Page images

Thoughts on Civil Government.


mans :

hardly go back farther than to the ambition in making conquests can Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Ro ambition, which, initad of augment.

to the grand revolutions ing teir power, serves only to diwhich had overturned the world ve.. minih incir ítrengti. fore the eftablishment of those em Were the force of a late to be de. pires we are perfect strangers.

termined by the extent of its lerri, Beside, this knowledge would be of tory, the immense empire of Darius little utility to us : it is of more con. would have rubdued the comparativerequence to know what men are, ly diminutive army of Alexander i than to employ ourselves in sorming and, in modern times, we should not conje&ures tending to ascertain what have seen two of the large coun. they were. The Chinese reapnoad. tries of the world enslaved by a few vantage from deriving their origin ro European veff !s. many thousand years back ; nor ale The power of a nation confifs in its we injured becaule ours is fixed at a force, whether naval or military, in less ancient date. The passions are its laws, in its maxims, in the wisdom in all ages the same ; and if we had of its government. before us the genealogy of our ances. Sparta, Lacedemon, and Athens, tors from the creation, we should de. were, in their infancy, small repub. rive no benefit from it but that of a Tics ; and Rome, whom the whole chronological series of our weaknesses world could not at length contain, and of our errors.

was originally confined within her In order to the formation of a fo.

own walls. ciety, it is necessary that the nature The vast empires of Afia have neof the country should not preclude a ver flourished ; and India and Perfi3, general communication among the Egypt and Turkey, have long remain. people who are to compore it. The ed in a ftate of natural imbecility. ancient inhabitants of Russia, ļor ex- In all ages, and in every part of the ample, and, it may be added, the na- world, thore ftates, which ibe luft of tives of North and South America, dominion lias carried beyond certain when those regions were firft explor- limits, have fallen vidims to their ed by Europeans, were wanderers immensity. over vaft deserts, without having the Rome, after having been enlarged smallest mutual correspondence. ic beyond the boundaries which her was the lot of bosh to inhabit dir. laws and her political eftablishment trias totally diftin&t from, and un- prescribed to her, funk under the connected with, each other. Those weight of her greatness. From the immense continents, though in each same caure Carthage (ell. Io days there was a number of different tribes, we may call our own also, Spain necontained not (as has fince been clear.

ver felt herself ro weak as when she ly ascertained by political calculation) had added tivo large empires to her one man for ten that were requisite to ancient territory ; nor did Britain diffuse over the whole a degree of ever appear so abje&t as during her force adequate to their extent ; and impotent fruggles to retain the do. from this circumftance alone we may minion of one empire-an empire, not only form an idea of their im. however, which from a variety of becility, but affigo the cause of it. circumstances almoft peculiar to it,

Though it has long been remarked, promises one day (if it be but posible that a large ftace is comparatively to keep it united within itself) to more weak than a small one, yet what eclipse the glory of Europe. the limits of its extent ought to be, in Much has been said about the in. order tothe full enjoyment of its force, fluence of climate, in the establim. this is a point which as yet remains ment of political governments; and undetermined. A definition of it a writer of very superior talents has would, nevertheless, be one of the endeavoured to prove, that every moft important acquisitions to mo. thing depends on this single circumdern politics. We should then, per: fance. In this, however, with all haps, have fewer wars ; nor Mould delerence to his revered abilities, he we see so many Princes place their is deceived. First causes sometimes

upon eas


give way to second ones ; and is phy- of la: less liberty than what, from fcal caures poflefied all the influence their situation, phyfcally considered wbich he seems to ascribe them, the they might poliers ; and that the different empires of the world would English, during the usurpation of be eternal as the world itreil.

