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Raffaelle himself, beneath himself oft fell, Not West's rich pencil need disdain to trace, And meaner hands' best works his worst excel 16. Or Romney's stroke with glowing colours grace.

T is general nature, in thy art and mine, When Dithyrambus, on Oëta's plain, Must give our fame in future times to shine: Mourns the brave Persian whom his hand has slain, Sublime and pathos, like the Sun's fix'd flame, Nor marks his danger from th' approaching foe, Remain, and please through ev'ry age the same; Nor his bold friend prepard to ward the blow; Humour's light shapes, like vapours in the sky, In one what grief, in one what vengeful rage, Rise, pass, and vary, and for ever ily:

In one what ardour, might the sight engage 19! Hogarth and Swift, if living, might deplore ,

The gentle Kauffman's traits can best declare Half their keen jokes, that now are jokes no more. The sentimental feelings of the fair,

What Truth's rich page of real event supplies, When soft Erminia in the sylvan shade What Fancy's pow'rs of fabled act devise, Leaves Tancred's name on ev'ry tree display'd 30; Before thee lie--but where the field so wide, Or kind Louisa pens the friendly scroll, There Judgment's hand Selection's step must guide. To sooth the mournful sister of her soul 21.

To Horrour's forms the mind aversion feels, The same skill'd hand more strong expression To Spaniolet's '7 flay'd saints and torturing wheels; tries, Nor praise for nauseous images we win,

At Edward's feet when Woodville's daughter lies 22; For Spenser's Errour, or for Milton's Siu.

Or, midst th' admiring weeping train around, Mythology, that Greek enchantress, long Fond Eleanora sucks the poison'd wound 23. Has reign'd the idol of the painting throng: Delightful artist !-Grace her pencil guides, But Reason's thought disdains Ovidian dreams And Delicacy o'er its stroke presides ! Absurd, of nymphs transform'd to trees and streams; Th' immortal swans, appointed to redeem And Virtue Homer's wanton gods abhors,

Genius and Worth from Lethe's silent stream, With all their lewd amours and all their idle wars. Pleas’d with their charge, shall bear her medall'd

The battle's conflicts ample scope bestow,
Th’ effects of fury, fear, and pain to show; To the fair priestess of the fane of Fame 24.
As different features these unlike express,

Such tender subjects, if thy choice they gain,
The contrast's force affects us more or less. Enough for thee as yet untouch'd remain.
But here Confusion holds his crowded reign, Now from the page of Richardson bestow
And the tir'd eye attempts to rest in vain; On Clementina's face the lines of woe;
And o'er the scene Humanity complains, (tains. Or let sweet Harriet's livelier beauty wear
Where mangled corses lie, and blood the land dis- The soul-fraught eye and apprehensive air;
When in the fore-ground kings or generals stand, Or draw the proud Olivia's rage-flush'd charms,
Direct the attack, or head the charging band, When the calm hero seiz'd her deadly arms;
Their graceful forms we unconcern'd survey,
Who fight for conquest, or who fight for pay:
Nor in their postures can there much be prais'd, Achilles, at the moment when the death of Patro-
Their pistols levell’d, or their falchions rais'd; clus, occurring to his thought, determined him to
And to dull sameness here so oft we fall,

kill Lycaon, would afford a fine expression: That who beholds one piece, beholds them all.

Talk not of life or ransom, he replies ;
But War's dire field, not all confin'd to these,

Patroclus dead, whoever meets me dies.
Affords us often incidents that please:
For oft the historian's, oft the poet's art,

19 Vide Leonidas, book vüi. I. 355. Can win our wishes on some hero's part;

He ended, rushing furious on the Greek, His country nam’d, his place and parents known, Who, while his gallant enemy expir'd, Our busy thought his perils makes its own.

While Hyperanthes tenderly receiv'd To fierce Pelides, midst Scamander's waves,

The last embraces of his gàsping friend, When young Lycaon's voice for pity craves 18 ; Stood nigh reclin'd in sadness on his shield, The chief's stern brow and lance suspended high, And in the pride of victory repin'd. The youth's bent knee and deprecating eye,

Unmark'd his fue approach'd. But forward

sprung

Diomedon. Before the Thespian youth 16 For this assertion the author has the highest Aloft he rais'd his targeauthority, viz. that of sir Joshua Reynolds. “I

30 Vide Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered. have no desire,” says he,“ to degrade Raffaelle from the high rank he deservedly holds; but, in 21 See Emma Corbett, an interesting novel, by comparing him with himself, he does not appear to Mr. S. I. Pratt, vol. i. letter 34. me to be the same man in oil as in fresco.” Dis

