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of confederation that bind the whole fcfficient demand. The farmers is together for general purposes, under America produce indeed a good deal the dire&ion of one assembly called of wool and fax; and none is exports the Congress.

'These conftitutions ed, it is all worked up; but it is in have been printed by order of con- the way of domestic manufacture for greís, io Ainerica ; two editions of the use of the family. The boying op them have also been printed in Lon- quantities of wool and fax with the don; and a good translation or them design to employ spinners, weavers, into French, bas lately been publith. &c. and form great establishments, ed at Paris.

producing quantities of linen and Several of the princes of Europe woollen goods for sale, has been seve. having of late, from an opinion of ral times attempted in different proadvantage to arise by producing all vinces ; but those proje&s have gene. commodities and manufa&tures with rally failed, goods of equal value bein their own dominions, so as to di- ing imported cheaper. And when minith or render useless their impor- the governments have been solicited tations, have endeavoured to entice to support such schemes by encouworkmen from other countries, by ragements, in money, or by impofing high salaries, privileges, &c. Miny duties on importation of such goods, persons pretending to be killed in it has been generally refused, on this various great manufactures, imagioprinciple, that if the country is ripe ing that America must be in wint of for the manufa&ure, it may be car. them, and that the Coogress would ried on by private persons to advanprobably be disposed to imitate the tage ; and if not, it is a folly to think

above mentioned, have of forcing nature. Great establish: proposed to go over, on condition of ments of manufa&ture, require great having their passages paid, lands' numbers of poor to work for imall' given, salaries appointed, exclusive wages ; these poor are to be found in privileges for terms of years, &c. Europe, but will not be found in Such persons on reading the articles America, till the lands are all taken' of confederation, will find that the up and cultivated, and the excess of Congress have no power committed people, who canoot get land, want to them, or money put into their employment. The manufacture of hands, for such purposes ; and that filk, they say, is natural in Fraoce, as if any such eacouragement is given, that of cloth in England, because each it must be by the government of some country produces in plenty the first separate state. This, bowever, has material : But if England will have rarely been done in America ; and a manufacture of silk as well as that when it has beea done, it has rarely of clorii, and France one of cloth as fucceeded, so as to ellablish a manu. well as that of silk, there unnatural facture, which the country was not operations must be supported by mu. yet so ripe for as to encourage private tual prohibitions, or high duties on persons to set it up; labour being ge. the importation of each others goods ; nerally too dear shere, and hands diffi, by which means the workmen are cult to be kept together, every one enabled to tax the home cousumer by defiring to be a master and the cheap. greater prices, while the higher wages ness of land inclining many to leave they receive makes them neither hap. trades for agriculture. Some indeed pier or richer, fince they only drink. have met with success, and are carri: more and work leis. Therefore the ed on to advantage ; but they are governments in America do nothing generally such as require only a few to encourage fuch projects. The peohands, or wherein great part of the ple, by this means, are not imposed work is performed by machines; goods on, either by the merchant or mechathat are bulky, and of so small va- nic; if the merchant demands too lue as not well to bear the expence of much profit on imported Moes, they Ereignt, may often be made cheaper in buy of the Phoemaker ; and if he asks the country than they can be import: too high a price, they take them of #d; and the manufature of such goods the merchant: Thus the two prolem. will be profitable whorever there is a ons are checks on each other. The


Information to those who would remove to America. 509 Moemaker, however, has on the the apprentice shall be duly provid. whole, a confiderable profit upon his ed with meat, drink, apparel, wash. labour in America, beyond what he ing, and lodging, and at its expirahad in Europe, as he can add to his tion with a complete new suit of price a fum nearly equal to all the ex- clothes, but also that he mall be pences of freight and commiflion, taught to read, write, and cast ac, sifque or infurance, &c. neceffarily compts ; and that he Mall be well charged by the merchant. And the instructed in the art or profession of case is the fame with the workmen his master, or some other, by which in every other mechanic art. Hence he may afterwards gain a livelihood, it is, that artisans generally live better and be able in his turo to raise a fami: and more easily in America than in ly. A copy of this indecsure is given Europe; and fuch as are good eco- to the apprentice or his friends, and nomifts, make a comfortable provifi. the magistrate keeps a record of it, on for age, and for their children. to which recourse may be had, in Such may, therefore, remove with care of failure by the master in any advantage to America.

