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"Under the President, the heads of departments must hold full responsibility for the conduct of their departments. There must be a clear line of authority reaching down through every step of the organization and no subordinate should have authority independent from that of his superior.'
Retention of autonomous powers of the Public Health Service and the Office of Education in the proposed Department of Health, Education and Security would be a bar to any gain in efficiency of organization under the standards laid down by the Hoover Commission.
It is our considered judgment that the reorganization program of the Hoover Commission would not be advanced by approval of Reorganization Plan No. 27. The plan does nothing toward accomplishment of the objectives of the Commission in its recommendations for a new Cabinet Department to deal with education and security functions of the Government and for an independent United Medical Administration.
The plan is seriously defective from the standpoint of efficient organization in its retention of the autonomous powers of the Public Health Service and the Office of Education.
The plan would accomplish nothing beyond an increase in the prestige and power of the present Federal Security Agency. Such a result has little bearing upon the Hoover Commission's goal of a more efficient and economical Government.
ROBERT L. JOHNSON.
(Telegram from the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers is as follows:)
Hon. JOHN L. MCCLELLAN,
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF., June 28, 1950.
United States Senate Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments,
Washington, D. C.
Association State and Territorial Health officers definitely oppose Reorganization Plan No. 27. Present Federal Security Agency almost identical with proposed plan. Our experience under present organization for several years leads us to unanimous opinion that United States Public Health Service and Children's Bureau have been subordinated by present arrangement and the former close liaison and necessary effective relationships between the national health agencies and State health departments adversely affected. We recognize desirability and necessity of close understanding and working relationship between State and national health agencies for continued improvement of nation's health. Believe this can be accomplished only through a National Department of Health with cabinet status. Have sent to you previously copy of resolution of our association endorsing such a department.
WILTON L. HALVERSON, M. D.,
President, Association of State and Territorial Health Officers,
(Letter from Dr. L. E. Burney is as follows:)
THE ASSOCIATion of State AND TERRITORIAL HEALTH OFFICERS,
Hon. JOHN L. MCCLELLAN,
United States Senate, Washington, D. C.
DEAR SENATOR MCCLELLAN: In view of the consideration of Reorganization Plan No. 27, I thought you might be interested in the following resolution adopted by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers at its annual meeting in October 1949:
Whereas the health activities now being carried on by agencies of the Federal Government are of great importance to the citizens of the Nation, and
Whereas there are great differences in the administrative and professional techniques required in the execution of health activities as distinguished from other activities of the Federal Government, and
Whereas the practicability and success of the administration of health activities in a separate and distinct health agency has been demonstrated in the States, and Whereas the members of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers have a keen interest in, and are vitally concerned by, the administrative relationships and administrative standing of the Federal health agencies with which they have to deal: therefore be it
Resolved, That the Association of State and Territorial Health Officers favors the establishment of a Department of Health with Cabinet status, and under the direction of a career public health physician, in the Federal Government.
L. E. BURNEY, M. D.,
(Statement of John W. Taylor is as follows:)
STATEMENT OF JOHN W. TAYLOR, PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE, LOUISVILLE, KY.
Mr. TAYLOR. I am John W. Taylor, president of the University of Louisville at Louisville, Ky. I wish to speak in favor of Presidential Reorganization Plan No. 27 of 1950 which creates a Department of Health, Education and Security. My remarks in support of this plan represent my views first as a citizen and second as an educator.
Speaking as a citizen, I should like to say that I believe the activities of the Government in connection with health, education and security deserve a higher status than they enjoy at present. It would be good public policy, it seems to me, to raise the present Federal Security Agency which comprises these three activities to departmental status. The American people are committed to the continuous improvement of the well-being of our people. They would agree with me, I am sure, that the health, education and security of all our citizens will be better provided for in a department of the Government headed by a member of the Cabinet.
Speaking as a citizen again, I should like to say that I see the three activities— health, education, and security so closely related in the lives of individuals that their close relationship in the Government is imperative. Our citizens cannot have security without good health and education. Likewise their health is to a large degree determined by their security and the adequacy of their education. three factors in the life of any human being are obviously so interrelated that those agencies of Government concerned with such matters should be located in close proximity. Their efforts should properly be integrated by the establishment of a single over-all agency with the prestige of the highest Government status. In my opinion, Reorganization Plan No. 27 provides a desirable organization for unifying the activities of Government in these three areas.
But I wish particularly to support Reorganization Plan No. 27 because of its provision for an enhanced status for the field of education. It is, of course, the tradition in the United States to leave the control of education in the States and the various communities. With this policy I am in complete agreement.