23 See the story of Elizabeth Grey, daughter of courses, p. 165.

sir Richard Woodville, suing to Edward IV. for re17 Gioseppe Ribera, a native of Valencia in Spain stitution of her lands. Rapin, vol. i. p. 601. He was noted for painting horrid subjects; such 3 The well-known story of Eleanor of Castile, as Prometheus with the vulture feeding on his liver; queen of Edward I. sucking the poison from her Ixion tortured on the wheel; and St. Bartholomew husband's arm, when he was wounded by an assaswith the skin flayed from his body. Vide Dryden's sin in Palestine. translation of Fresnoy, p. 352.

24 See a painting of Mrs. Kauffman's, from a 18 Vide the Iliad, book xxi. This story of Ly- passage in Ariosto, where swans are introduced caon is perhaps one of the most affecting passages bringing the names of ingenious persons, inscribed in the whole poem. Vide Pope's note, vol. v. on medals, to a nymph who deposits them in the p. 208. of his translation. The countenance of temple of Fame.

And paint that hero, firm in trial prov'd,

When, rang'd in arms along their Thames's strand. Unaw'd by danger, and by vice unmov'd 25, They snatch'd their charter from a tyrant's hand 32: To Sterne's sit maniac let thy han:) impart Through all the scenes his rapid stroke bestow'd, The languid cheek, the look that piered his heart, Rosa's wild grace and daring spirit glow'd; When to her virgin saint the vesper song she rais'd, In him-ah, lost ere half bis powers were shown ! Or earnest view'd him as he sat and gaz'd 26. Britain perhaps an Angelo had known ! Mark, if thou can'st, philanthropy divine,

Would'st thou his honours emulous pursue, That swells the breast, and bids the features shine, And give the patriot energy to view,When the tear glist’ning starts from Toby's eyes Deep in the gloom of Dalecarlia's mine, Fix'd on the couch where poor Le Fevre dies. Bid Freedom's flame in Vasa's visage shine 33; The Grecian classics' venerable lore

The pass of fam’d Thermopylæ display, I see thee often diligent explore;

And Sparta's monarch's port august portray 34. What Ilomer's Muse to Chian cities taught,

For pontiffs and for kings, the painter's skill Or Pity's priest 27 to Athens' audience brought. From sacred story toils their walls to fill; Methinks, now rising from thy plastic hand, Where'er we turn, its subjects strike the eye, Troy's hoary monarch shall a suppliant stand; And few untried are left for us to try. To stern Achilles all his griefs explain,

Yet who has Jepthah's matchless woe express'd, And ask his Hector's corse, nor ask in vain 23. By his lov'd daughter's sudden sight distress'd; Now Jove's kind son to Thebes's sorrowing king Or shown the patriarchs, struck with wild amaze, Shall his restor'd unknown Alcestis bring;

As on the viceroy's hidden cup they gaze 35 Admetus' eyes his anguish'd thonghts declare, Or who, when Israel's hosts on Edom's plain And turn disgusted from the proffer'd fair 29, Despairing lie,-a thirst-afflicted train !

The dark sublime of extra-natural scenes Has bade the prophet and his minstrei stand, The vulgar magic's puerile rite demeans;

And call new waters o'er the burning sand 35? Where hags their caldrons fraught with toads pre- When David's chiefs, with gen'rous thought inspir'd, pare,

Bring the clear wave his sick’ning soal desir'd; Or glide on broomsticks through the midnight air. What dignity might to his act be given, Chain'd on the rock let bold Prometheus lie, The pure libation pouring out to Heaven 37! And cast wild looks, upbraiding, to the sky so; No more of theme; design must now succeedBid Milton's Satan from the burning steep

The mind's strong picture when we hear or read
Call his wide legions, slumb'ring on the deep; Where every person finds his proper place,
Or Camoens' spirit of the Cape upraise,

And turn of attitude and turn of face:
And show him only by the lightning's blaze;
Or place sad Hosier's ghost amid the tide,

32 Vide the late Mr. Mortimer's picture of king Where by the pale Moon anchor'd navies ride 31. John delivering magna charta to the barons. That

O where is he, whose thought such grandeur gare ingenious artist's obvious powers of imagination To bold Fitzwalter and the barons brave,

promised the attainment of a high degree of ercellence in his profession.

