also in the highest
of the interest made of part of the money ; offence, which is, according to our law, high it not being allowable to take fees in this treason, there are no accessaries. Cok. office. Counterfeiting the hand of the acLittlet. 71,
countant-general is felony, without clergy, ACCIDENT. See Logic.
by 12 Geo. I. c. 32. ACCIPITRES, or rapacious birds, in ACCOUTREMENTS, in a military the Linnæan system of ornithology, the first sense, signify the furniture of a soldier, such order of birds; the characters of which are, as puffs, belts, pouches, cartridge boxes, &c. that the bill bends downwards, that the up
ACCROCHE', in heraldry, denotes a per mandible is dilated a little on both sides thing's being hooked into another. towards the point, or armed with a tooth ACER, maple, in botany, a genus of the like process, and that the nostrils are wide; Monoecia order and Polygamia class of the legs are short and strong: the feet are plants, and belonging to the natural order of the perching kind, having three toes for
of Trihilata. There are 25 species. See wards and one backwards; the toes are
MAPLE. warty under the joints, with claws hooked ACETATES, in chemistry, a genus of and sharp at the points. The body, head, salts formed by the acetic acid. They may and neck, are musculous, and the skin very be distinguished by the following properties : tough. The birds of this order subsist by they are decomposed by heat; the acid bepreying on other animals, and on dead car- ing partly driven off, partly destroyed :casses, and they are unfit for food. They live they are very soluble in water :-when mixed in pairs, and are monogamous; and build with sulphuric acid, and distilled in their nests in lofty situations. The female derate heat, acetic acid is disengaged :is generally larger and stronger than the when they are dissolved in water, and ex. male, and usually lays four eggs at a time. posed to the open air, their acid is gradually This order corresponds to that of Feræ, and decomposed. comprehends four genera, viz. Vultur, ACETIC acid, in chemistry. This acid FALCO, Strix, and LANIUS, which see. is employed in different states, which have
ACCOMPANIMENT, in heraldry, de- been distinguished from each other by pecuDotes any thing added to a shield by way liar names. When first prepared, it is called