Nevertheless, educational problems, like many other American problems, are now assuming national importance. Though the members of the profession of education wish to continue our tradition of local control, they increasingly look to the Office of Education, Federal Security Agency, for leadership in dealing with the larger national problems of education. I believe that the Office of Education should have representation in the Cabinet. If it does, the Commissioner of Education would have a direct channel to the President and to the heads of other executive departments. Reorganization Plan No. 27 provides this status. It should also be pointed out that the Commissioner, under plan No. 27, has direct access to the Secretary without passing through intermediate officers.
Out of personal experience, I feel most strongly on that particular point. I spent 3 years in the military government of Germany, a year in England and in France, making the plans to take over when the war was over. I started out in
that agency as a section of 85 people in the planning staff. I was, together with an Englishman, the education section. There was then the educational and religious affairs branch above us. There was then the division of public welfare and education and religious affairs. There was then the chief of staff, and then there was the general in charge.
When we moved to Germany, we worked one notch higher. We became a branch. But they slipped an extra administrator between us and General Clay; and so in 2 years more of working at it, we finally got to the point, where, although
we were still a branch, they invited me to the morning conference to discuss or to listen to the discussions of the control of the whole American zone of 20,000,000 Germans; and I had staff responsibility for the reeducation program, and yet it took me 2 years before I got into staff conferences. So you can see from my own personal experience how important it is to be able to sit there around the top level conference with a function that should be top level.
Dr. Zook, as a matter of fact, was very instrumental in getting our organization raised to division status. We had an American education mission come over, and they recommended that; and finally, just before I went to the University of Louisville, the status was accomplished.
This plan further provides that the Commissioner of Education shall have responsibility for the professional and substantive functions of the Office of Education. Under the plan these may not be transferred to any central administrative office in the new Department. The Commissioner of Education is thus able to devote his full time to the development of the professional services of the Office of Education.
In conclusion, I should like to say that I believe it highly important that education be considered an integral part of the over-all program of the Government. I should not favor any plan which would make the Office of Education responsible to an agency outside of the normal governmental structure such as a Federal Board of Education. Our people have a vital interest in education. Their Government has a responsibility to provide such services as are needed in the field of education. Officers of government_under our system are responsible to the people for the conduct of their offices. It seems to me highly desirable, therefore, to have the Commissioner of Education and the officers to whom he reports an integral part of our governmental system. These officers will then be responsible to the people for the operations of the agency over which they preside. I am strongly in favor, therefore, of this feature of Reorganization Plan No. 27 which places education clearly within our governmental structure.
(Statement of the Japanese-American Citizens League is as follows:)
STATEMENT OF THE JAPANESE-AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE ANTI-DISCRIMINATION COMMITTEE
The Japanese-American Citizens League, the only national organization of persons of Japanese ancestry, with 80 chapters and committees in 38 States and the District of Columbia, is strongly interested in elevating the Federal Security Agency into a Cabinet Department of Health, Education, and Security.
As proposed in President Truman's Reorganization Plan No. 27, now before Congress, the establishment of such a Cabinet Department would underscore one of the basic concepts of American democracy promoting the general welfare as -expounded by the Constitution.
Persons of Japanese ancestry are aware that fields of government which touch upon the welfare, health, and education of the individuals are perhaps of slightly more concern to the so-called minority groups in this Nation than to others. For they are the ones who usually need the assistance that only the Government today can offer in these fields to a larger extent than others.
This is not to imply that persons of Japanese ancestry, nor any other minority group, have or will demand more from such services than members of majority blocs. But because such matters are so close to minority groups, it behooves us to look closely into any proposals touching upon them.
After careful and intensive consideration of plan No. 27, we find two specific reasons for giving it our support.
The first is that, by the simple act of elevating the status of agencies dealing with such matters, the Government has automatically indicated the increasing significance these services play in our troubled times.""
The second is that, as a matter of sound sense in government, plan No. 27 would promote the efficiency and economy of agencies dealing with health, education, and welfare.
It is quite clear that one of the objections raised against previous proposals to elevate the status of the Federal Security Agency was the fear that professional powers and authority could be taken from professional leaders in the agencies involved.
Such an objection is not valid because plan No. 27 specifically provides that the offices of Surgeon General of the Pulblic Health Service, the Commissioner of Education, and the Commissioner of Social Security must have professional
qualifications for their duties; report directly to the Secretary without going through political subordinates of the Secretary; and would be appointed only by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
At the same time, the plan specifically limits the powers of the Secretary to prevent any infringement upon the professional responsibilities of the two Commissioners or the Surgeon General.
