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On Making Mortar.
555 On Making Mortar. that you will ree it scale off, from
time to time: more especially if it (Continued, and Concluded, from does not immediately unite, the froft Page 432.]
geliing between the two coats, will Na former Number Mortar ruita. forever prevent it's union..--..Mortar
ble for laying ftone aad brick was for this kind of work made in the folconfidered. In this number I thall lowing manner has stood well for near give some account of the mortar made forty years; and, it is probable, will use of for covering the outside of fand forty more,if the wood to which houses (commonly known by the it is connected is kept in proper repair. naine of rough cah) and adduce some . The lime and fand must be prepared facis that may be of utility is caretul- as mentioned in a former number; ly attended to.
then add to it a quantity of ox blood, Some houses have been covered lay one parlful to a bed, and the water with two coats of mortar, and others to mix the lime and cand :o be taken with one, according as the workmen, from the cisterns of the sugar refiners for various reasons and caules, were or leather dressers picts. This water disposed to recommend. Under being impregnated with the lime some circumstances two coats have thrown into the cisterns or pitts for been better than one; under other flaking, is much better for the purone better than two. To be some pose. The blood should be worked what particular, I Mall give the into the mortar as soon as poslible afpreference to two coats if done in the ter taken from the creature, a id befollowing manner, viz suppose the fore it is suffered to cool : for it is alhouse to be covered with well reason- most imposible to incorporate it after it ed boards feather edged and well has coigulated. I have knowo pieces nailed, the laths whici Mould be al. of this coagulated blood like lier as ways made of white pioe and well sea- large as marbles come out of the morfoned, to be then nailed on in two tar after the work has been fuished, coats crossing each other. All ham- owing to the blood having been put mering and jarring being now over into the mortar a too cool a ftite. (for the rough is the laft work ex This mortar fhould be frequenily cept the painting) the first coat of beat over before it is ural. If the mortar is then to be laid on heavily boards and la:hs are not weil seasoned with a trowel, and so worked in as to when the mortar is put on, the morhave all the vacancy between the tar will crack wheo they thrink and latning and boarding filled up. And become seasoned : ro allo will it be if in order to be certain oi th s essential the boards and laths are put on too circumstance, it is necessary to go soon after a heavy rain or form, by over the plaiftering with a flat which which means they become swelled as is a piece of inch board, from fourteen though not seasoned. Therefore, inches long and fix broad, with a when mortar is put on to the outside handle to it, weil known to the ma.. of houses, the boards and laths thould fons, with this cool prere the mortar be perfeály dry. The same mortar well in, and make the furface fair and that has split so as to let in the rain, plain. This floating leaves the mor- when the boards and laths have not iar like a honey comb. When it be- heen well seasoned, or when they have comes so hardened as you can but been put on too soon after a heavy juft leave the print of your fingers in form of rain, has kept on exceedine mortar, then is the proper time to ingly firm, without the least appearance run on your second coat,'about the of opening when the time of putting thicknets of a milled dollar: it will on has been attended to, and the now cement with the first coat, and be: boards and laths have been well seamuch better than if the whole thick- roned. This mortar, while it is green, Dels had been put on in one coat only.' may be jointed and drawn so as te But, if the first coat should be 100 imitate ftone work. bard, lo as to require frequent wetting A considerable saving may be made with a brush before you can get the in plaistering mortar by attending to second coat on, it is very probable the following method ---- Fine loomy
land will require but little lime lor Canasetego began to converse with plaiftering mortar, if well haired. For himn.asked how he had fared the many a room to be well plaiftered, the Odis yeurs fince they had seen each other, of which are to be painled, y'u may whence he then came, what occafioa. have a first coat with coarse and chess ed tre journey, &c. Conrad an *ei mortar put on and foated puen just ed all his questions ; and when the so as to cover the laths, and a second discourse began to fing, the Indian, te coat put on not thicker than copper, continue it, laid, “ Conrad. you have while it is green.
