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throat to the breast, are some long hairs
from the prodigious leapsittakes on the sight
found in Europe. The form of its body resembles the domestic goat, but its horns are those of an antelope, being marked by very prominent rings, with furrows between; they are a foot long, the ends smooth, of a pale-yellow colour, almost transparent. The male is covered with rough hair, like the he-goat, and has a strong scent; the female is smoother, hornless, and timid. The general colour is a dirty white. When they are attacked by wolves or dogs, the males stand round the females, forming a circle, with their heads towards the enemy, in which posture they defend their charge. Their common pace is a trot, when they go faster, it is by leaps; and are swifter than roe-bucks. When they feed, they are obliged to go backward, owing to the length of the upper lip, which they lift up. Their skin is soft, and excellent for gloves, belts, &c. They are found in flocks from six to ten thousand, on the banks of the Tanais and Boristhenes. The young are easily tamed, and will readily return to their master, when turned out on the desert. The Nilgau, or White footed Antelope, is a large and beautiful species, known only within the space of a few years past. Its height is four feet one inch to the top of the shoulders, and its length, from the bottom of the neck to the base of the tail, four feet. The colour of the nilgau is a fine dark-grey or slate-colour, with a large spot of white beneath the throat, and two white bands or marks above each foot: the cars are large, white within, and edged with the same colour, and marked internally by two black stripes: along the top of the neck runs a slight mane of black hair, which is continued to some distance down the back, and on the breast is a much longer mane or hanging tuft of a similar colour: the tail is moderately long, and terminated by a tuft of black hair: the horns are short, pointed, smooth, triangular at their base, distant from each other, bent very slightly forwards, and of a blackish colour. The female resembles the male in general appearance, but is considerably smaller, of a pale brown colour, and is destitute of horns: the manc, pectoral tuft, and ears, resemble those of the male, and the feet are marked above the hoofs by three transverse bars of black and two of white. The nilgau is a native of the interior parts of India. According to Mr. Pennant, it abounded in the days of Aurengzebe between Delli and Lahor, on the way to Cashmire, and was called nyl
gau, or the blue or grey bull. It was one of the objects of the chace with that mighty monarch during his journey : they were inclosed by his army of hunters within nets, which being drawn closer and closer, at length formed a small precinct, into which, the king and his omrahs and hunters entered, and killed the nilgaus with arrows, spears, and musquets; and that sometimes in such numbers, that Aurengzebe used to send quarters as presents to all his great people. The nilgau has of late years been often imported into Europe, and has bred in England. In confinement, it is generally pretty gentle, but is sometimes seized with fits of sudden caprice, when it will attack with great violence the objects of its displeasure. When the males fight, they drop on their knees at some distance from each other, and gradually advance in that attitude, and at length make a spring at each other with their heads bent low. This action, however, is not peculiar to the nilgau, but is observed in many others of the antelope tribe. The nilgau is said to go with young about nine months, and to produce
sometimes two at a birth: the young is of
the colour of a fawn. Antelope Leucoryx, orWhite Antelope, is entirely milk-white, except the markings on the face and limbs. It is an inhabitant of an island in the Gulf of Bassora. See Plate Mammalia, fig. 1–6. ANTHEM, a church-song performed in cathedral service by choristers, who sing alternately. It was formerly used to denote both psalms and hymns, when sung in this manner. But at present, anthem is used in a more confined sense, being applied to certain passages taken out of the scriptures, and adapted to a particular solemnity. ANTHEMIS, in botany, chamomile, a genus of the Syngenesia Superflua class and order. Receptacle chaffy; seeds generally crowned with a slight border; calyx hemispherical, nearly equal ; florets of the ray more than five, oblong. There are two divisions of this genus, namely A. with a differently coloured or white ray; and B. ray the colour of the disk or yellow: there are about forty species. ANTHERAE, among botanists, denote the little roundish or oblong bodies, on the tops of the stamina of plants. The anthera is the principal part of the male organ of generation in plants, answering to the glans penis in animals. It
is tumid and hollow, containing a fine pow
der, called farina foecundans.
ANTHERICUM, in botany, a genus of plants of the Hexandria Monogynia class and order. Cor. six-petalled, spreading, permament; filaments uniform; capsule superior; seeds angular. There are three divisions. A. leaves channelled; filaments mostly beardless: B. leaves fleshy; filaments bearded: C. stamina dilated in the middle; root bulbous. There are between 50 and 60 species. ANTHERYLIUM, a genus of the Icosandria Monogynia class and order. Calyx inferior, four-parted; petals four; capsule one-celled, three-valved, many-seeded. There is but a single species, a tree found at St. Thomas's Island. ANTHISTERIA, in botany, a genus of the Polygamia Monoecia class and order. Hermaphrodite; florets sessile, male florets pedicelled; calyx four-valved, three or fourflowered, coriaceous: corol, glume twovalved, awnless ; filaments three; styles two; stigmata clavate; seed one. There is but a single species. ANTHOCEROS, a genus of the Cryptogamia Hepaticae. Male; six parted or entire; antherae three to eight, obovate, in the bottom of the calyx. Female; calyx sessile, cylindrical and entire. There are four species. ANTHOLOMA, in botany, a genus of the Polyandria Monogynia class and order. Calyx two to four-leaved; cor. cup-shaped; many seeded. There is but a single species, a shrub found in Caledonia. ANTHOLYZA, in botany, a genus of the Triandria Monogynia class and order. Corol tubular, six-cleft, unequal, recurved; capsule inferior. There are six species, all found at the Cape. ANTHOSPERMUM, in botany, the amber tree, a genus of plants belonging to the Tetrandia class and order. It is male and female, in different plants, and some are hermaphrodites, The androgynous flower is of one leaf, with two pistils and four stamina, with the germen below the flower. The male flowers are the same with these, wanting only the pistils and germen. The female flowers have the pistils and germen, but want the stamina. There are three species. ANTHOXANTHUM, in botany, a ge. nus of the Diandria Digynia class and order. Gen. char. calyx, glume two-valved, one-flowered ; corol, glume two-valved, pointed, awned; seed one. There are four species. ANTHREMIS, in natural history, a
genus of insects of the order Coleoptera.
