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Fw... Antelope stresiaros : striped antelope - Fig.2.A Oreas : Indian Antelope Fio.z.White Intelope . Fia. 4. A.6inu - F10.5.Cherrotain_Fqg.o. Jeminna.
London Published by Lewman Hurst Rees drone Ipril 1808.
Hiroat to the breast, are some long hairs from the prodigious leaps it takes on the sight hanging down; the breast and belly are of anybody. When alarmed, it has the power grey; the tail is two feet long, brown above, of expanding the white space about the tail white beneath, and black at the end. into the form of a circle, which returns to The Gnu, tbe Hottentot name for a
its linear form when the animal is tranquil. singular animal, which, with respect to its They migrate annually from the interior form, is between the horse and the ox.-It parts in small herds, and continue in the is about the size of a common galloway, the neighbonrhood of the Cape for two or three length of it being somewhat above five feet, months ; then join companies, and go off in and the height rather more than four. This troops consisting of many thousands, coveranimal is of a dark-brown colour; the tail ing the great plains for several hours in and mane of a light grey; the shag on the their passage : are attended in their migrachin and breast, and the stiff hairs which tions by numbers of lions, hyænas, and other stand erect on the forehead and upper part wild beasts, which make great destruction of the face, are black; the curvature of the among them: are excellent eating, and, horns is singular; and the animal is repre- with other antelopes, are the venison of the sented in the figure in the attitude of butting, Cape. Mr. Masson informs us, that they to give an idea of their form and position. also make periodical migrations, in seven or The legs of the gnu are small; its hair is very eight years, in herds of many hundred thoufine; and it has a cavity beneath each eye, sands, from the north, as he supposes, from like most of the antelope kind.
the interior parts of Terra de Natal. They The Cheyrotain and Meminna.—The are compelled to it by the excessive drought Chevrotain, or little Guinea Deer, is the which happens in that region, when somesmallest of all the antelope kind, the least times there does not fall a drop of rain for of all cloven.footed quadrupeds, and we
two or three years. These animals, in their may add, the most beantiful. Its legs at course, desolate Caffraria, spreading over the smallest part are not much thicker than the whole country, and not leaving a blade a tobacco-pipe; it is not more than seven
of grass. Lions attend them: where one of inches in height, and about twelve from those beasts of prey are, the place is known the point of the nose to the insertion by the vast void visible in the midst of the of the tail; its ears are broad; and its horns, timorous herd. On its approach to the which are straight, and scarcely two inches Cape, it is observed that the avant guard is long, are black and shining as jet; the co
very fat, the centre less so, and the rear lour of the hair is a reddish brown; in some
guard almost starved, being reduced to live a beautiful yellow, very short and glossy.
on the roots of the plants devoured by those These elegant little creatures are natives of which went before; but on their return they Senegal and the hottest parts of Africa; become the avant gnard, and thrive in their they are likewise found in India, and in turn on the renewed vegetation; while the many of the islands belonging to that former, now changed into the rear guard, vast continent. In Ceylon, there is an ani are famished, by being compelled to take inal of this kind called Meminna, which is with the leavings of the others. ' T'hese aninot larger than a bare, but perfectly resem mals are quite fearless, when assembled in bling a fallow-deer. It is of a grey colour; such mighty armies, nor can a man pass the sides and haunches are spotted and through unless he compels them to give barred with white; its ears are long and way with a whip or stick. When taken open; and its tail short. None of these young, they are easily domesticated : the small animals can subsist but in a warm clis males are very wanton, and are apt to butt mate. They are so extremely delicate, that at strangers with their horns. it is with the utmost difficulty they can be sile white part on the end of the back of brought alive into Europe, where they soon
this animal is a highly singular circumstance. perish. They are gentle, familiar, most It is formed by a duplicature of the skin in beautifully formed, and their agility is such, that part, the inside and edges being milk that they will bound over a wall twelve feet white; when the animal is at rest, the edges. high. In Gujnca, they are called Guevei. alone appear, resembling a white stripe, but The female has no jorns,
