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ing remark.We have seen men,of ro ru ever, ready to acknowledge the great perior natural talents to their brethren advantages enjoyed in private aca. who, from the circumstance of losing a demies, by those pupils who have the legor an arm, or some other bodily in good fortune, to be born of such pajury, have been obliged to apply them- ients or connected with such patrons, selves to the fudy of books, making ve- who have the ability, and inclination sy confiderable improvements in litera- to procure such inftru&tion for shore ture, and becoming able Ratesmen, skil. under their care, for these, under the ful thyficians, eminent lawyers, or lear- tutelage of men of great ability and nedi civines, who would have remain.
selected from the literati for this ex. ed but for these reening misfortunes, press purpose, muft, like the intervale unknowing an unknown.
m the neighbourhood of the moun Te uility of education, is a point taibs alluded to above, Mare largely, which seems to be so well establimhed, of fertility, acquired by that it must appear, to those unacquain- fuperior genius and eminence. How ted with the present ftale or is, in the ever, such is the situation of much commonwealiti, to be voneceffary the greater part of this land, indeed of to use any arguments, to persuade the every community, that it cannot be inhabitants into a sense of its impor. expected, that many can receive such farce. But, to what cause can it be peculiar advantages. attributed, that the couniry have ne- I knowit has been said, that had not glected their ancient, laudable inftitu. private academies been ipfituted in tion of grammar schools? If the war the time of war, the spirit of education was the sole cause of this cegled, now would have been abolished. This that is over, why, in the name of good seems to be begging the question ; I sente, can they emit this very impor- grant, that during the war, from a tant concern any longer ? can they be great variety of extraordinary causes, contented, to have their children ile zeal and attention to town schools, wanting in that krowledge, which is remitted, in many places ; but, liad necefiary to preserve their freedom ? there been no such inftitution as aca. Can you, ye inaitentive parents! ree demies, men of wealth and influence, the rore enlightened part of the com- would probably have procured in muery, with all their afliduity pro.
ftructors in their respe&ive towns. curinx the necessary in fruct on for The state of Connecticut have, with their children, 10 rindar item emi- great good sense, attended to this inftipent, and useful, and perhaps (though tution of schools, in all their towns, so at preant in my be foreign to tlieir that at this season of the year, when views) to make their children tyrants our schools in the country, were forof your heire; ard mallers of that merly but I ttle frequented, a traveller property which you have procured can scarcely pass through a town in with labour and toil? And will you that Rate but he observes the schools not take the only lep to prevent the thronged and generally attended by consequences, which naturally attend youth of both texes. This intellisuch exertions ?
gence I have from a gentleman, who I may not suppore the negled of has lately been through a great part of fur porting grammar schools can be the that country, and made the above reeffect of parfimony; men, who have mark, with that pleasure, which we teen excited 10 a sense of freedom, hy Mould expect the right would produce, the medium of that infru&ion, the in the mid of a true republican. But foundation of which was first laid in my fellow countrymen! Mould you The institution of grammar schools, can Continue your negligence and inatiennever withhold from their offspring, tion, to this important inftitution in the same means of instruction which your advanced age, you may see the was the basis of their own freedom and laurels of your youthful days wither independence.
on your brows; your silver locks may li will not do to persuade your. bow in obeisance to a tyrant's manselves, or he persuaded, that private date, and your aged Moulders may academies will prove sufficient for the bend beneath a load imposed by some diffusion of knowledge. I am low- baughty master.
• Experiments made with the Aeroftatic Machine.
319 Description of Expiriments made beater's skin, he probably would have
plucked the very laurels that now with the Aerostatic Machine, adorn the brows of Montgolfier and invented by Meffieurs De Charles.
