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Answer to Philosophical Questions in August Mag. 523 et inferior forces to yours; and according to the sacred account, was dare say, the bricode of your cor. crea:ed. But' their pretensions are efpondeats wint. We fuch, that you idle and run. Thus it is as to the -ill have no caurto repent of your pretensions of the Chinese. Even Bre of theran Suppose you were their Fohi, for whom they claim such
ered, on the North side of the great antiquity, was most probably Markét, a large BI.EEDING HEART, Noah: and, from some documents, s the Guardian' did his Lion, for that have been produced, it appears he reception of your correspondent's most highly probable, that he was so, etters... would not that be very pro. Some fanciful gentlemen, , not per? But I leave the management of knowing how to account for the dir. the affair to yourselves, you will ferent colours or complexions among know better how to transact it than mankind, have fancied, that the AlI can direat you. I had almost for. mighty Creator origina:ly created 80% to tell you, that I myself want a three Adams and Eves; one white, wife but when your Heart is erect. the other of the mahogony, and the ed, I will be more explicit.
third of a black complexion. H.S.
It does not appear, that the defren:
dants from Adam, before the flood, I be following comes from a, were of different complexions: And,
as there is not the leaf appearance, Gentleman well known for
that they were so ; we may reasonhis Love of Ancient Learn- ably conclude, that there was then
no such thing existing. ing, and researches into An
When all Heth had corrupted their tiquity.
ways, and the earth was hilled with As to the Origin of Mankind, law fit to defroy them all from the
violence through them ; God then and their different Colours, earth, except the believing and righte-, Sizes, &.c. which are propo
ous Noah and his family.
As then all the rest of the world fed to Consideration in your were obliterated ; a new world was, daft Magazine, you may re
taking place ; and all this world has
its origin from the family of Noah; ceive, and, if you please, and the people of the various comcommunicate the following plexions mun hence be derived from
one or other of the sons of Noah. Sentiments concerning them.
After the food, there were long T is received as an undoubted born to Shem, Japheth and Ham :
truth, by the wiser and better part and as their pofterity were soon great-, of mankind, that all the human race ly increased, there was a neceffity for originally descended from Adam and their fair and convenient separation ; Eve; he therefore, and the are to be and it accordingly took place : and taken as the father and mother of all hence, by these fons of Noah and the living in the world: so that all their pofterity, the nations after the the nations of the earth, are to be flood were divided in the earth. acknowleged as made of one ñeh and There is not any discovery, that
they were casually or accidently dia There was a learned man named
vided. But it looks as if it was by Le Paprese, who wrote a book enti- the special direction of Jehovah to tled, Mer before Adam. But his Noah, that his pofterity were to setproofs of the thing were not satisfac- tle in such and such different places ; tory to the learned in general. And and so the whole earth was to be indeed he himself afterwards printed overspread and settled by thein. Io a retraction of his error.
was in the days of Peleg, that the And there are some nations, who
earth was divided : and, as Noah bave pretended, that their original
lived three hundred and filty years Was before the time that the earth, after the food; he therefore lived to
524 Answer to Philosophical Questions in Auguft. Mag. see the divine order for the diaribu.
no other was buill to sccount for tion of the nations put iu execution. it.
There is not now but one authen- But then, as it the other com tic account in the world, of the rise, plexions, ftatures,, &c. meeg tatpropagation and settlement of the kind; there may more eafly be sc nations descended from the rous of coupled for from the climates, 2018 Noab: and this is to be found in the in they inhabit ; or from the foota tenth chapter of Genesis. And they, which they use ; or from their bewho are favoured with the Divine meaning ihemselves with fat ol saTevelation, may from this learn and rious kinds; or from their mixture underland the places, where they with others of different complexest fat down : for the lands were called and sizes. after the names of the firft settlers of It is not ealy, we must confels, to iñem. But, as to the rest of the give reasons, that will be satisfactory world, who are not acquainted with to every minute inquirer, for in the scriptural discoveries, i bey are as various Aatures and complexions that ignorant as horses and alíes of their obtain ia the world. However its Teal dercent and original.
not uplikely, but the genuine reason * Now then, taking the tenth chap: may be taken from one or other of ter 'of Genefis for our inftru&or and the particulars above mentioned. guide, we may note the following “And now, after mentioning these things, which have been illufrated things for giving some amulog, if not and proved by a number of very satisfaâory thoughts to curious tad learned and judicious persons. inquifitive persons, it will be allor.
