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For N O V E M B ER, 1784.
An Account of the commence
in the market-place of Altorf, the cament of the Liberty of Swit- who passed by it, were obliged, on
pital of that province; and all thore, zerland; with a beautiful pain of death, to pay obeisance to it Copper Plate, representing am Tell, a man of in Auence in his that memorable Event. country, disdaining this mark of var
salage and lavery, refused to obey the AB present inhabitants of Swit- tyrant's order : upon which the latter zerland are descended from caused him to be arrested, and con
the ancient Helvetii, who were demned him to Moot an apple from subdued by Julius Cæsar. They con- the head of his only son, who was tinued long under little better than about five years old. Tell answered, the nominal dominion of the Houses that he would rather fuffer death of Burgundy and Auftria, till the himself, than risque the safety of his son. beginning of the fourteenth century, The tyrant declared, that he would when the severity, with which they hang them both, if he did not instantwere treated by the Austrian Gover ly obey. Thus compelled, Tell renors, excited a general infurre&ion, luctantly took his bow, and from the and gave rise to what is now called, head of his son, who was tied to a tree from the ancient name of the coun. he shot away the apple, to the admitry, the Helvetic Confederacy. ration of all the spectatori. The Gover
This memorable event is thus relat- nor, perceiving chat he had a second ed: Albert, Emperor of Germany, arron, demanded what he had intende having in vain attempted to compel ed to do with it; assuring him, at all the Switzers to submit to the yoke the same tinie, of his full pardon, if of the House of Auftria, these people he would disclose the truth....". Ta were so cruelly treated, that they en pierce thy heart,” replied Tell, “ if I tered into a confederacy, in order to i had been so upsorionate as to kill support their ancient rights and pri. “ my ron.” Griser, barely violating vileges. Grisler, the Governor of his promise, loaded him with chains, Uri, in order to discover the authors and made him embark with him on of the conspiracy, ordered that his hat board a vessel that was to cross Lako Mould be fixed on the top of a pole, Uri, in order to confine him in a
dungeon in one of his calles ; bue a arny i 20,000 men. With a force dreadful tempeft arising, the Gover- But exceeding 500, the brave Sx112-es nor found that Tell's aficance was walled for the main body of the aunecessary, to save bimielf and his ft: idli army'atte defiles of Morgalt, crew. He therefore, ordtsed on rei. Plore toreupare than Leonidas and ters to be taken off; and Toll, hav. bis Lacedemonians, iney put the iovaing seered the vessel with salety, to. ders to dgnt, by rolling down great wards a landing place, with which lie fiones from the tops of the mounta-as. was well acquainted, threw himself Other bodies of the Auftran aray into the water with his bow, and were deleated at the same time, by a fed to the mountains. He there wail. number of Switzers equally fmail. ed in a place that Griller was obliged This vidory having been gained ja to país, and mot him in the heart, the Cantons of Schweiz,the iwo otoer with his remaining arrow. The Cantons gave this pame to the Contebrave Switzer tnen haltened to an. deracy, into which, by degrees, other nounce the death of the cyrant, and Cantons entered. Burne, which is to their consequent deliverance, to the Switzeriand what Amfterdam is to consederales; and putting himself at Holland, did not accede to this alliance the head of a multitude of his gallant till the year 1352 ; and it was not till countrymen, he took all the fortrefles, 1513 that the imall diftri& of Appen. and made the Governors prisoners. zel united to the other Cantons, and
Such is the celebrated hiftory of the completed the number of thirteen. commencement of Swiss liberty, No people ever fought longer, nor bet. which some of the greatest painters ter, for their liberty. They gained have selected as a favourite subject. more than fixty combats agaiaft the It must not be concealed, however, Auftrians, and, it is believed, will long that some historians affea to call in preserve their independence. A counqueftion the circumstance of the ap- iry, which is not too extensive, oor ple; while others, on the contrary, too opulent, and where the laws breath have implicitly received it. The for- a spirit of mildaese, muft neceffardy be mer affert, that a similar event had oc- free. This revolution in the govere. curred long before to Tocho, an ex- ment, produced another in the aspect cellent markíman, in the army of a of the country. A barren soil, deg. Gothic Monarch, named Harold ; leated under the dominion of tyranis, but this is no conclufive proof, that became, at length, the scene of cultithe same event, might not happen af. vation. Vineyards were planted on terwards to a very different person; rocky mountains ; and ravage traAs nor is there any reason for suppofing cleared and tilled by the haods of freethat the Switzers would have recourle men, became the fertile abodes oi to fable, in order to account for a re. peace and plenty.---The thirteen volution, that was not only very fig. Cantons, as they now Aand in point Dal in itfelf, but that happened not of precedency,
