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Description of the Tomb of Madame Langhans. 55 fentiments of mankind in polished mately determined, by comparing and flourishing nations ; when arts them with the general taste of manare cultivated and manners refiaed, kind. lo every compofition, what when works of genius are subje& to interests the imagioation and touches free discullion, and afte is improved the heart, pleases all ages and nations. by science and philosophy. Even There is a certain Aring, which being among nations, as such a period of properly struck, the human hear: is fociety, I admit that accidental causes lo made as to answer it, may occasionally warp the proper Operations of tafe ; fometimes the fate of religion, sometimes the form of government, may for a while per: Description (with an elegant vert it ; a hceotious court may intro. dace a taste for falfe ornaments and
Engraving) of the celebrated dlolote writings. The usage of one
Tomb of Madame Langhans, adm red genius may procure admira- executed by Mr. Jobn Aubon for this faults, and even render thea fathionable. Sometimes envy
gustus Nahl, late Sculptor to may have power to bear down, for a the King of Prusha, and litie, produdinns of great merit ; while popular bumour, or party (pirit,
which is to be seen in the bay, at other times, exult to a high choir of the parish church of taough hort-lived réputation, what Hindlebanck,iwo leagues
from Ittle deserved it. But though such crual circumstances give the appear.
Berne. aace of caprice to the judgments of tafte, that appearance is easily corrected. In the course of time, the genu- be the greatest beauty in Switise tase of human nature never fails zerland, died in child bed at Hindleto disclofe itself, and to gain (be as. banck, in the delivery of her first incendaat over any fantaftic and cor- fant, at the age of twen y eight. Her repted modes of laste which may husband, who was parlon of the viltrance to have been introduced. lage, deeply afflicted at the loss, found Thele may have currency for a while, in M.Nahl an artift, who, by his efforts, and mallead fuperficial judges ; but eternized the grief of the husband, being subjected to examination, by and the memory of the beloved wife. Segrees they pass away ; while that This ingenious man, whom tbechief zloge remains which is founded op magistrale of Erlach in Berne, had fogad reason, and the native feelings previously engaged to ereat in the
men. Nur that there is any fland lame church, the Mausoleum of his and of tafte, to winch, in every parti. illustrious father, affe&ed with the
calar instance, we can resort for a clear Sorrow of the pious and widowed ang immediate determination. The clergyınan, in whole house he lodged, concludon which is sufficient for us to employed his chiffel for his consolaFeft upon, is, that taste is far from be- tion, and foished with a fkilful and
103 an arbitrary principle, which is a friendly hand, the TOMB of which Tabjeđ to the fancy of every indivi- we have here given the engraving. dual, and which admits of no criteri- The innumerable variety of these ca for determining whether it be falle monuments of human fragility appear. er troe. Its foundation is the fame ed to have exhausted all the resources in all human minds. It is built upon of art and genius; but M. Nahl was fentiments and perceptions, which be- not deterred by this vulgar sentitoag to our gature, and which, in ge- ment. Madame Langhans having diDeral, operate with the same veifor- ed on Easter:eve, the circumstance of mity as our other intellectual princi- the event happening in that critical ples. When these sentiments are per moment, inspired him with so happy verted by ignorance and prejudice, an allusion to the certainty of our reThey are capable of being re&tified. furre&ion, ronew, ro fimple, and at Tacir fogad and satural fate is ulti- the same time so sublime, that we can
not withhold from it our admirati. Serenity succeeds to grief and Arife,
Time flies---- Eternity bezjas. From a fingle block of free ftone, but of a very fine grain, he formed the
In this blessed hope figures and the tomb. The tomb bursts Sure that her Saviour will fulfill his alunder, as if the day of general re
promise, tribution was arrived, when the re- Reposes in this Tomb, pulchres muft render up their dead. Guarded by a tender and sorrowful The stone which covers the tomb rises
husband, up as it breaks in the centre, and dif. MARY MAGDALEN WABER, covers within its opening breast this Born 8th Auguft, 1723; beutiful woman and her infant juft And who departed i his life on Eater recovered from the dead. Sne rises
Eve, 1751, on the instant of her awakening, and
The wite of seems on the point of taking her flight GEORGE LANGHANS, to the Heavens. The sentiment of her Preacher of the gospel at Hindel happy immortality gives a serene and
banck. majefticcomposure to her countenance. With one arm me appears to puth up the stone, which yet opposes her passage, and with the other presses to
On Criticism and Genius. her borom her re animated in'ant,
By Dr. BLA!R. who also with his little hands seems inclined affift in them
RUE Criticism applicatio felves from the dismal abode. The
tafte and of good sense to cleft, where the stone separates into several fine arts. The object why three pieces is so paturally expressed, it proposes is, to distingu th what that the spectator is disposed to wait be utiful and what is faulty in eve in expectation of seeing ihe tomb open. performance; from particular infa altogether.