point of perforinance. This defire In the old long settled countries of among the masters to have more Europe, all arts, trades, professions, hands employed in working for farms, &c. are fo full, that it is diffi- them, induces them to pay the pafcult for a poor man, who has children, sages of young persons, of hoth sexes, to place them where they may gain, who on their arrival agree to serve or learn to gain a decent livelihood. them one, two, three, or four years ; The artisans, who fear creating fu. those who have already learned a fure rivals in business, refuse to take trade, agreeing for a horter term, apprentices, but upon conditions of in proportion to their skill, and the money, maintenance, or the like, consequent immediate value of their which the parents are voable to com- service ; and those who have none, ply with. Hence the yourh are drag agreeing for a longer term, in con: ged up in ignorance of every gainful Gideration of being taught an art their art, and obliged to become Toldiers poverty would not permit thein to or servants, or thieves, for a sublin. acquire in their own country. ence. In America, the rapid increase The almoft general mediocrity of of inhabitants takes a way that fear of fortune tha: prevails in America, rivalship, and artisans willingly re. obliging its people to follow some buceive apprentices from the hope of fineis for subfiftence, those vices that profit by their labour, during the arise usually from idlenels, are in a remainder of the time Aipulated, af. great meafare prevented. Industry ter they fhall be inftruded. Hence and constant employment are great it is ealy for poor families to get their preservatives of the morals and virtue children inftruited ; for the artisans of a nation. Hence bad examples to are so defirous of apprentices, that youth are more rare in America, which many of them will even give money

muft be a comfortable confideration to the parents, to have boys from ten to parents. To this may be truly to fifteen years of age bound appren. added, that serious religion, under its tices to them, till the age of twenty- various denominations, is not only one ; and many poor parents have, tolerated, but respected and pra&ised, by that means, on their arrival in the Atheism is unkvown there ; infidelity country, raised money enough to rare and recret ; so that persons may buy land rofficient to efablim them. live to a great age in that country selves, and to fubfift the reft of their without having their piety shocked family by agriculture. These con- by meeting with either an atheist or tracts for apprentices are made be. an infidel. And the Divine Being seems fore a magiftrate, who regulates the to have manifested his approbation of agreement according to reason and the mutual forbearance and kindness justice ; and having in view she for- with which the different feds treat mation of a future useful citizen, each other, by the remarkable prof. obliges the master to engage by a perity with which he has been pleased written indentore, not only that to favour the whole country. during the time of service ftipulz!sd,


the country.

A Defcription of the Island of of the houses of an equal height Madeira, with an Account

varying sometimes immediately froa

a med to ove the height of a Looden ; of the Manners and Customs house, built with a dirt coloured of its Inhabitants.

rough ftone, ftone doors and wiador

frames, windows voglazed, whick T He appearance of the Inand of wooden shutters, ftaned canvas, os

lattis nailed checquer-wise, fupply; a poffibility of description ; it is one bare walls without pla:tier et celog ridge of mountains, of an amazing fingleboarded partitions and foon, height, running east and weft, riling

loll jointed as to render e ery room quite from the water's edge to the

publick, makes the inside of aber fummit, in length about fixty Eng- houses exaflly correspond with their lith miles, and about thirty fix in outward appearance.

Sea Fores, breadth: not the leaft Aat near the

lees of wine, and the intolerabie dirtiwater, but rifing inftantly from a pels of the inhabitan's, form a corrocky shore, to an horizon broke by plication of offenfive imelis, which is the beautiful irregularity of the sum- fuely contrasted by the fragrance of mit of the hills ; nor is this range one continued nope, but its fides in.

Having in part described the town, terspersed with an infinite number

you probably will not be lorry to of smaller hills, and little hollows be- have some account of the inhabitants tween them, of ro odd forms, as are of the island, who generally, more not to be equalled even among the especially the men, are not a degree Welch mountains. I can only give removed from Mulattoes in their you fome idea of it, by comparing complexion, some are even darker; the appearance of the slope from the

and as here are great numbers of Nesea, io places, where, by searching groes of both sexes, all flaves, or ferafter coal or mines, the whole sur. vauts, I cannot help suspecting they lace is torn up. In the whole part have a little contributed to that tinge. which I law, and that was the east

All the lower sort of people are bareand south side of the island, there an.