Cromwell, were greater llaves than From universal history we learn, the inhabitants of Algiers. † that power, traversiogine world at It now remains to enquire what Jarge, has alternately retiled io coun. effeat the arts and-sciences have op. tries where, from their apporte cli. on civil government. And here, as mates, strength and imbecility were a preliminary fad, it muft be accontrafted.

knowledged, that the moft enlightNo nation was once fo mighty as ened ages have not always been the Greece ; and no nation is now ro most bappy. It was even been faid, publlanimous. If, at the same time, that in proportion as kinowledge ea. we draw a complon of ancient and creases, the mind becomes corrupted. modern Rome, we thall find the lat. But what ...ference ought wę, in jufter as weak as the former was power.

tice, to form from this general affer Sul ; yet the influence of the climate tion, admitting it to be true ? Not, is as great there at present, as it was surely, ibat knowledge is a thing in in the time of the republic.

itiell bad ; but that there is nothing Heat certainly enervates the body,

good that can remain and, while it er feebles mankind, pre- long exempted from the abuse of pares them for favery. Cold, on the contrary, renders them fout and vi. 'Though the sciences are so far from gorous, and coniequently pre-disposes being of deceflity the parents of pow. phem to liberty. Hence it is that, er and felicity, that a mediocrity of in all ages, the inhabirants of the

both talents and fortune is found to North have scorned to low to the be more calculated to recder men yoke of southern nations... But for happy than an abundance of either their manly resistance, we Mould wealth or knowledge ; yei, in the have all been flives.

political world, a revolution bas hap. In Afia, where the climate produces pened which renders, at leaf, a rela. the former of the effects here nen- tive advancement in the Audy of tioned, the people support the weight them requisite. of fervitude without feeling it It From the time that politics became Heals in, if it may be fo expressed, reduced into a complex syfem ; from through the very laftade which it- the time that light succeeded to dark felt creates. The reverse being the ness ; that the nature and ends of case wherever the climate has a ten. government began to be underflood; dency to give liberty to mal, despot. That the gaining of battles no longer ilm, when once established in such depended on firength and courage, countries, is more grievous than in but on the art of figoting; from that those which lead to fivery; aud for time ikill and koowledge became the this reason, that physical caufes must engines of power, and governed alt have been made io give way to mo- its principles. So ftrictly true are rllcrules...a circumllance which ne. thele positions, that if we examine the ver happens but when tyranny is presene Aate of Europe, we hall not carried to excess. Thus situated, a find the pations that liave formed the delpoic government is productive grande ft setslements, to be those of peculiar hardftips ; for wretched which are e:cher the ftrongest or the indeed mun the nation be that is not most populous, but those in which the a bowed to enjoy the advantages to arts and scienes have chienly fouritz. ririch it is actually en:itled by na. ed. fure as its inheritance.

Before Thus it is a fundamental truth in the pollical world, that when a state, paturally free, bas once beein enflived, See The State of Denmark beit is en laved in the extreme. Heuce it fore the Revolution. is, that we now see the Danes possessed t See The Life of Cromwell

Story of Venoni and Louisa.

611 Before men were united in society, though the passions, with their attenintelligence was not necessary for dant vices, may through a temporary them. As mere existence was their

cloud over the prospects of an inonly objeđ, inftin&t was sufficient. telligent people, yel, spurred on hy Afterwards, however, new springs neceility, realon and justice, sooner or of aâion arose; plans of legination later, are sure to resume their influ. were settled ; different clafles were

ence, and to re-assert their rights created ; different orders were form- alike over the rulers and the ruled ; ed ; different powers were eftablish- in other words, to triumph over the ed. In order to preserve a gene- former, as the authors of past oppref- . sal equilibrium, an additional weight fons, and to guard the latter againft was given to some, at the expence of

the repetition of similar ones. Far othere. Every attention was necer. different is it with nations immersed sary to the maintenance of civil and

in ignorapce. Adoally barbarous political order, and to the preserva. ftill, without some extraordinary intion of the public safety. These va. tervention, barbarous they must rerious obje&s required, not only minds main ; and wretched, as well as bar. enlightened and improved, but (foto barous, muft their pofterity be also. express it) a general assortment of

Other remarks might here be addknowledge.

ed. But it is not always proper to In a word, that union, which, while exhauft a subject; and, at any rate, it diffuses a harmony throughout the present payer seems to be already the body politic, serves to connect all extended to a length more than suiits parts, is a syftem highly compli- ficient, perhaps, for the valuable recated ; and barbarous is every go- pository in which it is the with of the vernment reputed to which it is un- author to see it have a place. known. Beside, as Europe forms, as

E, M. it were, one grand republic, of which the different ftates are the members, certain governments were not per- Story of Venoni and Louisa. mitted to remain under the cloud of

(From the MIRROR.) ignorance, while others had dispelled

(Continued from Page 565.)

