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Parker, Canden, Sir Robert Cotton, Stowe, those which relate to the ancient state of and others. Application was made in 1589 the Christian church ; and into whatever beto Queen Elizabeth for a charter, and house longs to the ancient laws, ceremonies, in which they might hold their meetings, events, &c. that occur in the scriptures. erect a library, &c. But the death of the These, indeed, form a branch of ecclesisovereign put an end to the design. In astical antiquities, and bear a near relation 1717, this society was revived again, and to the Jewish antiquities, concerning which has continued without interruption; and at we have many respectable authorities, present, it is in a very flourishing state. There are persons who would dednce most consisting of learned men in every rank of of the heathen antiquities from the manners life. The society was incorporated in 1751 and customs described in the Bible; while and began to publish an account of its dis- others, as Spencer, take the opposite course, coveries in 1770, under the title of “ Archæ- and deduce the antiquities of the Bible from ologia :" fifteen volumes in quarto are al . those of heathenism. Perhaps a middle ready published.
course would be nearer the truth, as it is ANTIQUITIES, a term implying all tes- absolutely necessary, in interpreting scriptimonies, or authentic accounts, that have ture, to attend to the heathen antiquities come down to us of ancient nations. Ac- alluded to in them ; and these not only such cording to Lord Bacon, antiquities may be as are directly aimed at or approved, but considered as the wrecks of history, or such also such as are purposely opposed. Na-. particulars as industrious and learned per- tional antiquities are those employed in sons have collected from genealogies, in- . tracing the origin, ancient actions, usages, scriptions, monuments, coins, names, ety- monuments, remains, &c. of some nation mologies, archives, instruments, fragments or people: and it may be observed, that alof history, &c.: in this sense the study of most every nation lays claim to a greater antiquities leads us to inquire into the ori- degree of antiquity than the rest of its gin and early epochas of every nation and neighbours. The Scythians, the Phrygians, people, whether ancient or modern. Hence the Chaldeans, Egyptians, Greeks, Chithe study of antiquities, as a science, has nese, &c. pretend each to have the honour become, in almost every civilized country, of being the first inhabitants of the earth : an interesting pursuit to men of leisure and several of these nations, lest they should be curiosity. By many persons it has been surpassed in their pretensions by any of the sufficient to investigate the ancient remains rest, have traced up their origin to ages of Greece and Rome ; but others, who have long before the received account of the taken a more enlarged, and, what we deem, creation. Hence the appellations “ aboria more proper view of the subject, in- gines,'"" indigenæ,” “terrægenæ," "anteclude in the science the antiquities of the lunares," &c. Jews, Egyptians, Phænicians, Carthagi The history and antiquities of nations nians, and, in short, all those principal na and societies have been objects of inquiry, tions mentioned in ancient history. Our inasmuch as they enable the mind to sepaview of the subject must necessarily be rate truth from falsehood, and tradition contracted, and the most we can aim at is, from evidence, to establish what had proto excite a laudable curiosity in the young, bability for its basis, or to explode what and to direct them to objects that may en rested only on the vanity of the inventors gage their attention, and to the authors and propagators : of this we have a striking most likely to furnish information under the instance in the Chaldeans, who pretend to several heads of inquiry and research. astronomical observations of nearly 500,000
This study has for its chief objects the years. They mention the king who reigned ceremonies, customs, and usages which ob over them at tire time of the deluge, and tained in ancient times, either with regard attribute to him several things which we to persons, places, or things. Writers have ascribe to Noah. The Chaldaic antiquities accordingly divided antiquities into civil and of Berosus are, however, lost, except a few ecclesiastical : including under the former fragments which have been collected by head whatever relates to political, military, Joseph Scaliger, and Fabricius. To supply literary, and domestic concerns; and under the chasm, Annius Viterbo, a Dominican the latter, the subjects connected with re monk, towards the close of the 15th cenligion, as the worship, discipline, and faith tury, forged the work of Berosus, which of ancient times and people. Christians he published at Rome in 1498. He went have usgaily separated their antiquities into farther, and produced a supplement to Be..
