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ExAMPLEs.-What is the difference in value between an annuity of 50l. during the life of a person aged 35, and an annuity of 60l. during two lives of 30 and 35, to cease when either of the two lives shall fail? The value in Table III. against the age of 35 is 12,502, which multiplied by 50 gives 625.11. the value in Table V. against the ages of 30 and 35 is 9.954, which multiplied by 60 gives 597.24!. the value of the former annuity therefore exceeds the latter by 27 l. 17s. 2d. What annuity, during his life, ought a person aged 45 to receive in lieu of an annuity of 20l. certain for the term of 18 years? The value of an annuity certain for 18 years, is by Table II. 11.689587, which multiplied by 20 gives 233 7917t. this sum divided by 11.105, the value of an annuity during a life of 45, by Table III. gives the answer of 21 l. 1s. * What annuity, during his life, ought a person aged 40 to receive for 500l.” The value of an annuity during a life of 40 years of age, is by Table III. 11.837, and 500l. divided by this sum gives 421.4s. 9d. per annum; but if the value of the life is taken, as in Table IV. (or 13.466), the sum to be received will be 37 l. 2s. 7d. For the values of annuities which are not to commence till after a certain period, or after a given life or lives, see REveRsions. Annuities are frequently granted by parishes, trusts, and public societies, for the purpose of raising money for the erection or repair of churches, chapels, workhouses, bridges, or other expensive buildings; it being often sound practicable to obtain money in this way, when it could not be procured at the ordinary rate of interest; it has likewise the recommendation of gradually extinguishing the debt, which might otherwise often remain a permanent burthen. Life annuities are also frequently granted, for money borrowed by persons possessiug life estates, and who, therefore, can not give the lender a permanent security. As such annuities depend on the life of the grantor, few persons are disposed to purchase them, unless they can be obtained on such terms, as after allowing for the expense of assuring the grantor's life, leaves an income somewhat greater than the common rate of interest. It also frequently happens that the annuities are not very punctually paid, which with other risks attending them, causes annuities of this description always to sell considerably under their real value; and in some instances the necessities of the borrowers have led them to make grants of this kind, on the most exorbitant terms. To throw, however, some check upon improvident transactions of this kind, which are usually carried on with great privacy, the statute 17 Geo. III. c. 26, usually called the Annuity Act, has directed that upon the sale of any life annuity of more than the value of 10l. (unless on a sufficient pledge of lands in fee simple, or stock in the public funds) the true consideration, which shall be in money only, and the names of the parties, shall be set forth and described in the security itself, in words at length; and a memorial of the date, the names of the parties, and of all the witnesses, and of the consideration money, shall within twenty days after its execution be enrolled in the Court of Chancery, else the security shall he null and void. All contracts for the purchase of annuities from persons under 21 years of age, are utterly void and incapable of confirmation, after the party becomes of age. Procuring or soliciting a minor to grant any life amuity, or to promise or engage to ratify it when he becomes of age, is an indictable misdemeanor, and punishable by fine and imprisonment; as is likewise the taking more than ten shillings per cent. for procuring money to be advanced for any life annuity. This act docs not extend to annuities granted by any body corporate, or under any authority or trust created by act of parliament. Notwithstanding these regulations, persons having occasion to raise money by the grant of life annuities, were obliged to submit to the most disadvantageous terms, as it seldom happened that individual purchasers would give for such annuities more than 8 years purchase, on lives about 30 years of age; or 7 years purchase on lives above 40; while on the other hand persons desirous of investing money in an annuity on their own life, were generally under the necessity of accepting private security, or of waiting till an opportunity offered of obtaining the security of some local toll or rates. To remedy these inconveniences an act was passed in 1793, authorising the Royal Exchange Assurance Company to grant and purchase annuities on lives, either immediate or in reversion: the rates according to which transactions of this kind are regulated necessarily vary in proportion to the current rate of interest at which money can be improved, a short specimen therefore of the present (1808) rates at which
the Royal Exchange Assurance grant life annuities, will be sufficient.