legged, although the hilly, ffoay solutely is not naturally twenty feet country, and ill paved freeis, render square of level ground. The whole walking, even in Moes, not very ridge, and all the smaller hills, and

pleasant or easy : the men bave loole valleys, are almost entirely cultivated coarse linen breeches, and a pitifal and green, chiefly with vineyards, vaft cloak, reachiog, if they can and have therefore a fine appearance, afford it, even to their

heels, but mofmore especially as the sole neglected

ly to the knee ; the one end general. spots are rock, rifing up, and the very ly wrapped round them, and throwa tops of several of the smaller hills on

over the left shoulder ; this is of a the side so amazingly steep, as to be thread bare sort of serge, or coloured literally inaccessible.

Thore very

woolen cloth, and you would take tops of the hills are highly ornainen. them for beggars with an old rug to tal by their peculiar, and yet Qatural keep them warm : a woollen cap bright crimson colour, which in er.

completes the dress. In proportion mixed as they are, greatly enlivens as their circumstances admit, they the universal verdwe. What I have

mend the length and quality of their told you about the impoffibility of cloak ; and a coat, and wailicoat on: finding a level spot, is confirmed to derneath, a wig, and hat, shoes, and me by the people of this isand, who

stockings, are added: but their very say that, except on the north side, richeft inhabitant's cloaks,coats, &c. which is extremely barren, you can. are of cloth too coarse for Eoglia li. not possibly find any.

veries : Some of the coats, however, Every praile that can be heftowed

are turned up at the cuff (which are on the appearance of the country, is of a size too enormous to be credited) reversed with regard to Fonchall, the

with ftuff damask, and printed linens, capital,and to the appearance of the in

all as glazing and party coloured as habitants. It is a long, and rather

pollible. (To be continued.) large town, narrow streets, not two


Memoirs of Voltaire.


51L. Memoirs of the Life of Vol- were engaged in his service. Bar.!

berina at that time danced at his TAIRE, translated from the

theatre, the fame who has since been French Work, Written by married to the son of his Chancellor, bimself

He gave her a salary of thirty two

thousand livres (above thirteen huo. (Continued from page 462.)

dred pounds) which was more than

he allowed to any three of his miris REDERIC governed the church flers of ftate together. with as much deposism as the ftate.

In the midst of all these feats, He pronounced the divorces himself,

operas, and suppers, iny secret negowhen husband and wife wanted to

ciation went forward; the King was pair themselves differently. A mini

willing I should speak on every thing, fler one day cited the Old Testament

and I frequently took occasion to in00 the subje&t of divorces; and the

termix questions concerning France King told him, Mofes managed the and Austria with the Eneid and RoJews just as he pleased ; as for me, I

man History. The conversation was inuft govero my Prussians to the best

fumetimes animated ; the King beof my abilities. Whether it was from policy or eco

came warm, and would tell me, that

while our Court was knocking at nomy,I know not; but he never grant. ed the leaft kindness to any of his form.

every door to procure peace, he

Mould not think it adviseable to go to er favourites, especially to those who

war in our delence. I sent my re. had risked their lives for him when he fexions upon paper, left half blank, was Prince Royal. He did not even pay the money he' borrowed at that time.

from my apartment to his; and he Like as Louis XII. would not revenge.

answered my daring remarks in the the affronts of the Duke d'Orleans,

margin. I have this paper ftill, in

which I have said, Deither would the King of Prusia re

Can it be doubted that the House member the debts of the Prince Royal.

of Aufria will reize the very first opHis poor miftress, who had suffered whipping for his lake by the hands. portunity to re-demand Silesia ? To

which he answered in the margin, of the common hanginan, was married at Berlin to the clerk of the

Ils seront recus, biribi, back, for they had

A la facon de Barbari,

Mon ami. eighteen hackney coaches at Berlin ; and her royal lover allowed her a Then they receiv'd, my friend, shall be, penfion of seventy crowns (eight After the mode of Barbary. pounds fifteen fhillings) a year. She called herself Mademoiselle Saumera, This new kind of negociation finishand was a tall, meagre figure, very ed by a discourse, which, in one of like one of the sybils, without the his moments of vivacity, he made me least appearance of meriting to be against the King of England, his dear publickly whipped for a Prince. uncle. These two Kings did not love