HE virtue of Louisa was van. be added, that to an inequality in the progress of national knowledge, is to was not overcome. Neither the be ascribed the origin of moft of the vows of eternal fidelity of her seducer, wars with which the European world nor the constant and respe&tful atten. has hitherto been harralled, and is tion which he paid her during a hurlikely to be harrassed Aill.

ried journey to England, could allay We have, it muft be conlessed, reen that anguish which the luffered at the more than one enlightened nation recolle&tion of her paft, and the plunged headlong - plunged, it would thoughts of her present fituation. almoft seem, too, voluntarily.--from Sir Edward felt Arongly the power an height of prosperity into an abyss of her beauty and of her grief. His of misery. But whence originated heart was not made for that part :his woeful reverse ? It originated, which, it is probable, he thought it generally, from the guilty ambition could have performed: it was fill or avarice of a few artfui minions, in. fubje&t to remorse, to compassion, vested with authority--- minions, who and to love. These emotions, pereducated themselves in the schools of haps, he might roon have overcome, venality and corruption, imagined had they been rnet by vulgar viothat no system of government could lence or reproaches; but the quiet flourish which had not vepality and and unupbraiding sorrows of Louisa corruption for its bafis.

nouriMed those feelings of tenderness All such misery, however, is but and attachment. She never mentias the effe of a momentary dark oned her wrongs in words : sometimea Dess, which a returning day is sure to a few farting tears would speak them; dispel ; and experience thews, that and when time had given her a little


more composure, her lote discoursed fortune and high famioa. He had melancholy music.

married her, because the was a que no On their arrival in England, Sir man, and admired by fine men ; line Edward carried Louisa to his seat in had mored him, because he was the the country. There she was treated wealthief of her furcors. They lived with all the observance of a wife; as is common to people in such a fito. and had the chole: it, might have ation, neceffitous with a priocely recommanded more than the ordinary venue, and very wretched amida fplendor of one. But she would not perpetual gaiety. This frene was a allow the indulgence of Sir Edward foreign from the idea Sir Eirard to blazon with equipage, and Mow had formed of the reception his that fate which she withed always to country and friends were to find hide, and, if posible. to forget. Her him, that he found a conftant source books and her music were her only of disguft in the society of his equals. pleasures, if pleasures they could be in their conversatiea fantafi ck, got called, that served but to alleviate refued, their ideas were frivolguig misery, and to blunt, for a while, the and their knowledge shallos ; aná pangs of contrition.

with all the pride of birth, and infoThere were deeply aggravated by lence of ftation, their principles were the recollection of her father: a father mean, and their minds ignoble. la Jest in his age to feel his owo misfor their pretended attachments, he dirtunes and his daughter's difgrace. Sir covered only designs of selfdoels; Edward was two generous not to and their pleasures he experienced, think of providing for Venoni. He were as fallacious as thes friendships meant to make some atonement for lo the society of Louisa he found the injury he had done hiin, by that sensibility and truth; bers was the cruel bounty,which is reparation only only heart that seemed interefied in to the base, but to the honeft is insuli. his welfare ; fe saw the retarg al He had not, however, an opportuni: virtue in Sir Edward, and felt the ty of accomplishing his purpose. He friendship which he Mewed her. learned that Venoni, roon after his Sometimes, when me perceived him daughter's elopement, removed from rorrowful, her luie would leave its his former place of residence, and, as melancholy for more lively airs, and his neighbours reported, fiad died in her countenance affume á gaiety it one of the villages of Savoy. His was not formed to wear. But her daughter felt this with anguish the heart was breaking with chat anguifh molt poignant, and her amiction, for which her generosity endeavoured so a while, refused consolation. Sir Ed. conceal from him; her frame,too del. ward's whole tenderness and attenti cate for the firuggle with her leclogs, on were called forth to mitigate her seemed to yield to their force ; ber grief ; and, after its firm transports reit forsook her ; the colour faded in had subsided, he carried her to Lon- her cheek, the luftre of her eyes grew don, in hopes that obje&is new to her, dim. Sir Edward saw there'yir.pions and commonly attractive to all, might of decay with the deepest remorte. Courribute to remove it.