1. The honour of the discovery is Montgolfier,&c. From the
certainly due to the brothers Stephen Appendix to the fixty-ninth and Joseph Montgolfer, proprietors Volume of the Monthly Re- of a considerable paper manufacture
at Annonay, a town in the Vivarais, view.
about thirty six miles south of Lyons : E avail ourselves of this op.
and their invention is the more to be portunity to lay before our adm red, as it is not the effect of the readers a brief, hiftorical account of late discovery of a permanent elast!c the very interesting discovery which
fuid lighter than the common are, but has of lare attracted the notice of the of properties of matter lorg known), whole philosophical world ; and which 'and in the hands of the many acute our fanguine neighbours did not pbilosophers of this and of the last scruple, at the very first, to dignify century. They conceived that the with the name of AERIAL Navica. effe&t they looked for might be ob.
tained by confining vapours lighter Although the Author of this book than common air, in an inverted bag, be known to have warmly espoused
or covering, sufficiently compact to the party of Mongolfier, in opposi- prevent their evaporation, and so tion to that of Charles (for there are
light, that when inflated, its ow! parties even concerning Balloons) yet weight, added to that of the inclosed
his reputation, as a man of learning vapour, miglit fall somewhat Mort of and veracity is sufficientiy established, the weight of the air which its bulls and the facts he here alledges are in
displaces. general, as we have had oportunities On there principles, they prepared 'to ascertain by collateral evidence, matters for an experiment. They ftated with sufficient accuracy to jur. formed a big, or balloon, of linen tify usin taking him for our guide in clotn, lined this narrative.
(pherical, and measuring about 35 lere The Preface contains a Mort survey in diameter *, its solid cootents were of what projects have formerly been
about 22,000 cub c feet, a space nearly fuggested for the purpose of Aoating uqual to that occupied by 1980 lb. of heavy bodies in the atmosphere ; the common air, of a mean temparature, principal of which are those of Lana, on the level of the sea. The vapour, a Jesuit of Brescia, and of Galien, a wbich, by conjeâure, was about half Dominican of 'Avignon, both which as light as cominon air, weighed 990lb. however were, upon well en blished The balloon, together with a wooden principles, found by theory to be im frame fulpendertio the bottom, which posible in the execution. Due ho- was to firve as ballaft, weighed 490lb. nour is paid to Mr. Cavallo of London, wlience it appears that the whole must who, in 1732, seemingly with a view have been about 500 lb. lighter than to this discovery, iried to fill hags of an equal bulk of common air. This paper and bladders with inflammable difference oi specific gravity, by whicla air ; but failed in his attempis, by the these bodies are made to rise, we Mail unexpected permeability of paper to henceforth, without warranting the infiammable air, and the too great proprieiy of the expreffion, call their proportional weight of the commoa
power of ascension. ized bladders. Had he then thought The 5th of June 1783; was fixed on of employing pummed folk, or gold. for the display of this fingular experi
* The imponibility of Lana's pro- * All the meafures here given are ject was demonstrated by Hook ; fee French. The French foot is to the his Philosophical Collect ons, No. I.
English as 1.4470 135; a French toise P: 28. And since by Leibnitz. Galia is lix French feet, cr, fix and threeen's never needed any consution. esitlis Enc! 1. leei.
ment. The States of Vivarais, who of water. This globe measured 12 feet were then assembled at Annonay, were 2 inches in diameter, its solid coninvited to the exhibition. The flaccid tents were 943 feet 6 lines cubic, and bag was suspended on a pole 35 feet it's power of ascension was found equal Digh ; ftraw and chopped wool were
to 351b. burot under the opening at the hot, The 27th of August 1783, having tom; the vapour, or rather smoke, been fixed on for the exhibition of this foco inflated the bag, so as to diftend experiment,the balloon was conveyed, it in all its parts; and,un a sudden,this in the preceding night floating in the immense mars ascended in the air with air, from a court near the Place des such a velocity,thatin less than ten mi- Victoires, where it has been construct. nutes it appeared to be about 1000 ed, to the Champ de Mars. Our au. toises above the heads of the spectators. thor indulges tis lively imagination A breeze carried it about 1200 toises in a lofty description of this nodurnal from the fpot whence it departed ; and proceffioul, which, he says, moved along then the vapour, either escaping thio' in the dead of night, aliended by a 1ome loop holes that had been acci- party of guards, with lighted torches, Dentally left in the confiruction, or and seemed so awful, ibat ile hackbeing condensed by the coldness of the ney coach men who happened to be circumambient air,the globe descended in its way, descended from their seats, gradually on a vineyard, with so little and devoutly proftrated themselves preffure that none of the Nakes were before the supernatural being that ad. broken,and scurce any of the branches vanced in such solemo fate. ulthe vines bent.