ces to ascend to general principles, a As the inscription and verses of the so to form rules or conclufions co Tombstone, which were written by cerning the several kinds of beau the celebrated M de Haller, could in works of genius. not with propriety be introduced in The rules of criticism are not for the engraving, we insert them here in ed by an induftion a priori, or a tri a free trandation from the original of abstract reasoning independent German.
fa&ts and obf. rvations. Criticism Hark! the majestic sound! the trum- an art founded wholly on experien pet hear!
on the observation of such beaut See the aftonilh'd tombs give up as have come nearest to the standa their prey !
of taste ; that is of such beauties Oh God! my Saviour ! 'tis thy voice have been found to please mank I hear !
moft generally. For example ; A And with my child, I come t'eter. totle's rules concerning the uniiy nal day,
aAion in dramatic and epic comp Awake my infant ; open now thine tion, were not rules for discove eyes,
by logical reasoning, and then app Leave the corruption of thy mortal to poetry ; but they were drawn in birth,
the practice of Homer and Sophoc Arise my child, to thy Redeemer they were founded upon observ rise,
the superior pleasure which we rece And taste at length the joy denied from the relation of an aâion wi on earth,
is one and entire, beyond what Before his face death muft yield to receive from the relation of scatti
and unconnected facts. Such oh Hope to real joy.--there, purged vations taking their rise at first f from los,
feeling and experience, were fo upon examination to be so consoi
Or Criticism and Genius.
57 tortafon, and to the principles of pedants, not critics. For all rules of Ronin nature, ai to pais into efta. genuine criticism are ultimately foundBlihed rules, and to be conveniently ed on feeling; and taste and feeling are applied for judging of the excellency necessary to guide us in the applicatiof any performance. This is the most on of these rules to every particular Datural account of the or gin of cric infance. As there is nothing in
which all sorts of persons more readiA maserly genius, it is true, will ly affe & to he judges than in works of himself, uitaught, compofe in such of taste, there is no doubt that the a manner as fai be agree ble to the
number of incompetent critics will almof material rules of criticism ; for ways be great. But this affoids no as there roles are founded in nature, more foundation for a general in vecnature will often suosent theo in prac. tive again ft criric sm, than the numtice. Homer, it is more than proba, ber of bad philosophers or reasonings ble
, was acquainted with no fyftems of affirds against reason and pilofophy. the art of poetry. Guided by genius An obje&tion more plaufible may be alone, he con pored in verre a regular forn:ed agaft criticism, from the apflory, which all posterity has admir. plause, that some performances have ed. But this is no argument against received from the public, which, the ofefulness of criticism as an art. when accurately confidered, are found For as do human gen:us is perfe&, to contradi&t the rules established by There -is no writer but my receive criticism. Now, the public is the ru. aGAance from critical observat ons preme julge, to whom the last app.al upon the beacties and fau::s of those, must be mide in every work of tafle ; who bave gone before him No ob. as the standard of taste is founded on fervations or rules can indeed supply the sentiments, that are natural and the defect of genius, or inspire it where common ro all men. But with respect it is wanting. But they may often to this we may observe, that the renre dired it into its proper channel ; they of the public is too haftily judged of. may corred its extravagances, and The genuine public rafte does not alpost out to it the moft just and pro- ways appear in the first applause given per imitation of nature. Critical upon the publication of any new work. rules are designed chiefly to thew the There are both a great vulgar and a faults, that ought to be avoided. To Sinall, apt to be catched and dazzled Dalare we muft be indebted for the by very superficial beauties, the adproduction of em near beauties. miration of which in a little time passes
From what has been said, we are away; and sometimes a writer may enabled to form a judgment concern. acquire great temporary reputation ing those complaints, which it has long merely by his compliance with the been faltocable for perry authors io paffions or prejudices, with the party: wake again it critics and criticism. ipirit or superftitious notions, that Critics have been represented as the may chance to rule for a time almost great abridgers of the native liberty a whole nation. In such cases, though of genios ; as the imposers of unna. the public may seem to praise, true tural chackles and bonds upon writers, criticism may with reason condemn ; from whole cruel persecutions they and it will in progress of time gain Tauk Ay to the public, and impiore its the afcendant ;' for the judgment of proted on. Such fupplicatory pre: true criticism and the voice of the faces are not calculated to give very public, when once become unprejulavourable ideas of the genius of the diced and dispaffionate, will ever coin