are 1. Zurich, 2. Berne, much more than four centuries ago. 3. Lucerne, 4. Uri, 5. Schweitz, 6. UR
But not to investigate this subjeå derwalden, 7. Zug, 8. Glacis, 9. Bafil, further, all historians are agreed, that. 10. Fribourg, 11. Soleure, 12. SchaffWilliam Tell was one of the moft dif- hausen, 13. Appenzel. tinguiñed authors of this glorious revolution. Griffer was unqueftionably killed by him with an arrow. He entered into an affociation with The Free Republican, No. VI. Werner Stouffacher, Walter Furft,
DEMOCRATICAL gohad been deprived of his right by the inhuman monfier. The plan of this revo- these papers, been frequently repre. Htion was formed on the 14th of No. sented and defined co be chat, wherevember 1307. The Emperor Albert in each individual possesses an equality who would have treated these illuftri. of power. And it has also been ob. ous men as rebels, was prevented by served, that as men are entitled to his death. The Archduke Leopold political authority in proportion to marched into their country, with an heir rights in society, wherever there
and Arnold de Metaal, whose father A vernment has, in the course of
Ike Free Republican.
is an inequality in the distribution of termine the question before us, witia property, a democracy can never be accuracy and precifion, it is im. free. It was from this idea I pre. portant to consider, wherber if the fume, tliat the department of legií. whole people were assembled for the lation in this Commonwealth,
purpose of legiflation according to formed of two branches, a Senate, ibe spirit of the constitution, atlaws and House of Representatives; each that hould be thus made woulu, fronz having a negative on the other. As the nature and form of the allemthe former are chosen by diflrias, bly, have the consent of a inajority proportioned to their payment of of the property as well as the persons the public taxes, no one can doubt of the coninunily. Were the whole but that that branch of legislation community thus assembled, it is plain, was intended to represent the PRO- that every law muft be twice voted PERYY of the citizens ; the latter for before it could be legally binding, being chosen by the people, on the once by the whole people assembled pricciple of equality must certainly in one body, and once by the people be designed for a representation of aisembled by diftritts;in the latter care their PERSONS. 'The necessity of eich diftrict would be divided into as such a diftribution of power, in a many classes as they respectively are community like this, I have already intitled by the conftitution to send attempred to prove. I fall now members to the Senate. The ma. proceed to enquire, whether, by the jority of the clafies of the whole Conftitution of Mafichusetts, there Atate would decide the vote in the is, in fact, a representation of the second instance. The firft assembly persons, as well as the property of would undoubtedly answer to the its citizens.
House of Representatives, the latter By the conftitution the Senators to the Senate; for though the senators are to be chosen by diftricts, and the are required to possess a greater exnumber of each proportioned to its tent of property than the electors, property. The House of Represen- yet as they are chosen by a majority tatives by to w 118 proportioned to of numbers who may possess a minotheir numbers. The qualifications rity of the property, they depend on of a Senator are real eftate of three them for their existence, and must hundred pounds, or personal estate be supposed to pursue their wishes. of six, residence within the Common. From this representation it is plain wealth five years preceding his elec- that a law approved by a majority tion, and at the time of the choice, of the whole people assembled in one ap inhabitant of the distria he inay body may be negatived by a minori. be chosen to represent. Those of a ty assembled by diftri&ts. But would member of the House of Represen: the voice of a majority of the classes tatives are a freehold within the be the voice of a majority of the protown, of one hundred pounds, or perty? It is plain that it would not; olher eftate of two, and one years for though the classes in each district in habitancy. The qualifications of are proportioned to its property, the electors both of the one branch yet a majority of the voters in each and the other, are in every infance may possess a minority of the proalike.