The concourse of people, on foot II. Täe rumour of this successful and in carriages, was so immense in experiment soon reached the meiro. the Champ de Mars, that a large polis, and roured the emelation of the body of troops were drawo out to Pirifan philosophers. Without wait- prevent difturbances. Ai five o'clock ing for particular instructions from in the alter noon, a signalhaving been lle in velions, they rehecled on a me. given by the firing of a mortar, the tlıcd or their own; and resolved, in- cords that confined the globe were cut, tead of vapour, 10 uie inlammable and it rose, in less than two minutes, air; the recific weight of which, when .to a height of nea 500 toises. It pure, they kne:v love to that of conj there eniered a cloud, but soon ap. mon air nearly as ien lo one". peared aga'i, ascending to a much
The process of producing this a'r, greater height; and at laft it was toit beng very expensive, the author of
among other clouds. tie book now telo.eus, set on foot a Our Author juftly .censures the subscription ; and having roon raised conduct of this experiment; observing a fuficientíum, M. CHAKLES, Pro. that too much inflammable air, and It fíor of experimental philofophy, and that even some common air had been and M. ROBERT, a mailematical in. introduced into the globe, which being frument maker, were set to work: closed on all fides, left no room for the and they confirudied a globe of iute- xpansion of this elaftic' fluid when it Mring (1.tetas) glazed over with elaf- thould arrive to a more rarified meditic guli dissolved in some kind of spirit um. We find, in faa, that it muft or client al oil. Aller niany difficul. have burft in consequence of this exties and diappointinects, which will pansion ; since, after having Roated ever attend firft eflays, they succeeded, about three quarters of an hour, it fell in two da;s, to fillinis & love with in- in a field near Goness, a village about Mammable a:r, produced from 1000 lb. fiteen miles N, N. W: of the Champ of iron filings, and 498 lb of vitriolic de Mars. It must be allowed, that auid, diluted in four tires iis quantity the mere evaporation of the air could
not well have been the cause of its derWe mullere at leai commeiro. cending so soon. Many periodical rate the name of Cavendifi; to whoin papers have already entertained the it is acknowledged ou all hands, the public with ludicrous accounts of the discovery of the specific gravi:y of aftonifa rent of the peasants' wbo inflammable air, as well as of many found it, and of the rough treatment it oil.cr of its properties, is solely due. received aš ti.eir hands.
Experiments made with the Aeroftatic Machine 111. It may easily be imagined, that sudden gust of wind, while it was inthese brilliant fucceffes aopimated the Aating, made two rents seven feet long Zeal of all the curious in the metropo- near the top, which could not but in lis; and that many essays were made to some measure prevent the promised repeat the same experiments upon a effeat. It swelled, however, in re mismaller scale.
Our author, accord. nutes sufficiently to raise it above 240 ingly, in a third chapter, men tions a toises; it floated to the diftance of nearnumber of these secondary attempts ; ly 1700 toises; and, after having been in apon which we frall dwell no longer tne air about eight minutes, it subsided than only to observe, that they fuc- gradually in the wood of Vaucresson. ceeded with globes made of gold-beat- The annimals in the cage were safely er's skin ; and only 12 inchesin diame- landed. The Meep was found seeding; ter, which being thought the least that the cock had received some hurt on could be made to ascend, considering one of his wings, probably from a kick that the proportionate weight of the of the Meep: the duck was perfeâly materials increase as the bulk is dimi: , well. nished, were called minimums.
VI. M. Montgolfier determined IV. M. Montgolfier junior, having now to repeat the experiment under arrived at Paris a few days before the more favourable circumstances, and experiment at the Champ de Mars, more at his leisure. He, therefore, was desired by the royal Academy of made a new balloon, in a garden, in Sciences to repeat the experiment of the Fauxbourg St. Antoine, which Annopay. He accordingly conftruet- measured 70 feet in height, and 46 ed, in a garden, in the Fauxbourg St. feet in diameter. A gallery of wicker Germain, a balloon of an elliptical was contrived round the apperture at form, 70 feet high and 40 feet in dia. the bottom ; under which an iron
It was lined both inside and grate or brazier was suspended, and outside with paper.