rosus, supposed to have been written by antiquities of the Jews are supposed to be Manetho, containing details of what hap- connected with those of Egypt, since Mopened from the time of Ægyptus, king of ses, their great lawgiver, was educated in Egypt, to the origin of the Roman state. the schools of Egyptian learning, and was Unfortunately for the credit of the industri- deeply conversant in all their sciences. ous monk, Manetho lived before Berosus, Many of the metaphors and other allusions by which the fraud was detected.
found in the first five books of the Bible The first traces of every history were are supposed to have some reference to the rude and imperfect, which renders the of: symbols of the Egy ian priests. If we fice of the antiquarian of the utmost im were, therefore, able to come at a faithful portance to the faithful and diligent histo account of the antiquities of Egypt we might rian. Better methods of preserving facts hope to attain an illustration of many things succeeded. The unchisseled stone, or the which are still obscure and dark belonging rudest hieroglyphic, arcompanied the songs to the Jewish economy, both civil and saof the bards to perpetuate the achievements cred. Of Egypt, alas ! once renowned of a whole nation, or a few individuals; for its laws, the commerce of her cities, till the use of letters, and the complicated the grandeur of her buildings, and the fertransactions, claims, and interests of men tility of territory, little is left to gratify the taught them to multiply memorials, and draw laudable curiosity of moderns. Those who them up with more skill and accuracy.
have spent much time and labour in appreThe history contained in the Old Testa- ciating the worth and merits of the anment is unquestionably the most ancient cients, admit that the earliest nations of well-authenticated collection of facts, that the world were fed with the produce of has come down to the present times. These Egyptian soil, and enriched with the wealth records go much beyond the flood, the and wisdom obtained in that portion of boundary to the annals of every other na Africa. Upper Egypt furnished the matetion that lays a just claim to credit. The rials of marble and porphyry, with which Jews, who are closely connected with this the most stupendous works of art were part of history, trace back their ancestry to reared : and to Hermes Trismegistus, or, the common parents of the human race. as he is sometimes called, Thoth, are The antiquities of this wonderful nation ascribed, among the Egyptians, the invenhave been treated of hy numerous writers, tions of chief use in human life. Their whose works are monuments of great learn- priests maintained that from the hieroglying and indefatigable industry; and it will phic characters upon the pillars which he
e admitted, that the fate of a people scat- erected, and the sacred books, all the phitered over the globe, who have been subject losophy and learning of the world has been to persecutions, more or less severe, for so
derived. many centuries; who have never amalgamat Egypt seems itself to have been ined, if we may so speak, with any other nation debted for its original population to the under heaven, but have remained distinct, northern parts of Arabia and Syria, the for wise and important ends, cannot but in- Egyptians and Abyssinians having been terest the curious inquirer. The history of always wholly distinct from the native natheir origin, ordinances, and vicissitudes, tions of Africa, The Copts, or original previously to the Christian æra, is to be inhabitants, it has been observed by trahad in the Old Testament: their subsequent vellers, have no resemblance whatever ruin and dispersion are predicted by Christ of the negro features or form; but a strong in the New Testament, and treated of at likeness may be traced between the make large by Josephus, who flourished at Rome of the visage in the modern Copts, and under Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian, that presented in the ancient mummies, and who published his great work on the paintings, and statues. Their complexion, Jewish Antiquities during the life and reign like that of the Arabs, is of a dusky of the latter. On the same subject we brown. It is represented of the same cohave a multitude of more modern writers lour in the paintings which may be seen in from Ugolinus' Thesaurus, consisting of the tombs of Thebes. The chief antiquimore than thirty volumes folio, and com ties are the pyramids, and the tombs near prising all the best works written previously Thebes, recently disclosed, with many to the middle of the last century, to the ruins of temples, and other remains of anoctavos Dr. Jennings evidently intended as cient cities. Dr. White, in the “Egyptiaca," a 'mere introduction to the subject. The a work which contains much valuable in