For this purpose "lived long ainong the Wite Peomake a trough four feet long and two "ple, and know something of their wide ; pick about a peck of the bent « customs; I have been somezimes quick lime and make it dry, so as to at Albany, and have observed, that hift it while it is warm : after it is lifted " once in seven days they mut op into the trough, put to it as much wa. of their shops, and allemble all in the ter as will make it like porridge, and « great house ; tell me, what it is work into it some ox hair picked for ct for ? what do they do there ?" the purpose, that is quite white: ". They meet there," says Conrad, Work the fair into it so as that it will
" to hear and learn good things." be difficult to find two hairs together : " I do not doubt," says the ladiae, add to this lime about two quarts of " that they tell you lo; they bave clean houte sand. After it has laia
16 told me the same : but I doubt the in de trough fume time it will become o truth of what they fay, and I will hard and will crack upon the top, " tell you my reasons. I went late. then beat it over like putty , you will « ly to Albany to sell my skins, and foon gee it into fuch'a Nare as you 66 buy blankets, knives, powder, may run it over your coarse plaiftering « rum, &c. You know I used geneas ibin as you please, and smooth it as "rally to deal with Hans Hanson ; it is laid on, it will immediately ad- " but I was a little inclined this time bere to the first coat, and the whole
« to try some other merchants. piaiftering will appear white and fine, « However, I called first upon Hans, fi lor painting and without cracking. " and asked him what he would give This peck of time made into nortar *fo heaver. He said be could not will run over a common lized room "give more than four Inillings 2 that has the usual number of win.
" pound: but, says he, I cannot talk dows and doors.
« on bufiness now ; this is the day
a good things, and I am going to Remarks concerning the Savages
" the meeting. So I thought to my
si self, since I cannot do any business of North-America.
" to day, I may as well go to the (Continued from Page 528.) « meeting too, and I went with him. He same hospitality, esteemed " There ftood up a man in black,
among them as a priocipal vir. " and began to talk to the people Tue, is pra&ised by private persons ; very angrily. I did not under. of which Conrad Waeirer, our Inrer. « Aand what he said ; hat perceiv. preter, gave me the following in. « ing that he looked much at me, Rance. He had been naturalized " and at Hanson, I imagined he was among the Six Nations, and spoke
" angry at reeing me there ; fo I weil the Mohock language. lo go. “ went out, fat down near the house, ing through the Iudian country, to “ fruck fire, aod lit my pipe, wait. carry a message from our Governor "ing till the meeting Tould break to the council at Onondaga, he called up. I thought too, that the man at the habitation of Canassetego, an " bad mentioned iomething of beaold acquaintapce,who embraced him, " ver, and I suspected it might be (pread furs for him to sit on, placed u the subject of their meeting. So before him some boiled beans and " when they came out, I accoled venison, and mixed some rom and " my merchant. " Well, Hans, water for his drink. When he was " says I, I hope you have agreed to weil refreshed, and had lit his pipe, “ give more than four thillings a
Narrative of a Shipwreck.
557 « pound." No, says be, I can. Narrative of a Shipwreck. “ not give so much. I cannot give " more than three thillings and fix. (Continued from Page 517.) “ pence." I theo spoke to several “ other dealers, but they all sung the
N the 27th of January, the wea. " sanie long, three and fixpence,
ther being moderate, and a light 's three and fixpence. This made it
breeze direäly off the shore, we got " clear to me that my fufpicion was
our boat very carefully launched, and “ right ; and that whatever they pre;
set off early in the morning from this "ended of meeting to learn good ill.omened bay.. We had the pleasure
to observe that the boat made little or " things, the real purpose was to "coolult how to cheat Indians in the
no water, so that we were enabled to " price of beaver. Consider but a
keep our four oars continually at " little, Conrad, and you must be of
work. As we advanced along the my opinion. If they m2: ro of.
coaft, we found it still bordered by no" ten to learn good things, they
thing but barren precipices with eve. " would certainly have learned some
ry four or five miles perhaps a small as before this time. But they are
sandy beach. « ftill ignorant. You know our
The weather continued very mode“ pra&ice. If a white man in tra
rale all the day of the 27th, so that “ velling through our country, en
by fix o'clock in the evening, we com“ ters one of our cabins, we all treat
puted that we had rowed about twelve " him as I treat you ; we dry him
miles from where we departed in the " if he is wet, we warm him if he is
morning. This indeed would be but " cold, and give him meat and drink, an indifferent day's work for people " that he may allay bis thirft and
in health and vigour, but a great deal ¢ hunger , and we (pread fost furs
for those in our circumftances; OQD for him to rest and Neep on : we
only being extremely weakened and " demand nothing in return. * But
reduced, but the boat itself being very " if I go into a white man's house at heavy and unwieldy, from the quanti“ Albany, and ask for viduals and ty of ice in it. We put a fhore about 6! driok, they fay, where is your
fix o'clock upon a small sandy heach, money ; and if I have none, they and by placing oars under our boat, " say, get out, you Indian dog. You dragged her carefully some yards from “ see they have not yet learned those the water ; so that fhe lay very safe « little good things, that we need no
while the wind continued as it then “ meetings to be inftruded in, be
We next cut rome branches, 4 cause our mothers taught them to
and having made a fire, Meltered oure « us when we were children ; and selves as well as possible in the wood. " therefore it is impossible their Our tinder being nearly consumed, e meetings Mould be, as they say, I was obliged to furnish a fresh supply, " for any such purpose, or have any by cutting away the back part of my “ ruch effet ; they are only to con- Mirt, which I had worn ever since we V trive the cheating of lodians in
left the thip. « the price of beaver."