Its. power olar. port. holes opened on the inside of the cenfion was found, upon calculation, gallery, towards the aperture, through to be about 1250 lb. it was filled in which any person cui robur et æs triten minutes by the burning of solb. plex circa pe&us fuerit, who might of Araw and 10 lb. of chopped wool. venture to ascend, might feed the fire It was loaded with a weight of goolb. on the grate, and thus keep up the and ascended, fastened to ropes on the vapour, smoke, or as we rather ap12th of September, in the presence of prehend, the dilitation of the air, in the deputies of the Royal Academy. this vast cavity. But it proving a very rainy day, the On the 15th of O&tober, M. Pilatre whole apparatus was fo essentially da. de Rosier, no doubt the moft intriped maged, that it was not thought.proper philosopher of the age, placed himself to let it loose.
in the gallery, ascended about 80 feer V. We come now to the experi- from the ground, and there kept the meat made on the roth of September, balloon anoat for some time, by rein the presence of the King and Queen, peatedly throwing straw and wool the Court, and all the Parisians who upon the fire. Iq this experiment it could procure a conveyance to Ver- was found, that the descent of a globe sailles.' This bailoon was 57 feet high (provided no extraordinary accident and 41 in diameter. Its power of happened to it) muft necessarily be ascenfion, allowing for a wicker cage, gradual; and that it will always light containing a sheep, a cock, and a duck, softly upon the ground, fince, in fact, which was suspended to it, was equal in every part of its descent it enters á to 696 lb. As only four days had been denser medium ; whence its velocity allowed for making this machine, it in-falling, will rather be retarded than could not, therefore, be lined with accelerated. On the 19th of O&tober, paper. M. M. had predicted, that it M. P. de R. asceoded a second time, would remain in the air about 20 mi- about 250 feet. After continuing stanates; and, with a moderate wind, tionary about eight minutes, a gust of might Noat to a d.ftance of about 2000 wind carried the balloon among some toises. But, bolides come imperfection trees, where it intangled itself to as to in the construction, owing to the great indanger isSeing tora to pieces. But. hurry in which it had been made, i
on M. R. throwing some frem fraw fant deftruction. He then became
Seine ; and fearing least they might VII. Matters seemed now ripe for be carried away by the current of air i a free aerial navigation. A finoke that generally attends freams of wa•
balloon, very Amilar to the one laft ter, the Marquis was glad to affih in
When there bold anventurers were between 4 and 5000 toises. They were about 250 feet iu the air they waved in the air about 25 minutes.
The their bats to the allopithed niultiiude; collective weight of the whole appa. but they foon after rose too high to ralus, including that of the two tra iela be distinguihed, and are thought to lers, was between 16 and 1700 lb. and have soared 10 an elevaticu of about when they landed, they had two3000 feet. The viitory of this navi- thirds of their combustibles ftill left gation (as we collect, not from this .ia store. book, but from private information VIII. The book we are here rewhich we have real on to think au. viewing, was, no doubt, printed, and thentic) is, in fact, the hifory of the perhaps published, before the exhi. alarins of the Marquis D'Arlandes. bition of a second aerial navigation When be found himself ro high that (which may more properly be termed hecould no longer dulinguish the on. a voyage), since the author makes no jciis upon earth., he thougnt both his mention of it. As we wish to lay be ami tion and his curiofiey fufficiently fore our readers a complete summar gracified, and defined iis companion of all that has been hitherto done i to cease tayong Araw upon the fire, this extraordinary business, we th that they might descend. M.P.de here collect, from aři javits, and oth Rozier, lorover, deaf to these re- authentic aocounts, the most Atrik nopirances, continued his opérations, circumstances of this bold enterpri and the Llarquis conued murmur. The globe prepared for this ex
Ai leigih, being ai the highest dirion, was made like that of elevation above mentioned, the lat:er Champ de Mars (No. II.) of g perceived fome holes burnt in the of lik, alternately red and white, resuitse bation, and likewise heard glazed with some sort of gum.
:47.21: porr tre top ofihe ma- wa; spherical, and measured 26