when alarmed, or in motion, the cavity, or The Springer, Antelope,—is an elegantspe- white intermediate space, appears in form cies, wei hs about fifty pounds, and is rather of a large oval patch of that colour. less thau a roe-back: inhabits the Cape of The Scythian Antelope, or Saiga, which Good Hope; called there the Spring bock, is tbe only one of the species that is to be
found in Europe. The form of its body re gau, or the blue or grey bull. It was one sembles the domestic goat, but its horns of the objects of the chace with that mighty are those of an antelope, being marked by monarch during his journey: they were invery prominent rings, with furrows be- closed by his army of hunters within nets, tween; they are a foot long, the ends which being drawn closer and closer, at smooth, of a pale-yellow colour, almost length formed a small precinct, into which, transparent. The male is covered with the king and bis omrahs and hunters enterrough hair, like the he-goat, and has a ed, and killed the nilgaus with arrows, strong scent; the female is smoother, horn spears, and musquets; and that sometimes less, and timid. The general colour is a in such numbers, that Aurengzebe used to dirty white. When they are attacked by send quarters as presents to all his great wolves or dogs, the males stand round the people. The nilgau bas of late years been females, forming a circle, with their heads often imported into Europe, and has bred towards the enemy, in which posture they in England. In confinement, it is generally defend their charge. Their common pace pretty gentle, but is sometimes seized with is a trot, when they go faster, it is by leaps; tits of sudden caprice, when it will attack and are swifter than roe-bucks. When they with great violence the objects of its disfeed, they are obliged to go backward, ow- pleasure. When the males fight, they drop ing to the length of the upper lip, which
on their knees at some distance from each they lift up. Their skin is soft, and excel- other, and gradually advance in that attilent for gloves, belts, &c. They are found tude, and at length inake a spring at each in flocks from six to ten thousand, on the other with their heads bent low. This acbanks of the Tanais and Boristhenes. The tion, however, is not peculiar to the nilgau, young are easily tamed, and will readily re but is observed in many others of the anteturn to their master, when turned out on lope tribe. The nilgau is said to go with the desert.
young about nine months, and to produce The Nilgau, or White-footed Antelope,– sometimes two at a birth: the young is of is a large and beautiful species, known only
the colour of a fawn. within the space of a few years past. Its Antelope Leucoryx, or White Antelope,height is four feet one inch to the top of the is entirely milk-white, except the markings shoulders, and its length, from the bottom on the face and limbs. It is an inhabitant of the neck to the base of the tail, four feet. of an island in the Gulf of Bassora. See The colour of the nilgau is a fine dark-grey Plate Mammalia, fig. 14-6. or slate-colour, with a large spot of white ANTHEM, a church-song performed in beneath the throat, and two white bands cathedral service by choristers, who sing or marks above each foot : the cars are alternately. It was formerly used to denote large, white within, and edged with the both psalms and hymns, when sung in this same colour, and marked internally by two
But at present, anthem is used black stripes : along the top of the neck in a more confined sense, being applied to runs a slight mane of black hair, which is
certain passages taken out of the scripcontinued to some distance down the back, tures, and adapted to a particular solemnity. and on the breast is a much longer mane or ANTHEMIS, in botany, chamomile, a hanging tuft of a similar colour: the tail is genus of the Syngenesia Superflua class and moderately long, and terminated by a tuft order. Receptacle chaffy ; seeds generally of black bair : the horns are short, pointed, crowned with a slight border ; calyx he. smooth, triangular at their base, distant from mispherical, nearly equal ; florets of the each other, bent very slightly forwards, and ray more than five, oblong. There are two of a blackish colour. The female resem divisions of this genus, namely A. with a bles the male in general appearance, but is differently coloured or white ray; and B. considerably smaller, of a pale brown co ray the colour of the disk or yellow; there lour, and is destitute of horns : the mane, are about forty species. pectoral tuft, and ears, resemble those of ANTHERÆ, among botanists, denote the male, and the feet are marked above the little roundish or oblong bodies, on the the hoofs by three transverse bars of black tops of the stamina of plants. and two of white. The nilgau is a native The anthera is the principal part of the of the interior parts of India. According male organ of generation in plants, anto Mr. Pennant, it abounded in the days of swering to the glans penis in animals. It Aurengzebe between Delli and Lahor, on is tumid and hollow, containing a fine pow. the way to Cashmire, and was called nyl- der, called farina fæcundans.