perty. All representative bodies are but a mere epitome of the body repre- These refe&ions lead me to some rented, a redution of the whole to observations on the Roman Comitia, a smaller scale, wherein all their pro. which in their turn may throw some. perty, rights and privileges are des. light on the question before us. The cribed. As the respeitive consi- inhabitanis of Rome, by the inftituthents of the two branches of legif- tion of Romulus, were divided at firft giflation must, from the very nature into three equal paris or tribes, and ol delegation, possess the same rights each tribe into thirty Curiæ of an and powers in the admioistration of hundred men each. To the affemgovernment,
they alsem. blies of the people three things wera. bled in their own persons instead of committed ; to create magiftrates, those of their representatives, to de. make laws, and determine concerning
any peace or war that was proposed The first class confifted of those, by the king ; yet in all thele things whole eftates in lands and effets the Senate's approbation was pecer. were worth at least ao hundred (boufary. The people for many years
fand asses of brass. The second class gave their voices by Curiæ, in which coinprehended those worth 75,000 cvery private mai had his vore. abies'; ine third, those worth 50,000, The majority of votes in eucn Curia the fourth 25,000, the fifth 12,500, determined the sense of that Curia, the sixth included all those who had and what the major part of the thir: no eftates at all, or were not worth ty Curiæ determined was deemed the so much as the Coldiers of the fifth. resolution of the whole affembly, Each of these clases were divided which assembly was therefore called into a certain number of centuries, Comitia Curiata. The Senate con- proportioned or nearly so, to their fisting at first of an hundred men, and property. These regulations being choreu from the body of Patricians, made, neither troops nor taxes were that is, such of the republic as had levied as formerly ; but the firft and been diftinguithed by the king from richiest class being more numerous in the reft of the people, by reason of centuries than all the reft, furnihed, their being better born, more rich of consequence, more men and more or more eminent for virtue, were money for the publick service, than not only to be judges in private all the rest of the fate berides. Hox. causes, but to deliberate upon such ever, that ample amends might be publick affairs as the king proposed, made this class, Servius gave it, in el. and to determine by the plurality of fed, the whole authority of the ftate, voices. Had this fyftem of govern- by assembling the people in Comtia meut continued, Rome might pro. by Centuries, in fead of Comitia by bably have remained for a long Curiæ, for the votes of the former time happy. The people were the being reckoned by Centuries, aod tbe protectors of their own persons. The rich class containing more centuries Senate would undoubtedly have than all the other five, bad confequent. been the guardians of property. ly every thing at its own dilposal. But Servius Tullius defroyed the The firft class giving their votes first, ballance and lowed those reeds of there was rarely occasion to go faction and cabal that ever harrassed so low as the fourth for a majority the government in her brightest days of votes. After this time the aí. and finally produced her ruin.
Coinblies of the Curiæ were rarely Taxes, until the reign of this prince, called unless for matters of small mohad hitherto been levied upoo the people at so much a head, without Within the little compass of hirdistinction of rich or poor ; but as tory that I have been acquainted both forts were equally obliged to with, I have never met with any ferve in the field at their own expeace sy fem of jurisprudence wherein the it was often hard on the poorer. persons and property of a communi. There was likewise this farther in- ty could be more compleatly repre. convenience in the former administra- sented than by the Comitia Curiatia, tion of the government. In the Cu. and Comitia Centuriata of Rome. riad the rich and the poor, the pa:
Had the number of centuries been trician and plebeian were mingled exa&ly proportioned to the proper. without diftin&ion, and every man's ty of the class, a law efiablished voice of equal value. As the igno- by each Comitia .would have had ble and ignorant were the more nu. that two fold consent in which coa. merous, they had the greatelt thare fifts the essence of civil liberty. in the appointment of officers, mak. As the rights of property as well as ing laws and deciding ou peace and of persons are individual in their na
Percieving these inconveni- ture, and as, in a free government, ences Servius vodertook to ease the each citizen's share in political authopoor by burthening the rich, and ly ought to be proportioned to his yet to please the latter by augment- rights in society, I know of no other ing their power.