A Mower of rain the next day unfortunately melted all the ice off our
boat: we were therefore prevented • It is remarkable, that in all ages from going any farther till a return of and countries, hospitality has been
the frost, and had the mortificarion allowed as the virtue of those, whom to loose the benefit of a fine day, in the the civilized were pleased to call bar.
course of which we inight have probarians ; the Greeks celebrated the
ceeded with a good boat several leagues Scythians for it. The Saracens pof- more on our journey. What made Sessed it eminently ; and it is to this day the reigning virtue of the wild Arabs. St. Paul too, in the relation of his voyage and Mipwreck, on the ness ; for they kindled a fire, and re. Iland of Mulita, says, “ The barba ceived us every one, because of the rous people she wed us no little kind. present rain, and because of the cold.”
the matter worse, was that our pro- wind freshening up from the route vil ns were a una reduced to two caft, obliged us to put ahore, and pounds and a half of beer for each haul up our boat.
Orte in roing of the 2014, A heavy fall of rain, which contitinitP!:28 wandered a little dir- nued the whole day, rendered our tance frm ou. 116, rerurned in hafte fituation extremely oncomfortable, to inlemm, file he had discovered and melted again the icy calking of a par: Parcert on the bough of the boat. We were therefore to conå trer, petiteit I might p sli- role ourselves, as well as we could, in biv disto! irend of catching. the certainty of remaining here till a ļ immer'iztaty tlf to the place where return of the frost, and mean while he had seen in and found it in the proposed to reconnoitte, as far as our fan itu?''0' is before. Observing reduced ftate would allow us, into that the bin was very time, and not the country. In this however we above louriee feet from the ground were prevented by the quantityol I cut down a lung pole, and taking (now which ftill lay on the ground, part of the rope yars that fiftened and was not yet sufficiently frozen to my canvas Mops, mare a running bear our weight without rackets or locp of it, and fxid is to the end of foowshoes. Towards the spring of the pole ; then walking softly under the year, in these cold climates, they the tree, and lift ng the pole gently may for the mof part be dispensed up, I fixed the loop bout the par. witi, when the snow has become more tilge's neck, and giving it a sudden condensed by its own weight, the injerk, closed the loop, and secured the fluence of the sun, and the raios which bud. The mite as well as mysell, as begin to fail at this season. The froit soon as I had cau?!lit, laughed very then returning, alter the thaw, forms heartily, for the first time that either a kind of incrustation on the furface, of us had any inclination to imile face that will bear a man's weight withour hipwreck. We then went to cut faking Had this season been wards the fire with our prize, and arrived, we hould have abandoned boiled it in rome melted (wow, toge. our crazy blat, and taking the little ther with a little falt water, to give provision we ftill possessed, have made the broth a relih : 11?ving divided it, an atiempito discover inhabitants, by when dressed, into fix : il parts, and a march into the heart of the country; caft lors for the choice oi cach, we lat perhaps it was fortunate we could not down to what we found a delicious attempo it, as in all probability we meal; the only one, excepting the Mould have per: thed in the woods. quart of cranberries, for which we Not liaving it in our sower to wao. were indebred to clience, or provi. der towards any other part, we walk: dence, since we had been caft upon ed along the shore as far as we were the island
able, and law nothing that could at. On the afternoon of the 29th it be. traf our notice but some ftumps of gan to freeze hard, when we took the trees, from whicii the trunks might advantage of the front to stop thi have been cut some years before hoat's leaks as before ; and the wind from this circumstance we could colftill continuing moderate, we launch- Ject 110 very sanguine hope of being ed her as soon as that burners was near an inhabited country. Soon afa complered, and put to sea.