33 Brooke's Gustavus Vasa, act i. scene 2. where 25 The History of sir Charles Grandison, vol. iv. Gustavus discovers himself to Anderson and Ampolp. 176. The interview between Grandison and Oli- dus in the copper-mines of Dalecarlia, See anvia, at the instant of his seizing her poinard, other fine subject in the same Tragedy, act is. would make a noble picture. This work of Richard-scene xi. son's abounds with fine sitnations. Brookes's Fool 34 Vide Leonidas, book x. where the berd of the of Quality, and the Adventurer of Hawkesworth, poem repeats to the assembled council the message are also books worthy the perusal of an artist who of Argestes; while Alpheus, at the same instant, wishes for choice of interesting incidents.

brings news of the Persians baving passed the Up26 This subject has been attempted by several per Strait. This would make a noble picture; ingenious artists, who have given very pleasing the dauntless appearance of the Greeks might be figures; but perhaps none that convey the precise will contrasted with the fear and shame of the amidea of Sterne. This author being mentioned, a bassador o Xerxes. The banquet of Melissa, trite observation must be indulged, viz. That there priestess of the Muses, where Leonidas and Eschs. probably never was a more striking instance of inis us are supposed present, book vij. is another fine application of talents than in him. With superior subject. Such pictures would hardly be popular; powers for the pathos, be chose to desceud to ri- but to some minds they would afford singular pleabaldry, that affronted the taste and corrupted the morals of the public. What pity that the gold 35 The author does not recollect seeing or hearhad not been separated from the dross, and the ing of any celebrated picture on those interesting latter consigned to that oblivion it so richly merits ! subjects, of jepthah's return, and the discovery of 27 Euripides.

Joseph's cup in the sack of Benjamin. 28 Vide the Iliad, book xxiv.

jh Vide 2 Kings, chap. iii. This subject would 29 Vide the Alcestis of Euripides. Hercules re afford a var ety of noble expression in the different stores to life Alcestis, the deceased wife of Admetus, characters of the kings, the pious confidence of and brings her to her husband, disguised with a Jehosaphat, and the desponding anxiety of Jehorama, veil, and represented as a stranger; whom Adme the distress of the soldiers, and the enthusiasm of tus, in the height of distress for the loss of his Elisha. The streams of water might appear in the beloved consort, refuses to admit into his palace. distance, seemingly visible only to the prophet, 30 See the Prometheus of Æschylus.

from his situation. 31 See that admirable song, entitled Hosier's 37 2 Samuel, chap. xxiii. Ghost; by the author of Leonidas.

38 See sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses, p. 104

sure.

The artist's powers in this must greatly fail, .“ O, thus has Fortune for the brave decreed? Whose figures point not out at once his tale 3), Of toils and dangers this at last the meed 4+ ?” When Lystra's crowd around the apostles throng, When Rome's fair princess, who from Syrian shore And joyful lead the victim ox along ;

Her late lost consort's sacred ashes bore, Ask we the cause, while he that cause explains With steps slow-moving o'er Brundusium's strand, Whose limb, late useless, strength and ase ob- Meets her lov'd friends-a numerous mourning tains 40?

Her gentle frame no gestures rude disgrace, [bandWhen West's young warrior, bleeding on the ground, No vulgar grief deforms her beauteous face;, His mournful group of martial friends surround; Her downcast eyes immoveable remain, Their gallant gen'ral instantly we know,

Fix'd on the urn her careful hands sustain. Their griefs, their cares, his life's importance show; The widow'd mother, by her garment's folds, Quebec's proud tower, the encount'ring troops be- Close on each side each tender offspring holds ; tween,

While melancholy all the train o'ersbades, In distant view discriminates the scene 41,

Of boary warriors and of blooming maids ; As in the drama all events should tend

And all their breasts with pity seem to heave, In course unbroken to the purpos'd end;

And for the dead and for the living grieve 45. So must the picture's business still maintain

The great sublime with energy to express The same connective unity of train.

Exert thy utmost power, nor fear excess. When Copley's youth, swift struggling through the When passion's tumults in the bosom rise, wave,

Inflate the features, and enrage the eyes; The anxious boatmen strain each nerve to save; To Nature's outline can we draw too true, As strives the rav'nous shark to reach his prey, Or Nature's colours give too full to view ? One lifts the javelin to arrest his way;

Did Reynolds' hand with force too strong disclose And now, as near his dreadful jaws expand, Those looks that mark th' unutterable woes, One casts the cord, and one extends the hand: When Ugoline the wretch in prison lies, What care, what pity, mark their eager eyes ! And hears his dying children's piercing cries, What hopes, what terrours, in ou. bosoms rise 42 ! And while fell Hunger haunts the impervious walls, The skilful painter, at whose option lie

And one by one the suffering victims calls, Positions various, fails not all to try;

Invokes the lightning's bolt those walls to rend, And those prefers, where every part the best Or earth to open, and his miseries end 46 ? Accordance keeps, illustrating the rest.

