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parts aided together make more than the whole number: thus the parts of 20, make 22, viz. 1, 2, 4, 5, 10. ACACIA, in botany, a species of mimosa. See Mixios A. Acacia, in the materia medica of the ancients, a gum made from the Egyptian acacia-tree, and thought to be the same with our gum-arabic. ACAPEMICS, a sect of philosophers who foilowed the doctrine of Socrates and Plato, as to the uncertainty of knowledge, and the incomprehensibility of truth. Academic, in this sense, amounts to much the same with Platonist; the difference between them being only in point of time. They who embraced the system of Plato, among the ancients, were called Academici; whereas those who have done the same, since the restoration of learning, have assumed the denomination of Platonists. We usually reckon three sects of Academics; though some make five. The ancient Academy was that which was founded by Plato; and consisted of those followers of this enuiment philosopher, who taught the doctrine of their master without mixture or corruption. The first of these was Speusippus; he was succeeded by Xenocrates. After his death the direction of the academy devolved upon Polemo, and then upon Crates, and terminated with Crantor. After the death of Crates, a new tribe of philosophers arose,who, on account of certain innovations in their manner of philosophising, which in some measure receded from the Platonic system, without entirely deserting it, have been distinguished by the appellation of the Second, or Middle Academy. The first preceptor who appears in this class, and who, in consequence of the innovations which he introduced into the Platonic school, has been commonly considered as the founder of this academy, is Arcesilaus. Before the time of Arcesilaus, it was never denied, that useful opinions may be deduced from the senses. Two sects arose about this time, which threatened the destruction of the Platonic system; one was founded by Pyrrho, which held the doctrine of universal scepticism, and the other by Zeno, which maintained the certainty of human knowledge, and taught with great confidence a doctrine essentially different from that of Plato. In this situation, Arcesilaus thought it necessary to exercise a cautious reserve with regard to the doctrine of his master, and to conceal his opinions from the vulgar, under the appearance of doubt and uncer
tainty. Professing to derive his doctrine concerning the uncertainty of knowledge from Socrates, Plato, and other philosophers, he maintained, that though there is a real certainty in the nature of things, every thing is uncertain to the human understanding, and consequently that all consident assertions are unreasonable. He thought it disgraceful to assent to any proposition, the truth of which is not fully established, and maintained that, in all questions, opposite opinions may be supported by arguments of equal weight. He disputed against the testimony of the senses, and the authority of reason; acknowledging at the same time, that they furnish probable opinions sufficient for the conduct of life. However, his secret design seems to have been to establish the doctrine of Plato, that the knowledge derived from sensible objects is uncertain, and that the only true science is that which is employed upon the immutable objects of intelligence, or ideas. After the death of Arcesilaus, the Platonic school was successively under the care of Lacydes, who is said to have founded a uew school, merely because he changed the place of instruction, and held it in the garden of Attalus, within the limits of the Academic grove, and of Evander and Egesinus. Arcesilaus, however, had opposed the Stoics and other dogmatical philosophers, with such violence, and extended his doctrine of uncertainty so far, as to alarm not only the general body of philosophers, who treated him as a common enemy to philosophy, but even the governors of the state, who apprehended that his opinions would dissolve all the bonds of social virtue and of religion. His successors, therefore, found it difficult to support the credit of the academy; and Carneades, one of the disciples of this school, relinquished, at least in words, some of the more obnoxious tenets of Arcesilaus. From this period the Platonic school assumed the appellation of the New Academy, which may be reckoned the third in order from its first establishment. It was the doctrine of this academy, that the senses, the understanding, and the imagination, frequently deceive us, and therefore cannot be infallible judges of truth; but that, from the impressions produced on the mind, by means of the senses, called by Carneades phantasies, or images, we infer appearances of truth, or probabilities. These images do not always correspond to the real nature of things, and there is no infallible method of determining when they are true or false; and consequently they afford no certain criterion of truth. But, with respect to the conduct of life, and the pursuit of happiness, probable appearances are a sufficient guide, because it is unreasonable not to allow some degree of credit to those witnesses who