ANTHERICUM, in botany, a genus of genus of insects of the order Coleoptera. plants of the Hexandria Monogynia class and Essen. char. antennæ clavate, the club soorder. Cor. six-petalled, spreading, perma. lid; feelers unequal, filiformn; jaws memnent; filaments uniform; capsule superior; branaceous, linear, bitid; lip entire ; head seeds angular. There are three divisions. hidden under the thorax. There are 13 A. leaves channelled; filaments mostly species. beardless : B. leaves fleshy; filaments ANTHROPOMORPHA, in the Linnabearded : C. stamina dilated in the middle; an system of zoology, a class of animals, reroot bulbous. There are between 50 and sembling in some degree the human form; 60 species.
the distinguishing characteristic of which is, ANTHERYLIUM, a genus of the Ico that all the animals comprehended in it sandria Monogynia class and order. Calyx have four fore teeth in each jaw, and the inferior, four-parted; petals four; cap teats are situated on the breast. Besides sule one-celled, three-valved, many-seeded. the buman species, which stands at the There is but a single species, a tree found
head of this class, it likewise comprehends at St. Thomas's Island.
the monkey and sloath kinds. ANTHISTERIA, in botany, a genus of ANTHYLLIS, the bladder lotus, in bothe Polygamia Monoecia class and order. tany, a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria Hermaphrodite; forets sessile, male florets class of plants, the corolla whereof is papedicelled; calyx four-valved, three or four- pilionaceous; the fruit is a small roundislı tlowered, coriaceous: corol, glume two- legume, composed of two valves, and convalved, awnless ; filaments three; styles taining one or two seeds. This genus is setwo; stigmata clavate; seed one. There is parated into the A. herbaceous and B. but a single species.
sbrubby; there are of the former 12 speANTHOCEROS, a genus of the Cryp- cies, of the latter nine. togamia Hepaticæ. Male; six parted or ANTICHORUS, in botany, a genus of entire; antheræ three to eight, obovate, in the Octandria Monogynia class and order. the bottom of the calyx. Female; calyx Calyx four-leaved; petals four ; capsule susessile, cylindrical and entire. There are perior, subulate, four-celled, four-valved ; fonr species.
seeds numerous. There is only one species, ANTHOLOMA, in botany, a genus of found in Arabia. the Polyandria Monogynia class and order. ANTIDESMA, in botany, a genas the Calyx two to four-leaved; cor, cup-shaped; Dioecia Pentandria class of plants, the camany seeded. There is but a single spe- lyx of which is a perianthiuin, consisting of cies, a shrub found in Caledonia.
tive oblong concave leaves; there is no coANTHOLYZA, in botany, a genus of rolla; the fruit is a cylindric berry, conthe Triandria Monogynia class and order. taining one cell; in which is lodged a sinCorol. tubular, six-cleft, unequal, recurv gle seed. There are three species found in ed; capsule inferior. There are six species, the East Indies and China. all found at the Cape.
ANTIMONY, in mineralogy, one of the ANTHOSPERMUM, in botany, the metals that is brittle and easily fused. No amber tree, a genus of plants belonging to metal has attracted so much of the attention the Tetrandia class and order. It is male of physicians as antimony. One party has and female, in different plants, and some
extolled it as an infallible specific for every are hermaphrodites. The androgynous disease: while another decried it as a most flower is of one leaf, with two pistils and virulent poison, which ought to be expunged four stamina, with the germen below the from the list of medicines. Antimony, as flower. The male fowers are the same it occurs under that name in the shops, is a with these, wanting only the pistils and natural compound of the metal with 'sulgermen. The female flowers have the pis- phur. To obtain it in a metallic state, the tils and germen, but want the stamina. pative sulphuret is to be mixed with twoTiere are three species.
thirds its weight of acidulous tartrite of ANTHOXANTHUM, in botany, a gepotash, (in the state of crude tartar,) and nus of the Diandria Digynia class and or one-third of nitrate of potash deprived of der. Gen. char. calyx, glume two-valved, its water of crystallization. The mixture one-flowered ; corol, glume two-valved, must be projected by spoonfuls, into a redpointed, awned; seed one.
hot crucible; and the detonated mass four species.