Our bards indeed, I own, here often fail, By different modes effect he oft obtains ;

And spoil with bombast and conceit their tale; To one chief figure now the attention gains; Their heroes rant in many a curious strain Now force on second characters bestows,

Of thought, that none could think in anger or in pain. And all his meaning by reflection shows;

Celestial scenes with caution must be tried, Now through the whole, each rank, and sex, and Where knowledge fails, and fancy sole can guide: age,

The great First Cause no form reveals to sight, One common ruling passion bids engage.

We mark his presence by excess of light 47; When Raffaelle's Saviour from the tomb ascends, while angel shapes at ease on wing remain, Such majesty and grace his presence blends, Or on thin clouds their airy steps sustain. That the fix'd eye contemplates him alone,

But though, fair Painting ! thus by just design, Nor heeds th' astonish'd guards around him and strong expression, much to please is thine; thrown 43,

Yet not from these thy utmost praises rise,
When Vandyke's gen’ral, whose victorious spear Por useful moral oft thy work supplies.
Suok Persia's pride, and check’d the Goth's career, When, midst Poussin's Arcadian vale serene,
Of service paid with indigence complains,

The virgin's sculptur'd monument is seen,
And sightless age on daily alms sustains;

And the sad shepherd pointing seems to say, As the young chief th' affecting scene surveys, “ O Death, no place is sacred from thy sway!" How all his form the emotion'd soul betrays! Our mournful thoughts the well-known truth recall,

That youth and beauty oft untimely fall 43.

39 " That composition must be defective, which cannot, to a careful observer, point out its own 44 Vide the Belisarius of Vandyke; engraved tendency; and those expressions must be either by Goupy and Scotin. weak or false, wbich do not in some degree mark 45 This capital picture of Agrippina landing at the interest of each actor in the drama.” Webb's Brundusium, with the ashes of Germanicus, is, in Inquiry into the Beauties of Painting, Preface, p. 8. the author's opinion, one of Mr. West's most pleas

40 Vide Raffaelle's St. Paul and Barnabas at ing compositions. There is a beautiful print of it Lystra. For the above observation and descrip- by Earlom. tion the author is indebted to the ingenious In 46 Vide sir Joshua Reynolds's excellent picture quiry into the Beauties of Painting, p. 180). of count Ugolino and bis children in the dungeon;

41 Vide West's celebrated picture of the death where they were confined and starved to death by of general Wolfe, engraved by Woollett.

the archbishop Puggieri. This circumstance is 42 See Mr. Copley's picture of a youth rescued described by the Italian poet Dantè. by sailors from a shark, in the harbour of the Ha 47 The author could not here omit censuring the vannah. There is a fine mezzotinto of this piece practice of some celebrated painters, who have by Green.

presumptuously and absurdly represented the Su43 Raffaelle's picture of the resurrection of preme Being in the form of an aged man. Christ, engraved by Vivarez and Grignion from a 48 Vide Poussin's picture, called The Shepherds drawing of Dalton,

in Arcadia; engraved by Ravenet, in Mr. Boydell’s

On Carthage' plains when Marius meets the eye, And sacred ever be the solemn scene
And the stern prætor's mandate bids him fly; From base intrusion of burlesque and mean;
Fresh from the view the strong reflection springs, Nor in a patriarch's or apostle's sight
How strange the vast vicissitude of things ! Set snarling dogs and growling cats to fight.
Rome's rival city to the dust depress’d;

One caution further must the Muse impart;
Her haughty consul there denied to rest 49 ! Shun naked form, that scandal of thy art :
When Persia's conqueror, midst her female train, Even Dryden blames them who refuse to spare
Appears the chaste, the gen'rous, and humane; The painful blushes of the modest fair.
His looks, his action, on the mind impress

Let Decency her veil of drapery throw, The needful knowledge how to bear success so. And Grace diffuse its folds in easy flow s6

Thus may thy art, O friend, for ever prove And now, my friend, for thee may Fortune find Of force, to virtue, and from vice to move! Employ congenial to thy liberal mind; To statesmen, thoughtless on the heights of pow'r, Not tasks impos'd by power, or chosen for gain, Mark Wolsey's fall, or show his final hour;

Begun reluctant, and pursu'd with pain. To patriot eyes give Marvell's calm disdain, What warms the heart, the hand with force reveals, When Danby urg'd the tempting bribe in vain s'; And all that force the charm'd spectator feels: Or bid the inconstant her own doom deplore For genius, piercing as the electric flame, In the sad exit of the hapless Shore Sz.