Firft then, the family of Shem had ed to take leave of the readers, by reAlid, and all the Alatic islands as. commending two passages, that bant figned them for their share.
occasionally come to view, to the at: Then, the poserity of Japheth had tentive notice and confideration of all Europe, and all the islands around them all, and especially the more it for their portion : and it is highly curious and inquisitive among them. probable, what this elder brother of The first is, the family, Japheth, had enlargement by America's falling to his por. Nefcire velle, quæ Magifter maximus reflion : for the Americans seem to Te (cire non volt, erudita inscitia eft. have originally descended from Ma. gog one of the sons of japheth.
Thus translated for the English And, in the laft place, we come to reader, Ham. Now his loos were settled in. Arabia, usually called Cum in the The things our greatest Master bas original from its firit founder ; and, not taughi, Egypt, or Mizraim as it is usually they, willing not to koow, bave called in the Hebrew ; and Africa' learning got: called Phuri and Canaan, the place 'Tis learned ignorance, to which where the Israelites refided, after ihey're brought. the expulsion of the Canna unites. .
It is recorded and well kuown, that And the other passage is, and it is Ham, hy region of his unduriful, dif a very important one, respectful and bare behaviour towards his father in an unhappy firu- Disce mori mundo; vivere dilce DEO. ation fell under his displeasure: and it is thought by some, that, as a mark
Thus in our congue. of the divine displeasure againft him Learn thou to quit the present world for his impiety to his parent, he was, by death ; by an inmediate insition from Hea- And learn to live to God, while you ven, made black for his punishment : have breath. and so his pofterity, descending from Pbut in the way of natural generati. It is of more consequence and im. 011, have received their blackness portance 'o us faithfully to learn (och from himn. And indeed we know of useful lessons as these, ihan to kaow
An Elay on the Management of Bees. 525 1 the curiosities of nature and art, this is not always the consequence, at the world presents before us. as hath generally been believed when
stocks accidentally unite themselves; Boston, Sept. 1734.
or when they are kept in colonies,
that is, raised boxes. In proof of this In Ejay on the Management affertion, I will relate a circumftance
that happened in my own a piary: of Bees ; wherein is mewn,
In the winter of 1777, I had three from long practice, the most single fraw-hives of bees, Aanding easy and profitable Method feparately, in an inclosed thed; thele
happened to be blown down by a vioof treating those useful In- lent wind; the weather being frofy, feels.
and very cold, prevented the bees
from flying much abroad, but from of the Queen Bee. the position in which they fell, they THÉR E are three forts of Bees all accidentally united themselves in
diftinguished in every hive ; to one hive, without even the lols of viz. The queen, or female bee; the che bee that I could perceive. I had drone, or male ; and the common the curiosity to examine this hive afworking bee.
terwards, and saw the three queens The queen is very different from living, to appearance, very amicably the reft both in tape and colour; together. I immediately raised them her body is longer than the drone, on a large fat topred hive, in order Deater made, and tapers to a point. to give them room, thinking that the She has very short wings in propor. most likely method to promote their tion to her fize, and her belly and friendship. This proceeding has anlegs are of a brighter yellow;than the (wered beyond my most languint ex. other bees. Like the common work. pectation; having continued to take ing bee, Mhe is armed with a sing, but from them, every summer fince, one never makes use of it unless greatly or two hives, well filled ; in Nort, ic irritated. Without a queen the bee's has more than doubled the profits, cao never prosper, as me alone is the had they continued as they were. Had breeder ; * and there is seldom more I not raised this bive, I make no than one of there in a bive, at the doubt but that two of the queens same time, except in the breeding would have been killed, as soon as season. If two swarms are purpose- the weather became milder, and the ly united, one queen is always lacri. breeding reason commenced ; but Sced to the peace of the hive. But that not one of them was killed is
evident from their great increase af
terwards, and which one queen could * Some writers, on this subject, not support, or any thing equal to affirm to the contrary ; and faocy
their numbers. + the working bees equally breeders.