To this cod he way of obtaining the consent of a madivided the Romans into ax classes. jority of the property, as well as the
Natural History of the Locuft.
persons of the Community, than an rity of but perhaps a third of the ininftitution similar, in kind, with that dividuals in the government may ne. established by Servius Tullius. Our gative the almoft onanimous voice of Senate and House of Representatives the whole. Hence I think it is plain were undoubtedly intended to answer that the senate is not only, not a re to the two comitia above described.
presentation of property, as it ought The first, like the comitia centuriata, to be in order to render the governto represent the property of the com- ment free, but according to the premunity; the laft, the comitia by cu- sent inftitution is repugdaot, to the riæ,to represent their persons. And principles of civil liberty, which ever this by the House is compleatly effect. hold it as an indisputable truth, that ed; but the Senate represent pei. an equality of rights ought ever to be ther the persons of the citizens, nor attended with an equality of power. their property ; but only the persons The citizens of Mallachusetts are, I of particular diftriâs ; because, tho' believe, at present, as happy as any intended to answer to the comitia by people in the world : and whe. centuries, they are chosen by an aflem- ther this unequal distribution of powo bly not of the centuries but of the
er has, or ever will occasion any evils curiæ. That is to say, a body in dangerous to the republic, is oot ended to check the encroachment of
for me to to determine. It is howethe people, are chosen and appointed ver a very melancholly truth, that the by the very men they are instituted to wiseft and the bef governments, frona controul.
the instability of human affairs,haften It muft be acknowleged, however, rapidly to their decline. Of course, that by the present syfem of legisla- that, which in its very form carries tion, many conveniencies are felt. with it the inftruments of its own ruin, The result of a single assembly would can never be fattered with a long pe' probably be hafty and indigefted were riod of duration. there not a second to revise and con.
(To be continued.) troul.
. Those who framed our conftitution seemed to have conceived that pro- To the EDITORS of the BOSTON perty was attached to diftrids, and
MAGAZINE. not to individuals
, and that therefore, The following Account of the if a diftrihad a number of voices in the Senat proportioned to the
American Locuft may not property, within the diftriét, the
be unacceptable to some of rights of property would be compleatly represented though choren by your Readers. a minority of persons pofleffing it. The error is too plain to need further observation. From thisfmiftake how.
HIS inre&t, from head to tail is TH
about an inch and a half ; and ever, property must not only be unre. rather bulky in proportion to its presented, but as long as the present length. The head is furnished with Tyftem of government remains, citi- two eyes which are red and promizens that are pofleffed of equal rights ment, and two Mort rigid horns bemay be possessed of a very unequal tween them. No mouth is to be seen Mare of political power. For infance, but a long tapering trunk descends it is very poffible that in the course of close to the breat. It has three pair a century, the sea port towns of the of legs and two pair of wings. The Commonwealth, and those adjacent, wings are very thin and transparent ; may pay a greater proportion of the the outward pair extending them. public taxes than the whole fare he. selves to a considerable distance besides, though their numbers may not yond the tail; the inner terminating be a third. There places then will with it. The back is of a black cohave a right to send to the Senate a lour ; and the wings, at their begin. majority of the whole, and as it is ning and lower edges, and the scales "very probable that the majority of, of the belly, are of the yellow. The the voters in cach diftri&t will possess male Locuft has, under each wing, a minority or the property, a majo- r.25 is insertion, an opening into the