For every good writer will cide at last. be pleased to bave his work examined Instances, I admit, there are of by the principles of sound understand some works that contain gross tranftang, and true tafle. The declamations greflions of the laws of criticism, ac. again criticism commonly proceed quiring, neverthelefs, a general and epon this fuppofition, that critics are even a lafting admiration. Such are lach as judge by rule, not by feeling i the plays of Shakespeare, which, con Thicb is fo far from being irue, that fidered as dramat c roems, are irreHey, who judge after this manner, are
gular in the highest degree. But then
we are to remark, that they have press the minds of others. Refined gained the public admiration, not by taste forms a good critic; but genius their being irregular, not by their is further necellary to form the poet or tranfgrefsion of the rules of art, but the orator. in spite of such transgreflions. They It is also proper to observe, that possess other beauties, which are con. genius is a word, which, in common formable to just rules ; and the force acceptation, extends much farther of these beauties has been so great as than to the objects of taste. It is uled to overpower all censure, and to to fignify that talent or aplitude, give the public a degree of satisfa&ion which we receive from nature, for superior to the disgust arising from excelling in any one thing whatever their blem thes. Shakespeare pleases, Tuus we speak of a genius for mathe not by his bringing the transactions matics, as well as : geoius for poetry of many years into one play ; not by of a genius for war, for politics, or lo his grotesque mixtures of tragedy and any mecanical employment. comedy in one piece, nor by the train- This talent or aptitude for excellin ed thoughts and affected wittıcıms, in some one particular, is, I have said which he sometimes er.ploys. These what we receive from nature. B we consider as blemishes, and impute art and fludy, no doubt, it may b tiem to the grossness of the age in greatly improved ; but hy them alon which he lived. But be pleases, by it cannot be acquired. As gepius is his animated and masterly represen. higher faculty thao tante, it is eve tations of characters, by the liveliness according to the usual frugality of bis descriptions, the force of his. nature, more limited in the sphere fentiments, and his pofleffing, beyond its operations. It is not uncommi all writers, the natural language of to meet with persons, who have passion : Beauties, which true criti. excellent tafte io several of the publ cilin no less teaches us to place in the arts, such as music, poetry, paint: highet rank, than nature teacheth us and eloquence, all together ; but to feel.
find one, who is an excellent perform Thus much concerning the origin, in all these arts, is much more rar office and importance of crit ciim or rather, indeed, such an one is r Let us now consider the destinction to be looked for. A fort. of univ between Taste and Genius.
sal gen us, or one, who is equally a Tifte and genius are two words fre- ind iterently turned towards feve quently joined together, and there. different professions and arts, is ! fore, by inaccurate thinkers, con- likely to excel in any. Althot founded. They signify however, ibere may be some few exceptio two quite different things. The d.. yet in general it holds, that when ference between them can be clearly bent of the mind is wholly dire ed pointed out; and it is of importance wards some one object, exclusive, to remember it. Tale confifts in the a manner, of others, there is the f power of judging : Genius, in the eft prospect of eminence in that, wt power of executing. One may have ever it be. The rays must conve a confiderable degree of taste ju poe- to a point, in order to glow intens try, eloquence, or any of the fine arts, This remark is of great importanc who has little or hardly any genius for young people, in leading them to composition or execution in any of amine with care, and to pursue these arts : But genius cannot be ardor, the current and pointin found without including tafte also. nature towards those exertions of Genius, therefore, deserved to be unius, in which they are moft likel considered as a higher power of the
excel. mind than tafte. Genius a'ways im- A genius for any of the fine art ports something in ventive or crea. before observed, always (upi tive ; which does not reft in mere taste; and it is clear, that the im pr fenfibility to beauty, where it is per- ment of taste will serve both to ceived, but which can, moreover,pro. ward and correct the operation duce new beauties, and exhibit them genius. In proportion as the in such a manner, as Atrongly to im. of a poet, or orator, becomes 1