Of course, in the interests of efficiency and economy, we also recognize that the plan permits the Secretary to establish central administrative services for such activities as procurement, budgeting, accounting, library, and legal services. If for no other reason than this, we feel Congress should adopt the reorganization plan. We do not look upon resulting economies, however, in the light that less would be budgeted to the new Department to do an equal amount of work than is being accomplished today. Rather, we feel that the end result should be one of providing even greater services for each dollar appropriated.
We wish to take this opportunity to go on record unequivocally seconding that statement in the report on the House Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments when it said:
"Under Reorganization Plan No. 27 [the FSA] would be linked directly to the attention and control of the President. The importance of its mission merits its elevation. The uniqueness of its major purposes and goals is self-eloquent. The size of its related programs is again a justification as a major department." MIKE MASAOKA, National Legislative Director.
(Letter from the American Association of School Administrators is as follows:)
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS,
Senator JOHN L. MCCLELLAN,
Chairman, Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments,
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.
DEAR SENATOR MCCLELLAN: This is to request, in behalf of the American Association of School Administrators, an opportunity to testify in opposition to Reorganization Plan No. 27, the proposal to establish a Department of Health, Education, and Security in the Federal Government. This means that we will testify in favor of Senate Resolution No. 302, a resolution to dissolve Reorganization Plan No. 27.
My schedule is very full for the next 2 weeks or so. If for any reason it is impossible for me to appear in person, I would like to have you know that Dr. Edgar Fuller, executive secretary of the National Council of Chief State School Officers, is authorized to speak for me. The viewpoints of our respective organizations on plan 27 are the same.
WORTH MCCLURE, Executive Secretary.
(Telegram from A. B. Bonds, Jr., is as follows:)
Hon. JOHN L. MCCLELLAN,
ST. LOUIS, Mo., July 6, 1950.
Chairman, Committee on Expenditures in Federal Departments,
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.:
I support vigorously testimony of distinguished Educator Dr. George Zook, in behalf of plan 27. This plan represents desirable step toward greater area of service for United States Office of Education. Will appreciate your support and would like this placed in record.
Kindest personal regards.
A. B. BONDS, Jr.,
(Letter from Child Welfare League of America, Inc., is as follows:) CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA, INC.,
Mr. JOHN L. MCCLELLAN,
New York 18, N. Y., July 6, 1950.
Chairman, Senate Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.
DEAR MR. MCCLELLAN: The Child Welfare League of America, Inc., is writing in reference to the President's Reorganization Plan No. 27 of 1950, which proposal we understand in now being considered by the committee of which you are chairman. We would ask that our comments be placed in the official record of the hearings now going forward.
The Child Welfare League, which is a voluntary association of child welfare agencies located in 146 communities throughout the country, has a serious interest in the basic principles of the President's Reorganization Plan No. 27. For the past 4 years our organization has been on record favoring the raising of the Federal Security Agency to Cabinet status. Particularly do we believe that the health, education, and security of children in this country is of such deep concern to all as to warrant full status to that department of Government which has such as its responsibility. Although we do not consider all the proposals contained in plan No. 27 as perfect, we do believe that they are sound basically and that they deserve full support as a step forward.
One of the truly important aspects of any reorganization of health, education, and security, in the mind of the board and members of the Child Welfare League of America, is that the Federal Children's Bureau will have an important position and an even more precisely defined status than at present in the proposed new department. We feel that it is particularly important at this time in the history of our country that special programs in child welfare receive proper and thoroughgoing attention through the appropriate branches of Government and that this be effected through the Children's Bureau, which has served in such an excellent fashion up to the present time.
We sincerely trust, therefore, that you and your committee will not only support Reorganization Plan No. 27 but also make an appropriate statement for the record with respect to improving the present status and functioning of the Children's Bureau.
SPENCER H. CROOKES, Executive Director.
(Letter from the Young Women's Christian Association of the United States of America, National Board, is as follows:)
YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION OF THE
Senator JOHN L. MCCLELLAN,
Chairman, Senate Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C.
MY DEAR SENATOR MCCLELLAND: The national board of the Young Women's Christian Association has long been interested in the greater efficiency and economy of administration in government. They have, therefore, studied the various proposals that have been made from time to time for the creation of a Federal department with Cabinet status which would embody the functions related to health, education, and social welfare now being carried by a number of departments.
The board urges you to use your influence to gain acceptance of President Truman's Reorganization Plan No. 27, now before Congress.
CONSTANCE M. ANDERSON,