formation on the subject, says, the cele veral volumes of the “ Asiatic Researches," brated column ascribed to Pompey, orua much solid information on Indian antiquities mented a space opposite to the temple of may be had in a short compass. By that great Serapis, in which was a great public li man, whose loss cannot be sufficiently labrary. Besides the ancient remains already mented, a society was formed for inquiring noticed, we may mention the colossal into the history, antiquities, arts, sciences, sphyox; Cleopatra's needle ; the marble and literature of Asia. Having founded the sarcophagus reputed to be Alexander's institution, he gave it celebrity by his own tomb; and the triple inscription from Ro- admirable discourses ; of these the first was setta, in the hieroglyphic, the vernacular on the orthography of Asiatic words in RoEgyptian, and the Greek characters. The man letters, a want of attention to which writers on Egyptian antiquities are very had occasioned much confusion in history numerous. Among the ancients may be and geography. Not contented with pointnoted Herodotus, Pausanias, Strabo, Di- ing out radical defects, he proposed a sysodorus Siculus, and Plutarcb. Herodotus, tem, which was useful to the learned, and Thales, and Pythagoras, were initiated into essential to the progress of the student. all the mysteries of the Egyptian priests. His other dissertations, to which the reader The mythology of the country is fully ex may be referred, were all in a greater or plained in Joblonski's “ Pantheon Egyptia- less degree, connected with the antiquities cuum.” On the Egypt of modern times we of India. By India is meant the whole exhave the works of Pocock, Niebuhr, Son tent of country in which the primitive reli. nini, and Denon, which may be consalted gion and language of the Hindoos prevail with advantage. Greaves and Nordon bave at this day, and in which the Nægari letters written on the pyramids, and the mummies are still used with more or less deviation are described by the celebrated Kircher. from their original form. Its inhabitants
The illustration of the antiquities of In- have no resemblance either in their figure or dia is more difficult, but discoveries are manners to any of the nations contiguous still making in that vast extent of country.
to them. Their sources of wealth are still To that great patriot, philosopher, and le
abundant. In their manufactures of cotton gislator, Sir William Jones, we are greatly they surpass the other nations of the world!; indebted for much valuable information on and though now degenerate and abased, this subject. Mr. Halhed, indeed, in 1776,
there remains enough to show, that in some gave the first specimen which appeared of early age they were well-versed in arts and the early wisdom of the Indians, and their arms, happy in government, wise in legisextensive skill in jurisprudence. In the lation, and eminent in various branches of year 1785, the Bhagvat Geeta was edited knowledge. by Mr. Wilkins. The theological and meta In this place we may briefly notice the physical doctrines of this work were repre Sanscrit language, which, wiatever may be sented to be of the profoundest kind, and its antiquity, is of a very singular strucit was said to contain all the grand myste ture; more perfect than the Greek, more ries of the Hindoo religion, and laid claim copious than the Latin, and more retined to the antiquity of 4,000 years. Other than either, yet bearing to both a stronger works of high reputation have succeeded, affinity, both in the roots of verbs, and in among these are the “ Indian Antiquities,” the forms of grammar, than could possibly by Maurice, which have, in a great mea have been produced by accident. Of their sure, cleared the ground for the student, philosophy it has been observed, that in the and given him a sort of clue for farther in more retired scenes, in groves, and in sevestigations. By his labours, the ancient mivaries of learning, we may perceive the geographical divisions of India, according Brahmans and the Sarmanas of Clemens to the classical writers of Greece and Rome, disputing in the forms of logic, or discoursand of Hindostan, according to the Hindoos ing on the vanity of human enjoyments, on themselves, are reconciled ; the analogies of the immortality of the soul, hier emanation the Brahmanic with other systems of theo from the eternal mind, her debasement, wanlogy considered ; and the grand code of civil derings, and final union with her source. laws, the original form of government, and The ancient monuments of Hindostan are the literature of Hindostan, are compared very numerous, and of various descriptions, with the laws, government, and literature exclusive of the tombs and other editices of of Persia, Egypt, and Greece. From Sir the Mahometan conquerors. Some of the William Jones's papers published in the se most reinarkable are excavated temples,