poured into an iron mould greased with a ANTHREMIS, in natural history, a little fat. The antimony, on account of
its specific gravity, will be found at the personal and progressive sanctification, and bottom adhering to the scoriæ, from which hold it to be inconsistent for a believer to it may be separated by the hammer. Or pray for the forgiveness of sins. Although three parts of the sulphuret may be fused these principles will, by some, be thonght in a covered crucible, with one of iron fil- to lead to mischievous consequences and ings. The sulphur quits the antimony, and practice, yet there are, unquestionably, combines with the iron. Antimony in its worthy men and virtuous Christians, who metallic state (sometimes called regulus of avow Antinomian tenets. To the young, antimony) is of a silvery white colour, very the giddy, and the thoughtless, such sentibrittle, and of a plated or scaley texture. ments might, if acted upon, be the source of It is fused by a moderate heat; and crystals much evil ; but these like the doctrine of lizes, on cooling, in the form of pyramids. necessity, are rarely believed but by perIn close vessels it may be volatilized, and sons who have already attained to virtuons collected unchanged. It undergoes little habits. change when exposed to the atmosphere at
ANTIPATHES, in natural history, a its ordinary temperature ; but when fused, genus of worms of the order Zoophyta. Ani. with the access of air, it emits white fumes, mal growing in the form of a plant: stem consisting of an oxide of the metal. This expanded at the base, internally horny, beset oxide had formerly the name of flowers of with small spines, externally covered with antimony. Antimony combines with phos- a gelatinous flesh, beset with numerous phorus avd sulphur. With the latter, an polype-bearing tabercles. There are 13 artificial sulphuret is formed, exactly re species. A. spiralis, inhabits the Indian, sembling the native compound, which last Mediterranean, and North seas ; of a hard, may be employed, on account of its cheap- horny, black, substance, exceedingly britness, for exhibiting the properties of this tle, very long, and variously twisted, about conbination of antimony. Antimony is the size of a writing pen. A. alopecuroides, dissolved by most of the acids. Sulphuric with spinous setaceous closely panicled acid is decomposed ; sulphurous acid being branches ; inhabits South Carolina ; about disengaged, and an oxide formed, of which two feet high, and rises from a broad spread a small proportion only is dissolved by the base, dividing into several large branches, remaining acid. Nitric acid dissolves this fiat on one side, with a groove along the metal with great vehemence; muriatic acid middle; it then subdivides into smaller acts on it by long digestion ; but the most branches, forming close panicles, not unlike convenient solvent is the nitro-muriatic the fox tail grass : the outside greyish, the acid, which, with the aid of bieat, dissolves inside black and very brittle. it from the native sulphuret. With oxyge ANTIPODES, in geography, a name nized muriatic acid, it forms a compound of given to those inhabitants of the globe that a thick consistence, formerly called butter live diametrically opposite to one another. of antimony. This may be formed, by They lie under opposite parallels, and opexposing black sulphuret of antimony to posite meridians. They have the same elethe fiumes of oxygenized muriatic acid, and vation of their different poles. It is midsubsequent distillation; or by distilling the night with the one, when it is noon-day powdered regulus with twice its weight of with the other; the lovgest day with one is corrosive muriate of mercury. The metal the shortest with the other; and the length becomes highly oxydized, and unites with of the day with the one is equal to the night muriatic acid in its sinple state. On pour- of the other. See Globes, use of. ing this compound into water, a white oxide ANTIQUARY, a person who studies and falls down, called powder of algaroth. An searches after monuments and remains of timony is susceptible of various states of antiquity. oxydizement. The first oxide may be ob There were formerly, in the chief cities of tained by washing algaroth powder with a Greece and Italy, persons of distinction little caustic potasli. It is composed of called antiquaries, who made it their busi184 oxygen, and 81į metal. That formed
ness to explain the ancient inscriptions, and by the action of nitric acid on antimony, give every other assistance in their power contains 77 metal, and 23 oxygen. See to strangers who were lovers of that kind of Ores, anulysis of
learning. Foundations of this kind have ANTINOMIANS, in church history, a existed in England. Sir H. Spelman speaks sect of Christians, who reject the moral law of a society of antiquaries in his time, which as a rule of conduct to believers, disown had been instituted in 1572, by Archbishop