its specific gravity, will be found at the bottom adhering to the scoriae, from which it may be separated by the hammer. Or three parts of the sulphuret may be fused in a covered crucible, with one of iron filings. The sulphur quits the antimony, and combines with the iron. Antimony in its metallic state (sometimes called regulus of antimony) is of a silvery white colour, very brittle, and of a plated or scaley texture. It is fused by a moderate heat; and crystallizes, on cooling, in the form of pyramids. In close vessels it may be volatilized, and collected unchanged. It undergoes little change when exposed to the atmosphere at its ordinary temperature; but when fused, with the access of air, it emits white fumes, consisting of an oxide of the metal. This oxide had formerly the name of flowers of antimony. Antimony combines with phosphorus and sulphur. With the latter, an artificial sulphuret is formed, exactly resembling the native compound, which last may be employed, on account of its cheapmess, for exhibiting the properties of this combination of antimony. Antimony is dissolved by most of the acids. Sulphuric acid is decomposed; sulphurous acid being disengaged, and an oxide formed, of which a small proportion only is dissolved by the remaining acid. Nitric acid dissolves this metal with great vehemence; muriatic acid acts on it by long digestion; but the most convenient solvent is the nitro-muriatic acid, which, with the aid of heat, dissolves it from the native sulphuret. With oxygenized muriatic acid, it forms a compound of a thick consistence, formerly called butter of antimony. This may be formed, by exposing black sulphuret of antimony to the fumes of oxygenized muriatic acid, and subsequent distillation; or by distilling the powdered regulus with twice its weight of corrosive muriate of mercury. The metal becomes highly oxydized, and unites with muriatic acid in its simple state. On pouring this compound into water, a white oxide falls down, called powder of algaroth. Antimony is susceptible of various states of oxydizement. The first oxide may be obtained by washing algaroth powder with a little caustic potash. It is composed of 18% oxygen, and 81 metal. That formed by the action of nitric acid on antimony, contains 77 metal, and 23 oxygen. See OREs, anulysis of ANTINOMIANS, in church history, a sect of Christians, who reject the moral law as a rule of conduct to believers, disown
personal and progressive sanctification, and hold it to be inconsistent for a believer to pray for the forgiveness of sins. Although these principles will, by some, be thought to lead to mischievous consequences and practice, yet there are, unquestionably, worthy men and virtuous Christians, who avow Antinomian tenets. To the young, the giddy, and the thoughtless, such sentiments might, if acted upon, be the source of much evil; but these like the doctrine of necessity, are rarely believed but by persons who have already attained to virtuous habits. ANTIPATHES, in natural history, a genus of worms of the order Zoophyta. Animal growing in the form of a plant: stem
expanded at the base, internally horny, beset
with small spines, externally covered with a gelatinous flesh, beset with numerous polype-bearing tubercles. There are 13 . species. A. spiralis, inhabits the Indian, Mediterranean, and North seas; of a hard, horny, black, substance, exceedingly brittle, very long, and variously twisted, about the size of a writing pen. A. alopecuroides, with spinous setaceous closely panicled branches; inhabits South Carolina; about two feet high, and rises from a broad spread base, dividing into several large branches, flat on one side, with a groove along the middle; it then subdivides into smaller branches, forming close panicles, not unlike the fox-tail grass: the outside greyish, the inside black and very brittle. ANTIPODES, in geography, a name given to those inhabitants of the globe that live diametrically opposite to one another. They lie under opposite parallels, and opposite meridians. They have the same elevation of their different poles. It is midnight with the one, when it is noon-day with the other; the longest day with one is the shortest with the other; and the length of the day with the one is equal to the night of the other. See Globes, use of: ANTIQUARY, a person who studies and searches after monuments and remains of antiquity. There were formerly, in the chief cities of Greece and Italy, persons of distinction called antiquaries, who made it their business to explain the ancient inscriptions, and give every other assistance in their power to strangers who were lovers of that kind of learning. Foundations of this kind have existed in England. Sir H. Spelman speaks of a society of antiquaries in his time, which had been instituted in 1572, by Archbishop