statnes, relievos, &c. in an island near letters in the country, so that it is difficult to Bombay; but the most magnificent and distinguish where fable concludes, and real extensive are near the town of Ellora, about history begins. From the Phænician and two hundred miles east of Bombay. The Egyptian colonies the Greeks first received latter are minutely described and illustrated the culture of humanity. By the Phæniwith plates in the sixth volume of the Asiatic cians they were instructed in trade, navigaResearches. The idols represented seem tion, and the use of letters; and by the clearly to belong to the present mythology Egyptians in civil wisdom, the politer of Hindostan; but at what period these sciences, and religious mysteries. The anedifices were modelled, whether three hun- tiquities of such a country, which became dred or three thousand years ago, cannot be in after ages so illustrious in the annals of easily ascertained. Several ancient grants mankind, cannot fail to have excited a conof land, some coins, and seals, have also siderable degree of interest in every age : been found, which, however, do not greatly they have accordingly been carefully and correspond with the exaggerated ideas en minutely investigated by writers celebrated tertained concerning the early civilisation of alike for their erudition and industry. Of this renowned country; while the Egyptian these we can enumerate but a small portion pyramids, temples, and obelisks, strongly in comparison of the many that have treated confirm the accounts preserved by ancient on the subject. Bishop Potter, to whom historians. Though the mythology of the we have already referred, Bos, and others, Hindoos may pretend to great antiquity, have drawn up systems or abridgments of yet their present form of religion is suppos the whole, or at least of whatever relates to ed to vary considerably from the ancient. the religion, the gods, the vows, and the It is inferred that while the religion of temples of Greece: on the public weal and Boodha, still retained by the Birmans and magistracy, Stephanus aud Van Dale are other adjacent nations, was the real ancient well worthy of notice: on the laws and system of Hindostan, the religion of the punishments of Greece, we have Meursins Hipdoos is artfully interwoven with the and Petit: on military concerns, Arrian and common offices of life; and the different Ælian are well known: on their gymnastic casts are supposed to originate from Brah art and exercises, Joubert and Faber may be ma, the immediate agent of creation under mentioned: on the theatres and scenic exthe Supreme Power.
hibitions, Scaliger and the abbe Barthelemy The remains of architecture and sculpture have written: besides these, we have many seem to prove an early connection between writers on their entertainments, on their India and Africa. Of the ancient arts and marriages, the education of their children, manufactures little is known, excepting the and their funeral ceremonies. The best labours of the Indian loom and needle. The relics which display the former splendor of Hindoos are said to have boasted of three the Grecian states, have been preserved by inventions, viz. the method of instruction by Stuart in his Athens : in the Ionian Anti“ apologues,” “ the decimal scale,” and quities, and in the Voyage Pittoresque de la “ the game of chess."
Greece. The finest specimens of its sculpOf the antiquities of Greece and Rome ture in this country, are to be found among much has been written that merits the at the Townley marbles : and of its coinage in tention of the student in literature: these the cabinet of Dr. Hunter. are subjects in which every well educated It may be worthy of notice, in connection youth is made conversant at an early period. with the antiquities of Greece, that the anThey are taught in all our classical schools, as cient inonuments of European Turkey now necessary to the elucidation of those works exceed in number and importance those of that are read in the attaipment of the an any other conntry. The remains of ancient cient languages. Potter on the Greek An- Athens, in particular, formerly the chosen tiquities, and Kennet and Adams on those seat of the arts, have attracted the attention of Roman, are familiar to every ear: in of many travellers, and have accordinglybeen their kind they are truly respectable, though frequently described with accuracy and they may be regarded only as elementary taste. The church dedicated to the Divine treatises, calculated rather to excite a taste Wisdom, usually denominated in the page for the st::dy, than to satisfy the inquirer of history Sancta Sophia, is a venerable in pursuit of knowledge.