It But these assertions are manifestly absurd, and contradi&tory to the obfervations of the best naturalists. with another, the hive, or colony, is When the queen bees are diffedted, soon annihilated ; the bees being senthere is always found in them an Ova. Sible, by an uncommon inftin& they ria replete with a multitude of eggs, possess, that without ber their genesomewhat for number like the roe of ration ceases. Wasps, hornets, buma fifh ; but never any thing fimilar to ble-bees, are also bred from one moan Ovaria was ever found in any ther, or queen ; and they alone, other fort of the bees which compose amongft these laft, survive the win. the hive. If the common working beester; and if one of them is killed in bred equally with the queen,what use April or May, a whole neft is dethen can we suppose the queen to be stroyed. of, or why should they not be able to exist without one ! It is notorious + Since the above was written, I that if the queen dies, unless replaced have proved it beyond a doubt, that
It appears evident to me, that it is The ovaria of a queen bee contains only for want of room, that the becs some thousands of eggs, fomewbat dispatch their supernumerary queens, timilar to the roe of a fith. The great In support of this opinion, Tobserve naturalift, Swammerdam, relates that it often happens, that two queens,
be discovered in the ovaria of one when they lead (warmsfrom d hive,at queen, ready to lay, five thousand the same time, generally seirle toge. one hundred visible eggs. ther without the least commotion,
It is commonly supposed that the Now it is we!! known that bees al lays nearly two hundred eggs every ways provide themselves an habita. day, in the height of the breeding tion before they leave their old hive, season. She sometimes begina laging and that it is only from the queen's so early as the latier end of January, being unable to fy far at a time, that but this depends entirely on the for. they lo ofteu aligni on the branches wardness of the season. The moft of those trees that grow bear ihem. certain rule to know this is, that It may reasonably be supposed, twere. whenever the bees are observed to fore, that as they fwarm together, collect from the early flowers it is without ine leüft dillurbance, and then a cure indication of the queen's both of them very amicably alight breeding, and beginning to lay her on the same brancn, that they are
egge. both I kewire destined to the same place
(To be continued.) and that the place they have provided is sufficiently large. It is only then after they are hived, that, find. * I have been assured by the most ing the habitation too small for the refpe&able authority, that Mr. W. offspring of both queens, hoftilities having doubted whether all the commence, and one is sacrificed to the
young ones bred in a biye proceeded welfare of the colony.
from the queen bee, made the fol. 1 The attachment of bees to their lowing experiment. He cavgbt : queen is very wonderful; be but pos. queen, and tied her by a thread fa Sessed of her, and you may lead them that the could not wander but a few where you please. If by any acci. inches ; he found, notwithstanding, deot the dies; the others immediate
eggs roon afterwards deposited in ly cease to work, and only consume cells to which the could not reach : what flores they have, and perish. this seemed decisive against the one Ilowever, th's attachment is by no mother bee. But a day or two after ineane conftant to any one particular
more narrowly observing what paffed queen ; for is a hive, which has lost in the hive, he saw the working bees its own, can by any means be provid. carrying the eggs from the said mo. ed with another, the same attach- tner, or queen bee, and depositing ment to her will be observed as to them for her in the diftant cells. This the former : order and regularity curious laat is recommended to the will be immediately eitablished, and notice of such bee-masters, as have a they will resume their labours with facility in catching the queen at all their former activity and delio pleasure. gence. It is remarkable that when you
The Miser's Prayer. are posseffed of the queen from any hive, the rest become more gentle, From a British publication.
