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attention to these illustrations of the Odyssey, illustrations to which we would willingly have added many more.
We have received much help from many friends, and especially from Mr. R. W. Raper, Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, and Mr. Gerald Balfour, Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who have aided us with many suggestions while the book was passing through the press.
In the interpretation of B. i. 411, ii. 191, v. 90, and 471, we have departed from the received view, and followed Mr. Raper, who, however, has not been able to read through the proof-sheets further than Book viii.
We have adopted La Roche's text, except in a few cases where we mention our reading in a foot-note.
The Arguments prefixed to the Books are taken, with very slight alterations, from Hobbes' Translation of the Odyssey.
In a Council of the Gods, Poseidon absent, Pallas procureth an order for the restitution of Odysseus; and appearing to his son Telemachus, in human shape, -adviseth him to complain of the Wooers before the Council of the people, and .then go to Pylos and Sparta to inquire about his father. ^
Tell me, Muse, of that man, .of many a shift, who wandered far and wide, after he had sacked the sacred1 citadel of Troy, and many were the men whose towns he saw and; whose mind he learnt, yea, and many the woes he suffered in his heart upon the deep, striving to win his own life and the return of his company. Yet for all that he saved not his company, though he desired it sore. For through the. blindness of their own hearts they perished, fools, who devoured the oxen of Helios Hyperion: but the god took • from them their day of returning. Of these things, goddess, daughter of Zeus, from whatsoever source thou wilt, declare even unto us.
Now all the rest, as many as fled from sheer destruction, were at home, and had escaped both war and sea, butOdysseus; only, yearning for his wife and his returning, the lady nymph Calypso held, that fair 2 goddess, in her hollow caves, longing to have him for her lord. But when now the year had come in the courses of the seasons, wherein the gods had ordained i that he should return home to Ithaca, not even there was he" quit of labours, not even among his own; but all the gods. had pity on him save Poseidon, and he raged hotly against
godlike Odysseus, till he came to his own country. Howbeit Poseidon had now departed for the distant Ethiopians, the Ethiopians that are sundered in twain, the uttermost of men, abiding some where Hyperion sinks and some where he rises. There he looked to receive his hecatomb of bulls and rams, there he made merry sitting at the feast, but the other gods were gathered in the halls of Olympian Zeus. Then among them the father of gods and men began to speak, for he bethought him in his heart of noble Aegisthus, whom the son of Agamemnon, far-famed Orestes, slew. Thinking upon him he spake out among the Immortals:
'Lo you now ! how vainly mortal men do blame the gods! For from us they say cometh evil, whereas they even of themselves, through the blindness of their own hearts, have sorrows beyond that which is ordained. Even as of late Aegisthus, beyond that which was ordained, took to him the wedded wife of Atreides and killed her lord on his return; and that with sheer doom before his eyes, since we had warned him by the mouth of Hermes the keen-sighted, the slayer of Argos, that he should neither kill the man, nor woo his wife. For from Ore.stes shall there be vengeance for Atreides so soon as he shall come to man's estate and long for his own country. So spake Hermes, yet he prevailed not on the heart of Aegisthus, for all his good will; but now hath he paid one price for all.'
And the goddess, grey-eyed Athene, answered him, saying: 'O father, our father Cronides, throned in the highest; that man assuredly lies in a death that is his due; so perish likewise all who work such deeds! But my heart is torn for wise Odysseus, the hapless one, who far from his friends this long while suffereth affliction in a seagirt isle, where is the navel of the sea, a woodland isle, and therein a goddess hath her habitation, the daughter of the wise and terrible
who knows the depths of every sea, and himself upholds the tall pillars which keep earth and sky asunder. His daughter it is that holds the hapless man in sorrow: and ever with soft and guileful tales she is wooing him tcK^ forgetfulness of Ithaca, while Odvsseus vearning to see if it were but the smoke leap upwards from his own land, hath a desire to die; but as for thee, thine heart regardeth it not at all, Olympian! WhatI did not Odysseus by the ships of the Argives make thee free offering of sacrifice in wide Troy? Wherefore wast thou then so wigth with him, O Zeus!'
And.Zeus the cloud-gatherer answered her, and said, 'My child, what word hath escaped the door of thy lips3? Yea, how should I forget divine Odysseus, who in understanding is beyond mortals and beyond all men hath done sacrifice to the deathless gods, who keep the wide heaven? Nay, but it is Poseidon, the girdler of the earth, that hath been wrath continually with quenchless anger for the Cyclops' sake whom he blinded of his eye, even godlike Polyphemus whose power is mightiest amongst all the Cyclopes. His mother K was the nymph Thoosa, daughter of Phorcys, lord of the unharvested sea, and she lay with Poseidon in the hollow caves. From that day forth Poseidon the earth-shaker doth not indeed slay Odysseus, but driveth him wandering from his own country. But come, let us here one and all take good counsel as touching his returning, that so he may be got home; so shall Poseidon, let go his displeasure, for he will in no wise be able to strive alone against all, in despite of all the deathless gods.'
Then the goddess, grey-eyed Athene, answered him, and
said: 'O father, our father Cronides, throned in the highest,
- if indeed this thing is now well pleasing to-the blessed gods,
that wise Odysseus should return to his own home, let us then speed Hermes, the Messenger, the slayer of Argos, to the island of Ogygia, that with all speed he may declare to the lady of the braided tresses our unerring counsel, even the return of the patient Odysseus, that so he may come to his home. But as for me I will go to Ithaca that I may rouse his son yet the more, and plant might in his heart, that he call an assembly of the long-haired Achaeans and speak out to all the wooers who slaughter continually the sheep of his thronging flocks, and his kine with trailing feet and shambling gait. And I will guide him to Sparta and to sandy Pylos to seek tidings of his dear father's return, if peradventure he may hear thereof and that so he may be had in good report among men.'
She spake and bound beneath her feet her lovely golden sandals, that wax not old, and bare her alike over the wet sea and over the limitless land, swift as the breath of the wind. And she seized her doughty spear, shod with sharp bronze, weighty, and huge and strong, wherewith she quells the ranks of heroes with whomsoever she is wroth, the daughter of the mighty sire. Then from the heights of Olympus she came glancing down, and she stood in the land of Ithaca, at the entry of the gate of Odysseus, on the threshold of the courtyard, holding in her hand the spear of bronze, in the semblance of a stranger, Mentes,the captain of the Taphians. And there she found the lordly wooers: now they were taking their pleasure at draughts in front of the doors, sitting on hides of oxen, which themselves had slain. And of the henchmen and the ready squires, some were mixing for them wine and water in bowls, and some again were washing the tables with porous sponges and were setting them forth, and others were carving flesh in plenty.
And godlike Telemachus was far the first to descry her, for he was sitting with a heavy heart among the wooers