Often did he curse those false ideas of With a man poslefied of feelings like pleasure which had led him to contider Sir Edward's, ine affli&tion of Louisa ibe ruin of an artless girl, who loved gave a certain respect to his attenti. and trusled him, as an object which it

He hired ler a house seperate was luxury to attain, and pride to acfrom his own, and treated her with complim. Osten did he wish to blot all the delicacy of the purest attaci- out from his life a few guilty montas, ment. But his solicitude to comfort to be again refored to an opporturi and amuse her was not attendra with ty of givizg happinels to that family, fuccess. She felt all the horrors of whore unexpeling kindue's ne til that guilt which he now considered, repaid with the treachery of a robter, as not only the ruin of herself, but the and the cruelty of an aflaffio. murderer of her father.

One evening, while he (at is a little Ia London Sir Edward found his parlour with Louira, his mind alter. Mater, wao had inairied a man of great mately agitated and softened with this



Ejay on the Management of Bees.


impresion, a hand-organ, of a remark- be jut. Forgive my venerable friend, ably sweet, tone, was heard in the the injuries which I have done thee; fireet, Louisa laid a fide her lute, and fargive me, my Louisa, for rating Liftened: the airs it played were those your excellence at a price ro mean. of ner native country; and a few tears, I have seen those high-born females which the endeavoured to hide, Role to which my rank might have allied from her on hearing them. Sir Ed. me; I am ashamed of their vices, ward ordered a servant to fetch the and sick of their follies. Profligate in. orgaqift into the room, he was brought their hearts, amidit affeed purity in accordingly, and leated at the door they are slaves to pleasure, without of the apariment.

the sucerity of paffion; and with the He played one or two sprightly name of honour, are inreosible to the tunes, to which Louisa had oiten feelings of virtue. You, my Louidanced in her infancy; the gave her. sa !--- but I will not call up recollettifelf up to the recollection, and her ons that might render me less worthy tears flowed without controul, Sud- of your future esteem - Continue to denly the musician, changing the stop, love your Edward ; but a few hours, introduced a little melancholy air of and you Mall add the title to the afa wild and plaintive kind. Louisa fe&tions of a wife; let the care and started from her seat, and rushed tenderness of a holband bring back up to the itranger... He threw oif a its peace to your mind, and its bloom lattered coat, and black patch. It to your cheek. We will leave for a was her father ! She would have while the wonder and the envy of fprong to embraceshim ; he turn- the fashionable circle here. We will ed afide for a few moments, and restore your father to his native hone; would not receive her into inis arms. under that roof I fall once more he But oature at last overcame his re- happy, happy without allay, because Sentmeot; he burft into tears, and I shall deserve my happiness. Again prefied to his borom his long lost hall the pipe and the dance gladden daughter.

the valley, and innocence and peace Sir Edward lood fixed in aftonitha

beam on the cottage of Venoni!” ment and confusion... I come not to upbraid you,” said Venoni; " I am a poor, weak, old man, unable for upbraidings ; I am coine byt to find

An Ejay on the Management my child, to forgive her, and to die ! of Bees. When you saw us fiunt, Sir Edward, we were not thus. You found us vir- (Continued from Page 562.) tuous and happy; we danced and we lung, and there was not a sad

Of the Wax and Combs. heart in the valley where we dwelt.

Tis and our cheerfulness; you

formed from a powder, collectdistressed and we pitied you. Since ed from the stamina of flowers; that day the pipe has never been which also serves them for a part of heard in Venoni's fields; grief and their food. The bees collect it into fickness have almoft brought him to ittle balls, with which they load their the grave; and his neighbours, who legs. Before this crude wax, or fari. loved and pitied bim, have been na, is used for building combs, it is cheerful no more. Yet, methinks, digefted in the body of the bee, and though you robbed us of happiuers, this brings it to a proper coolistency you are not happy ;.-.else why that for their purpose. dejeded look, which, amidst all the This farina' is also called bec bread; grandeur around you, I saw you and that the bees feed upon it, we wear, and those tears which, under

need only observe that large quantiall the gaudiness of her apparel, I saw ties are collected and laid up, in evethat poor deluded girl Med?"..." But ry bive, where wax is not wanted. the Mall Med no more,” cried Sir Ed. The substance is digefted in the body “ward; you hall be happy and I Mall of the bee, before it becomes wax;


« PreviousContinue »