Age. per cent. per cent. per aun. per ann. 15.. ... 5l. 18s. 0d. || 50....... 71.16s. 0d. 20...... 6 0 0 8 6. 0 25...... 6 2 0 9 4 0 30...... 6 6 o || 65.......10 4 0 35...... 6 10 0 || 70.......11 8 0 40...... 6 16 0 || 75.......12 18 O 45...... 7 6 0 || 80.......14 8 10
Several other societies, as the Globe Insurance, the Albion, the Rock, and the Eagle Insurance Companies, have lately granted life annuitics, but it is presumed they vary their grants according to circumstances, as they none issue a printed table of their rates. ANOMALIES, in music, are those false scales or intervals, which exist necessarily in all keyed instruments, from their incapacity of a true and perfect temperament. ANOMALISTICAL year, in astronomy, the time that the earth takes to pass through her orbit: it is also called the periodical year. The space of time belonging to this year is greater than the tropical year, on account of the precession of the equinoxes. ANOMALOUS rerbs, in grammar, such as are not conjugated conformably to the paradigm of their conjugation: they are found in all languages; in Latin the verb lego is the paradigm of the third conjugation, and runs thus, lego, legis, legit; by the same rule it should be fero, feris, ferit, but we say fero, fers, fert; fro then is an anomalous verb. In English the irregularity relates often to the preter tense, and passive participle ; for example, give, were it formed according to rule, would make gired in the preter tense, and passive participle; whereas, in the former, it makes gave, and in the latter given. ANOMALY, in grammar, that quality in words which renders them anomalous. See the preceding article. ANoMALY, in astronomy, an irregularity in the motion of the planets, whereby they deviate from the aphelion or apogee; which inequality is either mean, eccentric, or coequate and true. ANOMIA, in natural history, a genus of worms of the order Testacea. Animal an emarginate ciliate strap-shaped body, with bristles affixed to the upper-valve; two arms, linear, longer than the body, connivent, projecting, alternate on the valve, and ciliate each side, the fringe affixed to each valve; shell bivalve, inequivalve; one of the valves flattish, the other gibbous at the base with a produced beak, generally curved over the hinge; one of the valves often perforated near the base; hinge with a linear prominent cicatrix and a lateral tooth placed within, but in the flat valve on the very margin; two bony rays for the base of the animal. There are nearly fifty species enumerated by Gmelin, found in different parts of the world. A. ephippium has a shell, roundish, pellucid, with wrinkled plaits; the flat valve perforated. It inhabits European and American seas, and is frequently found sticking to the common oyster. About two inches long, 24 broad; the outside rugged and filmy, the inside smooth and pearly : varies in colour, but generally with a silvery hue. ANONA, in botany, a genus of plants, belonging to the Polyandria Polygynia class of Linnaeus. The perianthium is composed of three cordated, hollowed, and acuminated leaves; the corolla consists of six cordated sessile petals, three alternately interior and smaller; the stamina are scarce visible, but the antherae are numerous; the fruit is a large berry, of an oval figure; covered with a squamose punctuated bark; the seeds are numerous, hard, of an oblong figure, and are placed circularly. ANSERES, in natural history, the third order of birds according to the Linnaean system: they are distinguished by a smooth bill, covered with a soft skin and broader at the point; feet formed for swimming ; toes palmate, connected by a membrane; shanks short and compressed; body fat and downy; flesh mostly tough ; their food is fish, frogs, aquatic plants, worms, &c. They make their nest generally on the ground; the mother takes but little care in providing for the young. They are frequently polygamous. They are divided into those genera having bills with, and those without teeth : of the former are the
Anas, Phaëton, and Mergus, Plotus. Of the latter are the Alea, Pelecanus, Aptenodytes, Procellaria, Colymbus, Prynchops, Diomedea, and Larus, Sterna.
This order comprehends all kinds of water-fowl. The webbed feet of these birds
are admirably adapted to aid them in swimming; and the greater quantity of oil secreted by the glands near the tail, and rubbed by means of their bills over all the feathers of their body, enables them to live on the water, without ever being wet. They live mostly on fish, and some of them have been occasionally tamed to the catching of fish for the use of their masters. In some of the lakes of China, where the water-fowl abound, the natives have the following ingenious mode of catching them : For several days before they attempt to take them, many empty gourd-shells are set afloat on the water, to habituate the birds to their appearance; and when they are observed to take no notice of these shells, but to swim among them, a man, with one of the same kind upon his head, goes into the lake, and wades or swims among the birds with nothing but his head above the water. He now begins his sport, and taking the birds by their legs, draws them under water, breaks their necks, and fastens them to his girdle, one after another, till he is sufficiently loaded, and then re‘turns to the shore. + ANSWER, in law: On an indictment for perjury, in an answer in Chancery, it is a sufficient proof of identity, if the name subscribed be proved to be the hand-writing of the defendant; and that the same was subscribed by the master, on being sworn before him. AN'T. See ForMicA. ANTECEDENCE, in astronomy, an apparent motion of a planet towards the west, or contrary to the order of the signs, viz. from Taurus towards Aries, &c. ANTECEDENT, in grammar, the word to which a relative refers: thus, God whom we adore, the word God is the antecedent to the relative whom. ANtecedent term, in mathematics, the