commonly give a true report. ACADEMY, in Grecian antiquity, a large villa in one of the suburbs of Athens, where the sect of philosophers called Academics lield their assemblies. It took its name from one Academus, or Ecademus, a citizen of Athens; as our modern academies take theirs from it. This term was also used metaphorically, to denote the sect of Academic Philosophers. See AcADEM ics. AcAn EMY, in a modern sense, signifies a society of learned men, established for theimprovement of arts or sciences. See Society. ACAENA, in botany, a genus of the Tetrandria Monagynia class and order of plants. There is but a single species, which is a Mexican plant. ACALYPHA, in botany, a genus of plants belonging to the Monoecia Monodelphia class, and the natural order of Tricoccas, called the Tick-fruit. There are fourteen species: the A. virginica, grows naturally in Virginia, and in Ceylon: the A. virgata is a native of the warmest countries, and grows plentifully in Jamaica; its leaves resemble those of the annual nettle, and sting as much. Most of the other species are natives of the West Indies. The plants have no beauty to recommend them, and are preserved in some botanic gardens merely on account of variety. ACANTHA, among botanists, a name given to the prickles of thorny plants. AcANThA is also used by zoologists for the spines of certain fishes, as those of the echinus marinus, &c. ACANTHACEOUS, among botanists, an epithet given to all the plants of the thistle kind, on account of the prickles with which they are beset. ACANTHONOTUS, in natural history, a genus of fishes of the order Abdominales: the generic character is, body elongated, without dorsal fin: spines several, on the back and abdomen. There is but one species, the nasus, about 30 inches long, a native of the East Indies. The eyes are large, and the nostrils conspicuous: the body, which is of a moderate width for about the third of its length, gradually decreases or tapers towards the extremity: both head and body are covered with small scales, and are of a bluish tinge, with a silvery cast on
the abdomen: the pectoral fins are brown, and of a moderate size: the ventral rather simall, and of a similar colour: the lateral line is strait, and situated nearer to the back than to the abdomen: along the lower part of the back are ten strong but short spines, and beneath the abdomen twelve or thirteen others, which are followed by a small anal fin. (See plate I. Ichthyology, fig. 1.) * ACANTHURUS, in natural history, a genus of fishes, of the order Thoracici, of which the gen. character is, teeth small, in most species lobated: tail aculeated on each side: general habit and appearance like the genus Chaetodon, which see. This genus consists of such species of the Linnaean genus Chaotodon, as, in contradiction to the principal character of that genus, have moderately broad and strong teeth, rather than slender and setaceous ones: they are also furnished on each side the tail with a strong spine. There are twelve species, of which the principal is A. unicormis; this is the largest of the genus, growing to the length of three feet or more. It is a native of the Indian and Arabian seas, in the latter of which it is generally seen in large shoals of two or three hundred each, swimming with great strength, and feeding principally on different kinds of sea-weed. This fish was described by Grew, in his Museum of the Royal Society, under the name of the Lesser Unicorn Fish. Fine specimens are to be found in the British and Leverian museums. ACANTHUS, BEAR's Breech, or BRANK-URs1Ne, in botany, a genus of the Didynamia Angiospermia class, and belonging to the natural order of Personatae. There are ten species: 1. The smooth acanthus, with white slowers, proceeding from about the middle to the top of the stalk, is the species used in medicine under the name of Branca ursina, or Brank-ursine. It is a native of Italy, about Naples, of Sicily, Provence, and the islands of the Archipelago, and is cultivated in our gardens, and flowers in June and July. Turner (in his Herbal in Hort. Kew.) informs us, that it was cultivated in Sion gardens so long ago as the year 1551. The leaves, and particularly the roots, abound with a soft, insipid mucilage, which may be readily extracted, either by boiling, or by infusion. Rectified spirit digested on the leaves, extracts from them a fine deep green tincture, which is more durable than that which is communicated to spirit by other herbs. Brank-ursine is seldom or ever used medicinally in this country. But