ter, the wind coming round to the being almoft frent before we set off we north west, and bringing the froff could not make above seven miles to along with it, we were once mort a fandy beach and thick wood, which enabled to repair our boat, and to seemed to afford a tolerable heiter. prepare for launching it, as foon at In this place we pafled the night ; and ihe wind fhould abate its violence. the next day, the weather being ftill 'This happening in some degree on the favourable, we launched our boat ift of February, we immediately em. berimes in the morning, in order to barked, and pursued our coafting get before night as far as possible on voyage; but the severity of the cold our journey ; but we had not pro. having formed a quantity of ice, it ceeded above fix miles, before the was with extremt labour that we con
Narrative of a Shipwreck.
559 orived to get hve miles before night, to double the cape, and continue our one of our party being employed in journey. The wind now began to breaking the ce with a pole, and clear. fremen, and we had a heavy sea from ing it from the bows of the boat. the north east to encounter, as soon
The following day, the wind blow- as we cana opposite to the cape. Afing fresh from the north west quar- ter having doubled it, our course lay ter prevented us again from proceed- in a very different direction from 108 any farther till the 3t, when; what it had been in the inoroiog; fo coming round to the weit, which is that we were obliged to ftrike our direally along the shore, and the fail, and take to the oars. The wind most favourable that could blow for at the same time blew so hard off the 08, we were enabled to embark, and high lands, that it was with the ut. pursue our voyage. Our boat, not- most difficulty we could keep along the withstanding all our diligence in calk- coall; had we not been affiled by a ing, made now so much water, that heavy (well, that came from the we were obliged to keep one man con- north-east, we must certainly have flaotly at work in baling it out with been blown out to sea. a camp-kettle. The wind, however, Finding no place to land during was as fair as we could w.th, and bę. the night, we continued rowing an ing neither too fisck nor too violent, cloe as we could to the rocks, till we for some time went at the rate of about five in the morning; when four miles an hour, with the alliance hearing the sea run on the more very of our oars; but soon after, the wind long and heavy, we imagined that we increasing, we laid in our oars, and muit be off a sandy beach.
We ac run under our fail alone, at the rate cordingly rowed towards the land, of about five miles an hour.
and at the distance of fifty yards, for After having run above fixieen it was yet dark, were able to discern miles, we discovered an exceeding a beach at least four miles in length. high land, about fix leagues diftant, It was not however a convenient with several other mountains and place for us to put in, on account of large bays between us; and it being the surf, and a long and heavy fea yer early in the day, a fine wind, and that rolled on it ; yet being so much no great sea, we were in bopes, if the fatigued with rowing, that we were in. wind should not increase 100 much, capable of proceeding any farther, we that we Mould be able to reach it be. were obliged to attempt a landing. fore night. As we proceeded along This we effected with more case than the coaft, we found it in every part we looked for, and suffered no other high and rocky, which made us very inconvenience but that of having oor uneasy left the wind Mould rise belore boat nearly filled with water on the we could make the head-land. About beach. Having landed, our firft care two o'clock in the afternoon, when was to haul up the boat, that the we supposed we were within three might meet with no further damage leagues of it, we discovered an island from the fea. We then got into the about twenty miles from the maio ; woods, which lay close to the shore ; and on comparing circumstances, we and as I had taken the precaution to concluded that ihe land must be put cur tinder box in my bosom, bethat of St. Paul, and the high laod fore we landed, to preserve it from the the north point of Cape Breton. The water, we contrived to kindle a fire ; prodigious height of the land led us a refreth ment we had much occalon into an erroneous computation of its for, having got wet in landing and bediftance; for, not with ftanding we ing in ro weak and reduceri a coditi. had supposed that we were within on, that it was with the greatest diffi: three leagues of it when we firft dif- culty we could keep ourlelves awake. covered the island of St. Paul, we for a few mieures wherr before the found before we reached it, that fire ; so that we were under the newe had run near five leagues.
cellity of watching in turn; left all It was almost dark by the time we being alleep togeller, ibe ôre Mould Teached the North Cape ; where find. go out, and we Mould be frozen in ing no place to land, we were obliged death. Having now time to consider Bbbb