monument of antiquity, and has been preservThe first accounts of Greece are derived ed from the sixth century, when it was built from ages long before the common use of by Justinian, to the present period. The
architecture is very inferior to that of the work. To these may be added one of the classical period, yet by those who have wit- oldest authors on the subject. viz. Dionysius nessed it, we are told the effect is grand Halicarnasseus, who traced the origin of the and impressive, and the cupola is admired Romans, with great fidelity, back to the as a bold and skilful effort of the art, while remotest ages. His accounts are genethe seeming weight is diminished by the rally preferred to those of Livy, because lightness of the materials, being bricks they are more ample, and his facts are formed of a particular clay that will float described with more particulars; and on in the water. The interior is adorned with the ceremonies, worship, sacrifices, mancolumns of various and very beautiful de- ners, customs, discipline, policy, courts, scriptions, viz. the Phrygian purple, the Spar- laws, &c. he is perhaps the most authentic tan green, the red and white Canan, and writer. many others. To this may be added, that These, and other authors that might be the French have recently discovered the cited, have chiefly confined their account remains of an ancient sea-port belonging to Rome, properly so called, we might dito Sparta, near a promontory, which gress, and notice the antiquities of those projects from the south of the Morea, and states, both in Europe and other parts of we are informed that the antiquities of that the globe, which were held under the domi. part now styled Albania, still present an nion of the Roman power; but this would extensive field of research to the student in lead us into a very wide field: we shall, this department of science.
however, in the connection notice those “ Nothing” says Dr. Adams, in the pre- belonging to Spain, which was 500 years face to his Roman Antiquities, “has more under the Roman power. engaged the attention of literary men than Spain was originally peopled by the Afri. to trace from ancient monuments the insti- cans and German Gauls: it then became tutions and laws, the religion, the manners the prey of the Carthaginians: to these and customs of the Romans, under the succeeded the Romans. It was afterwards general name of Roman Antiquities. This held successively in subjection by the Vanbranch of knowledge,” continues he, “ is dals, the Visigoths, and the Arabs or Moors. not only curious in itself, but absolutely Of the first of these epochs few remains necessary for the understanding the classics, exist, excepting some tumuli, and other and for reading with advantage the history rude monuments. Nor are there any cer. of that celebrated people. It is particularly tain relics of the Carthaginians in Spain necessary for such as prosecute the study of but coins, which have been found in consithe civil law. Scarcely on any subject have derable numbers. The Roman antiquities more books been written, and many of them are numerous, of which, however, we shall by persons of distinguished abilities.” We notice but few. The aqueduct at Segovia may, as a guide to the student, enumerate is a noble edifice, consisting of 159 arches, the writers from whom Dr. Adams chiefly extending about 740 yards, and is rather compiled his own work, as these will be the more than 94 feet in height where it crosses best authorities for those persons who would the valley. Morviedo, the ancient Sagunenter deeply into the study. To Manutius, tum, and Tarragona, the ancient Tarraco, Brissonius, and Middleton, he was indebted afford many curious remains of antiquity. for his facts relating to the business of the The theatre is capable of receiving 10,000 senate: to Pignorius, on slaves : to Lidonius people, and is hewn out of a solid rock, the and Grucchins, Manutius, Huber, Gravina, labour of which was less than might at first Merula, Heineccius, for what relates to the be expected, as the Spanish rocks are geassemblies of the people, the rights of nerally calcareous, or of gypsum. The Visi, citizens, the laws and judicial proceedings: goth kings have left few relics except their with respect to the duties and privileges of coins, which are struck in gold, a metal at magistrates, the art of war, the shows of the that period unknown to the other European circus, and the feats of gladiators, he had mints. Numerous and splendid are the morecourse to Lipsius :-to Sheffer lie applied numents of the Moors in Spain. The mosque for information on naval affairs, and car. at Cordova is one of the chief; this surriages: to Kermannus, on funerals: to Ar- prizes travellers with the multitude of its buthnot, on coins: to Donatus, on the city: columns, which are said to be 800). The to Turnebus, Salmasius, Grævius, Grono- Christian antiquities here, as in other places, vius, Montfaucon, Gesner, and others, upon are churches, castles, and mouasteries. different subjects scattered through his. The antiquities of Portugal consist also VOL. I.