where it is common, it is employed for the same purposes to which the Althaea, or marsh-mallow, and other mucilaginous vegetables are applied among us. In foreign countries the cow-parsnip is said to be substituted for it, though it possesses very different properties. The leaves of this species of acanthus accidentally growing round a basket covered with a tile, gave occasion to Callimachus to invent the Corinthian capital in architecture. 2. The thistle-leaved acanthus was found by Sparrman at the Cape of Good Hope, and has many leaves, proceeding immediately from the root, resembling those of the thistle. 3. The prickly acanthus grows wild in Italy and Provence, and flowers from July to September. Its leaves are divided into segments, terminated with a sharp spine, which renders this plant troublesome to those who handle it. 4. The acanthus of Dioscorides, as Linnaeus supposes it to be, grows maturally in the East, on Lebanon, &c. 5. The holly-leaved acanthus is an evergreen shrub, about four feet high, and separating into many branches, with leaves resembling those of the common holly, and bearing white flowers, similar to those of the common acanthus, but smaller. 6, 7, 8, 9. These species, viz. the entireleaved, procumbent, forked, and Cape acanthi, are natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 10. The Madras acanthus is a native of the East Indies. The smooth and prickly acanthi are perennial plants, and may be propagated either by seeds, which should be sown in a light dry soil towards the end of March, and left to grow, about six inches asumder, till autumn, when they should be transplanted where they are to remain; or by roots,which may be planted either in spring or autumn for the third sort; but the others must only be removed in the spring, because if they are transplanted in autumn, they may be in danger of being destroyed by a cold winter. These plants take deep root, and when they are once established in a garden, they cannot be easily eradicated. The 5th and 10th species are too tender to thrive out of a *tove in England, and cannot be propagated, except by seeds, which do not ripen in Europe. The other sorts must be treated in the same manner with Cape plants. AcANThus, in architecture, an ornament representing the leaves of the herb acanthus, and used in the capitals of the Corinthian and Composite orders. See ARchiTECTURE. ACARNA, in botany, a genus belonging
to the Syngenesia Equalis class and order: receptacle chaffy, down feathery: calyx imbricate, invested with scales, corol. floscular. There are seven species. ACARUS, the tick or mite, in natural history, so called because it is deemed so small that it cannot be cut, is a genus of insects belonging to the order of Aptera, in the Linnaoan system. Gmelin, in the last edition of Linnaeus's system, has eighty-two species; of which, some are inhabitants of the earth, others of water; some live on trees and plants, others among stones, and others on the bodies of other animals, and even under their skin. The generic character is, legs eight: eyes two, situated on each side the head: feelers two, jointed; egg-shaped. The most familiar species are, 1. the A. siro, or common cheese-mite, which is a favourite subject for microscopic observations. This insect is covered with hairs or bristles,which resemble in their structure the awns of barley, being barbed on each side with mumerous sharp-pointed processes. The mite is oviparous: from the eggs proceed tier young animals, resembling the parents in all respects, except in the number of legs, which at first amount only to six, the pair from the head not making their appearance till after casting their first skin. The eggs in warm weather hatch in about a week, and the young animal may sometimes be seen for a day together struggling to get rid of its egg-shell. Toe mite is a very vora
cious animal, feasting equally upon animal
and vegetable substances. It is also extremely tenacious of life; for, upon the authority of Leewenhoek, though highly discreditable to his sense of humanity, we are assured that a mite lived eleven weeks glued to a pin, in order for him to make observations om. 2. The A. exulcerans, or itch mite, is a species of considerable curiosity, on account of the structure of its limbs: it is slightly rounded, and of a flattened shape, with the thighs of the two upper pair of legs extremely thick and short: the two lower pair of legs have thick thighs proceeding from a very slender base, and are extended into a long, stout, curved, and sharp-pointed bristle. Dr. Bononio, an Italian physician, was the first who contended that the itch
was occasioned by this insect, an account of
which may be found in the Philosophical Transactions, No. 283. Dr. Baker is inclined to think that it constitutes the psora, a species of itch distinct from others confounded with it. 3. A. autumnalis, or harvest-bug, of a bright red colour, with the abdomen baset on its hind part with numerouts white bristles. It attac'hos is self to tie skin, and is with difficulty do en-aged. On the part where it fixes, it causes a tumour, about the size of a small head, accompanied by a severe itching. The tick is ef this species, which is to be found on dogs and other animals. Many of the acari attach themselves to insects of a larger kind, and hence they take their names, as A. coleopterous, found on the black beetle. (See plate I. Entomology, fig. 1 and 2.) These insects, which are often very troublesome on plants, and in hot-houses, may be effectually destroyed by the following mixture. Take two ounces of soft green soap, one ource of common turpentine, and one onne of flour of sulphur; pour upon these ingredients a gallon of boiling water, work the woole together with a whisk, and let the mixture be