LORD, thou knoweft that I The queen bee scarce ever leaves a hive, unless when the leads a swarm. London, and likewise that I have
lately purchased an eftate in fee fim
ple in the county of Eflex : I bemore than one queen bee will live in seech thee to preserve the two counthe same colony, or raised boxes, by ties of Effex and Middlesex from fre the many experiments I have irade, and earthquakes. And, as I have a of dividing collateral boxes to increase mortgage in Hertfordthire, I beg of their number.
ainda seldom make use of their leaves a Obave nine houses in the city of
Remarks concerning the Savages of North America. 527 thee likewise to have an eye of com. abundance of leisure for improvement passion on that county. And for the by conversation. Our' laborious rest of the counties thou mayest deal manner of life compared with theirs, with them as thou art pleased. they efteem flavith and base; and
Enable the bank to answer all their the learning on which we value ourbills, and make all debtors good men. selves, they regard as frivolous and Give a prosperous voyage to the useless. An instance of this occurMermaid floop, which I have insured. ed at the treaty of Lancafler in PennAnd, thou haft said that the days of silvania, anno 1744, between the che wicked are but Mort: I trust in Government of Virginia and the fix thee, that thou will not forget thy
Nations. Alter the principal busipromise, having purchased an estate ness .was settled, the commiflioners in reversion of Sir J. P. a pro Aigare from Virginia aquainted the Indians young mail. Keep our friends from by a speech, that there was at WilliGoking, and if it bethy will. let there amburg a co'lege with a fond, for be no finking funds. And keep my educating Indian youth; and that if foo Caleb out of evil company, and
the chiels of the fix nations would gaming houses. And sanctify this send down half a dozen of their sons gight to me, by preserving me from to that college, the government thieves and fire. And inake my rer. would take care that they should be varts honest and careful, ivbilft I, thy well provided for, and instructed in faithful servant, lie down in thee, ó all the learning of the white people. Lord. Amen.
It is one of the Todian rules of politeness not to answer a public propofiti
on the same day that it is made ; they Remarks concerning the Savages light matter; and that they thew it
think it would be treating it as a of Norih- America.
refpe&t by taking time to consider it,
as of a matter important. They [By Dr. Franklin.)
therefore deferred their answer till
the day following; when their speakAVAGES we call them, because er began, by exprefling their deep
their manners differ from ours, sense of the kindness of the Virginia which we think the perfe&tion of ci goveromeat, in making them that vility; they think the saine of theirs. Offer; "for we know,"says he, thac
Perhaps if we could examine the “ you highly efteem che kind of learnmanners of different nations with im- “ing taught in those colleges, and partiality, we should find no people " that the maintenance of our young To rude as to be without any rules of " men, while with you, would be vepoliteness ; nor any lo polite as not “ry expensive to you. We are conto have some remains of rudeness. " vinced, therefore, that you mean to
The Indian men, when young, are “ do us good by your proposal, and hunters and warriors; when old, “ we thank you heartily. But you counsellors; for all their government " who are wise must know, that difis by the counsel or advice of the fag. “ ferent nations have different cones; there is no force, there are no " ceptions of things; and you will prisons, no officers to compel obedi- " therefore not take it ami's, if our ence, or infict punithment. Hence " ideas of this kind of education hapthey generally Audy oratory ; the peo not to be the same with yours. best speaker having the most influe « We have had some experience of it : ence. The lodian women till the “ Several of our young people were ground, dress the food, nurse and “ formerly brought up at the college bring up the children, and preserve "es of the vorthern provinces: They and hand down to pofterity the me- " were infructed in all your sciences; mory of public transa&ions. These " but when they came back to us, employments of men and women are w they were bad runners ; iguoraoc accounted natural and honourable. “ of every means of living in the Having few artificial wants, they have or woods í unable to bear either cold