When wak'd in one, in others wakes the same. Without the entheus Nature's self bestows, The world no painter nor no poet knows : But think not mind in its own depth contains A source of wealth that no disbursement drains :

SONNETS. Quick observation, ever on the wing, Home, like the bee, its useful stores must bring ; From hills, and vales, and rocks, and streams, and The following Sonnets, and the Stanzas addressed trees,

to Mrs. Macaulay, appeared in Pearch's CollecAnd towns, and all that people those and these ;

tion of Poems published in 1770. The remainFrom meanest objects that may hints inspire,

ing pieces are now first printed.
Discolour'd walls, or heaps of glowing fire 53.
Care too beside thee still must take her place,
Retouch each stroke, and polish every grace;

SONNET I.
For when we join not dignity with ease,
Nor thou canst paint, nor I can write, to please.

APOLOGY FOR RETIREMENT. 1766.
Perfection's point the artist nearest gains,
Who with his work unsatisfy'd remains :

Why asks my friend what cheers my passing day, Da Vinci's thought an excellence conceiv'd,

Where these lone fields my rural home enclose, That his eye miss'd in all his hand achiev'd 54.

That all the pomp the crowded city shows The clear-obscure how happiest to produce,

Ne'er from that home allures my steps away? And what of various tints the various use, My lay to that presumes not to aspire,

Now through the upland shade I musing stray, Nor with trite precept this thy ear shall tire:

And catch the gale that o'er the woodbine blows; Coreggio's practice that describes the best :

Now in the meads on river banks repose, In Fresnoy's theory this we find express'd.

And breathe rich odour from the new-mown hay: No rude incongruence should thy piece disgrace, No motley modes of diff'rent time and place; Now pleas'd I read the poet's lofty lay, By Grecian chiefs no Gallic ajrs be wornss,

Where music fraught with useful knowledge Rows; Nor in their hands be modern weapons borne;

Now Delia's converse makes the moments gay, Nor mix the crested helm and coat of mail

The maid for love and innocence I chose : With the vast curld peruke, or pointed tail.

O friend! the man who joys like these can taste,

On vice and folly needs no hour to waste. collection of prints: also the abbé Du Bos's Reflections on Poetry, Painting, and Music; and Dr. Warton's ingenious Essay on Didactic Poetry, in

SONNET II. his translation of Virgil. 49 There is a fine picture of Mortimer's on this

TO DELIA. 1766. subject. The reply of Marius to the messenger who came with orders for him to depart, was nobly Thrice has the year its vary'd circuit run, concise and affecting: “Go, tell the prætor thon And swiftly, Delia, have the moments flownl, hast seen Marius sitting on the ruins of Carthage." Since with my love for thee my care begun,

so Vide Le Brun's Alexander in the tent of Da- To improve thy tender mind to science prone. rius, engraved by Edelinck.

si See the Life of Andrew Marvell, in Cibber's The flatteries of my sex I bade thee shun, Lives of the Poets.

I bade thee shun the manners of thy own; 52 The interview between Shore and her husband, Fictitious manners, by example won, in the last scene of Rowe's tragedy, would afford That ill for loss of innocence atone ! a fine picture. 53 Vide Reynold's Discourses, p. 61.

56 Vide Dryden's preface to his translation of 54 Vide Grahain's Account of Painters, in Dry- Fresnoy's Art of Painting, p. 22, &c. where the den's Fresnoy, p. 278.

licence of painters, in the above respect, is severely ss Vide Reynolds's Discourses, p. 87.

censured.

Say, gen'rous maiden, in whose gentle breast Though leagued in wartremendous round thy shore-
Dwells simple Nature, undisguis'd by art, But from thyself, thy ruin must proceed !
Now amply tried by time's unerring test,

Nor boast thy power; for know it is decreed,
How just the dictates of this faithful heart; Thy freedom lost, thy power shall be no more!
Which, with the joys thy fav’ring smiles impart,
Deems all its care repaid, itself supremely bless'd.

STANZAS

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