used warm. This mixture may also be of use for preventing the mildew on the peach and apricot; but it should never be used on finit-trees near the time when their finits are ripening. A strong ley made of wood-ashes will likewise destroy the acari; but plants are greatly injured by this, and by briny and spirituous compositions. ACAULOSE, or AcAU1.ous, among botanists, a term used for such plants as have no caulis, or stem. See CAU Lis. ACCEDAS ad curium, in law, a writ lying where a man hath received, or fears false judgment, in a hundred-court, or court baron. It is issued out of the Chancery, and directed to the sheriff, but returnable in the King's-bench or Common-pleas. It lies also for justice delayed, and is said to be a species of the writ foecordare. ACCELERATION, in mechanics, denotes to augmentation or increase of motion in accelerated bodies. The term acceleration is chiefly used in speaking of folling bodies, or the tendency of heavy odies towards the centre of the earth produced by the power of gravity; which, reting constantly and uniformly upon tiem, they must necessarily acquite every instant a new increase of motion. See GR v IT A1 to N. ACCELERATOR. See ANA to My. ACCENT, among grammatians, is the raising or lowering of the voice in pronouncing certain syllables of words. We have three kirls of accents, viz. the acute, the g ave, and circumflex. The acute accent, marked thus ('), shews that the voice is to be raised in pronouncing the
syllables over which it is placed. The grave accent is marked thrs (v), and points out when the voice ought to be lowered. The circumflex accent is compounded of the other two, and marked thms (- or a): it denotes a quavering of the voice between high and low. Some call the long and short quantities of syllables, accents; but erroneously. Accrxt, in music, a term applicable to every modulation of the voice, both in speaking and in singing. It is to the study of this that the composer and performer should unceasingly apply; since without accent there can be no music, because there can be no expression. ACCEPTANCE, in common law, the tacitly agreeing to some act before done by another, which might have been defeated without such acceptance. Thus if a husband and wife, seized of land in right of the wife, make a joint lease or feoffment, reserving rent, and the husband dies; after which the widow receives or accepts the rent; such receipt is deemed an acceptance, confirms the lease of feoffment, and bars her from bringing the writ cui in rita. AccEPTANCE, among merchants, is the signing or subscribing a bill of exchange, by which the acceptor obliges himself to pay the contents of the bill. Bills payable at sight are not accepted, because they must either be paid on being presented, or else protested for want of payment. The acceptance of bills payable at a fixed day, at usance, or double usance, &c. need not be dated : because the time is reckoned from the date of the bill; but it is necessary to date the acceptance of bills payable at a certain number of days after sight, because the time does not begin to run till the next day after that acceptance: this kind of acceptance is made thus, Accepted such a day and y, ar, and signed. See Exchange. ACCESSARY, or Accesson Y, in common law, is chiefly used for a person guilty of a felonious offence, not principally, but by participation; as, by advice, command, or concealment. There are two kinds of accessaries; before the fact, and after it. The first is he who commands, or procures another to commit felony, and is not present himself; for if he be present, he is a principal. The second is he who receives, assists, or comforts any man that has done murder, or felony, whereof he has knowledge. A man may also be accessary to an accessary, by
aiding, receiving, &c. an accessary in felony. An accessary in felony shall have judgment of life and member, as well as the principal, who did the felony: but not till the principal be first attainted, and convicted, or outlawed thereon. Where the principal is pardoned without attainder, the accessary cannot be arraigned; it being a maxim in law, Ubi nou est principalis, mon potest esse accessorius. But if the principal be pardoned, or have his clergy after attainder, the accessary shall be arraigned. 4 and 5 W. and M. cap. 4; and by stat. 1 Anne, cap. 9, it is enacted, that where the principal is convicted of felony, or stands mute, or challenges above twenty of the jury, it shall be lawful to proceed against the accessary in the same manner as if the principal had been attainted; and notwithstanding such principal shall be admitted to his clergy, pardoned, or delivered before attainder. In some cases also, if the principal cannot be taken, then the accessary may be prosecuted for a misdemeanor, and punished by fine, imprisonment, &c. stat. ib. see stat. 5 Anne, cap. 31. In the lowest and highest offences there are no accessaries, but all are principals: as in riots, routs, forcible entries, and other trespasses, which are the lowest offences. So also in the highest offence, which is, according to our law, high treason, there are no accessaries. Cok. Littlet. 71.