When, however, he was at Berlin, one another. My Pruffian Monarch he made a great display of magni- told me, “George was the uncle of ficence on publick days. It was a Frederic, but not of the King o! PrusSuperb (pedacle for the vain, that is fia ;") and he ended by saying, “Let to say, for almost all maokind, to see France declare war against England, him at table, surrounded with twen- and I will march." ty Princes of the empire, served in This was all I wanted. I returned vessels of gold, the richeft in Europe, instantly to France, and gave an ac. by two and thirty pages, and as many count of my journey ; with suci. young heiduques, all splendidly hopes to the French miniftry as bad cloathed, and bearing dishes of masly been given me at Berlin. Neither gold. The Aite officers were also were they false, for the spring fol. employed on Niple occasions, though lowing the King of Pruflia concluded

Sher time. a new treaty with France, and adand best dancers vanced into Bohemia with a hundred Tit


snown at anwas King Goeft voluce.

thousand men while the Austrians both in town and out of town. Cire; were in alluta.

is situated upon the borders of LorHad I related my adventure to any raine, and K ng Stanillaus at inat good Parisian, with the service I had time kept his little agreeable court at done the fate, be would not have Luneville. On a visit to that Prince, made the least doubt of my having Madame du Chatelet died in bus pabeen pron sed a good place. I wil lace, after two days illness; and we tell you what was my recompense. were so affe&ted, that not one of us The Dutchess de Coateauroux was ever remembered to send for priei, vexed the negociation had not been jeluit, or any of the seven sacraments. brought about entirely by her ineans; It was we, and out Madame du ChrThe had likewise an iuclination to have telet, who felt the horrors of deaib. II. Amelot turned out because he The good King Stapiflaus came to stuttered, which trilling defect the iny chamber, and mixed his tears found offensive, and the iarther haled with mine : few of his brethrea him because he was governed by M.

would have done so much ou a like de Maurepas ; he was accordingly occasion. He wished me to fiay at dismissed eight days after, and I was Luneville, but I couid no longer lupincluded in 5 s disgrace. Upon the port the place, and returned to death of this lady, which happenedia Par's. consequence of the passions into It was my destiny to run from which the was thrown, at being dir. King to Kog, although I loved limiled by the King, in a dangerous berty even tu idolatry. The King illoess, she was succeeded by Madame of Prussia, whom I had frequently de Pompidour.

given to underfand I would never This new mistress had been well quit Madame du Chatelet for him, educated, was prudent, amiable, very

would absolutely eatrap me, now he graceful, had great talents, a fue ua: was rid of his rival. He enjoyed at dertanding, and a good heart. that time a peace, which be had pur.

I was tolerably intimate with her, chiated with vittory; and his leisure and was even the confident of her hours were always devoted to mak.

She confessed to me, me ing verses, or writing the bisiory cí had always had a secret fore-thought his couotry and campaigas. He was that the King would fall in love with well convinced, that in reality dis her.

verle, and prose too, were superior After the was certain of her royal to my verse and profe, as to their Jover, he told me the was firmly per- effence ; though as lo form, be fuaded of the doctrine of piedestina. ' thought there was a ceria?n some tion, and the had some caure so to be. thing, a turn, that I, in quality of I passed several months with lier at Academician, inight give to bis writEnole, while the king made the cam' ings ; and there was no kind of flatpaigo of 1746

tery, no seduction, he did not employ Thence obtained rewards which had to engage me to come. never been granned to my works or Who mighit selift a Monarch, a yny Tervices. I was deemed worthy Hero, a Poet, a Musician, a Philosoto be one of the forty useless mem- pher, who pretended too to love me, bers of the Academy, was appointed and whom Lihought I also loved. I Hlorographer of France, and crea. fat out once more for Potzdam, in ted hy. tiie King one of the gentle- the month of June, 1750. Astolphus anen in ordinary of his chainber. did not meet a kinder reception in From this I concluded it was better, the palace of Alcina. To be ladged in order to make elic most trifting in the same apartments that Marfortune, to speak lour words to a Thal Saxe had occupied; to have the King's mistress, than to write a hun. royal cooks at my command, when dred volumes.

I chose to dive alone ; and the royal My conneAions with Madame du coachman, when I had an inclination Chatelet was never interrupted ; our to ride, were writing favours. friendship, and our love of literature, I worked two i pari a day with his were caniterable ; we lived together Majeity, corte bor his work.)



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