first one of any ratio: thus, if the ratio
be a b, a is the antecedent term. ANTEDATE, among lawyers, a spurious or false date, prior to the true date of a bond, bill, or the like. - * ANTELOPE, in natural history, of the Mammalia class of animals, of the order Glires. The generic character is, horns hollow, seated on a bony core, growing upwards, annulated or wreathing, permanent. Front teeth in the lower jaw, eight, and no canine teeth. Antelopes constitute a very numerous race: they were formerly, even by Linnaeus, ranged under the genus Capra, but now have obtained a rank for them. selves: their habits and manners are thus described. They inhabit, two or three species excepted, the hottest parts of the globe; or, at least, those parts of the temperate zone that lie so near the tropics as to form a doubtful climate. None, therefore, except the Saiga and the Chamois, are to be met with in Europe; and notwithstanding the warmth of South America is suited to their nature, not a single species has yet been discovered in any part of the new world. Their proper climates seem, therefore, to be those of Asia and Africa, where the species are very numerous. “As there appears a general agreement in the nature of the species that form this great genus, it will prevent needless repetition to observe, that the antelopes are animals generally of a most elegant and active make ; of a restless and timid disposition; extremely watchful, of great vivacity, remarkably swift and agile, and most of their boundings so light and elastic, as to strike the spectator with astonishment. What is very singular is, that they will stop in the midst of their course, gaze for a moment at their pursuers, and then resume their flight. As the chase of these animals is a favourite amusement with the eastern nations, from that may be collected proofs of the rapid speed of the antelope tribe. The greyhound, the fleetest of dogs, is usually unequal in the course, and the sportsman is obliged to call in the aid of the falcon, trained for the purpose, to seize on the animal, and impede its motions, in order to give the dogs an opportunity of overtaking it. In India and Persia a species of leopard is made use of in the chase: this is an animal that takes its prey not by swiftness of foot, but by the greatness of its springs, by motions similar to those of the antelope; but, should the leopard fail in its first essay, the game escapes. The fleetness of the antelope was proverbial in the country it inhabited, even in the earliest times: the speed of Asahel (2 Sam. ii. 18.) is beautifully compared to that of the Tzebi, and the Gedites were said to be as swift as the antelopes mpon the mountains. The sacred writers took their similies from such objects as were before the eyes of the people to whom they addressed themselves. There is another instance drawn from the same subject: the disciple raised to life at Joppa was supposed to have been called Tabitha, i. e. Dorcas, or the antelope, from the beauty of her eyes; and to this day one of the highest compliments that can be paid to female beauty in
the eastern regions, is Aine el Czazel, “You have the eyes of an antelope'. Some species of antelopes form herds of two or three thousands, while others keep in troops of five or six. They generally reside in hilly countries, though some inhabit plains: they often brouse like the goat, and feed on the tender shoots of trees, which gives their flesh an excellent flavour. This is to be understood of those which are taken in the chase; for those which are fattened in houses are far less delicious. The flesh of some species is said to taste of musk, which perhaps depends on the qualities of the plants they feed upon.” This preface (says Mr. Pennant) was thought necessary, to point out the difference in nature between this and the goat kind, with which most systematic writers have classed the antelopes: but the antelope forms an intermediate genus, a link between the goat and the deer; agreeing with the former in the texture of the horns, which have a core in them, and are never cast; and with the latter in elegance of form and swiftness. The Common Antelope.—The Antelope, properly so called, abounds in Barbary, and in all the northern parts of Africa. It is somewhat less than the fallow-deer: its horns are about sixteen inches long, surrounded with prominent rings almost to the top, where they are twelve inches distant from point to point. The horns of the antelope are remarkable for a beautiful donble flexion, which gives them the appearance of the lyre of the ancients. The colour of the hair on the back is brown, mixed with red; the belly and inside of the thighs white; and the tail short. The Striped Antelope, is a beautiful, tall gazelle, inhabiting the Cape of Good Hope; has long, slender shanks: its horns are smooth, twisted spirally, with a promiment edge or rib following the wreaths; they are three feet nine inches long, of a palebrown colour, close at the base, and at the points round and sharp. The colour of this animal is a rusty brown; along the ridge of the back there is a white stripe mixed with brown; from this are eight or nine white stripes pointing downwards; the forehead and the fore part of the nose are brown; a white stripe runs from the corner of each eye, and meets just above the nose; upon each cheek-bone there are two small white spots; the inner edges of the ears are covered with white hair, and the upper part of the neck is adorned with a brown mane, an inch long; beneath the neck, from the