ACCIDENT. See Logic.
ACCIPITRES, or rapacious birds, in the Linnaean system of ornithology, the first order of birds; the characters of which are, that the bill bends downwards, that the upper mandible is dilated a little on both sides towards the point, or armed with a toothlike process, and that the nostrils are wide; the legs are short and strong: the feet are of the perching kind, having three toes forwards and one backwards; the toes are warty under the joints, with claws hooked and sharp at the points. The body, head, and neck, are musculous, and the skin very tough. The birds of this order subsist by preying on other animals, and on dead carcasses, and they are unfit for food. They live in pairs, and are monogamous; and build their nests in lofty situations. The female is generally larger and stronger than the male, and usually lays four eggs at a time. This order corresponds to that of Ferae, and comprehends four genera, viz. Vultur, Falco, Strix, and LANIUs, which see.
ACCOMPANIMENT, in heraldry, denotes anything added to a shield by way
of ornament, as the belt, mantling, spp. porters, &c. Accompaniment is also used for several bearings about a principal one, as a saltier, bend, tess, &c. ACCOMPLICE, in law, a person who is privy to, or aiding in, the perpetration of some crime. See Access ARY. ACCORD, in law, a verbal agreement between two or more, where any one is injured by a trespass, or other offence committed, to make satisfaction to the injured party; who, after the accord is performed, will be barred in law from bringing any new action against the aggressor for the same trespass. It is safest, however, in pleading, to allege satisfaction, and not accord alone; because, in this last case, a precise execution in every part thereof must be alleged; whereas, in the former, the defendant needs only say, that he paid the plaintiff such a sum in full satisfaction of the. accord, which he received. ACCOUNTANT-general, in the court of Chancery, an officer appointed by act of parliament to receive all monies lodged in court, and convey the same to the bank of England for better security. The salary of this officer and his clerks is to be paid out of the interest made of part of the money; it not being allowable to take fees in this office. Counterfeiting the hand of the accountant-general is felony, without clergy, by 12 Geo. I. c. 32. ACCOUTREMENTS, in a military sense, signify the furniture of a soldier, such as puffs, belts, pouches, cartridge-boxes, &c. ACCROCHE", in heraldry, denotes a thing's being hooked into another. ACER, maple, in botany, a genus of the Monoecia order and Polygamia class of plants, and belonging to the natural order of Trihilata. There are 25 species. See MAPLE. ACETATES, in chemistry, a genus of salts formed by the acetic acid. They may be distinguished by the following properties: they are decomposed by heat; the acid being partly driven off, partly destroyed:– they are very soluble in water:—when mixed with sulphuric acid, and distilled in a moderate heat, acetic acid is disengaged:— when they are dissolved in water, and exposed to the open air, their acid is gradually decomposed. ACETIC acid, in chemistry. This acid is employed in different states, which have been distinguished from each other by peculiar names. When first prepared, it is called