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to aflign as a reason, for the dread of as are very unsuitable, and when dissolution, that we are gainers by the building is ereEted,
from after What hall we say,then in vindication experience, find they have not of the juftice of the Almighty, in the proceeded in the way, most ad
, that system cannot be the belt, which vantageous to their intereft, and does not, on the whole, advance the as in your last number, I gave is againft us in the present fate; the a feze bints on the making of completion of the defign then, must be Bricks, and presuming that a equal, and apparently promiscuous few of such extraits relative to Distributions of happiness and misery some of the principal materials. in this life, has been used as an argu. made use of in buildings, as may such inequality, I think, has been by elucidate the subje&t, with fome no means proved; or if it has, it might observations and remarks on them, much more proportionate to the good may be of some benefit to the pubor evil dispositions of the heart, than lic, therefore wish for a column is at forft view imagined. In either case the force of the argument deduced
or two, in a few proceeding numfrom this hypothefis is defroyed, børs, for the purpose, and Mall though by the above reasoning Turut begin with mortar and cement.
Were I as an individnal to form my Experiments made in. Europe, sentiments of a future existence, solely on this subject, do not accurately ness in the present life, I mod confers apply m this country, where I see no argument that would amount the climate, is to different.---to a sufficient proof for my own con. viction. I believe it to be
I fall therefore, in a future nearly equal in every period, and in paper, if not disagreeable, make every condition of life, or that it de fome discriminations ---and fhere sciousness of a re&itude of condua, fome experiments upon that sort neither of which, have any necessary of cement, that has been used I estimate the aggregate sum of hafe more successfully in this country: piness and misery which fallsio the lot
z. of almost every mortal that breathes, I fanced here, and I am therefore neceta M MORAER; } a Preparation of sarily led to look forward into a fiate, where a proper adjustment Mall be
Lime and Sand, mixt up with Water, made, and where the sum total of hap ferving as : Cement, and ned by piness thall finally appear to over.
Masons and Bricklayers in building of balance all the miseries of this subla
walls of ftone and brick.
For plaiftering of walls, they make
their mortar of lime, and ox or cow. To the Editors of the Bos TON MA. hair, tempered well together with
OF MAKING COMMON MORTAR.
As some of the materials made As to the proportion of lime and sand,
to be us'd in making common mottar, use of in buildings, are often there are different opinions.. times of a bad quality, and many three parts of dug (or pit fand) to one perfons from a want of better part of lime; but if the sand be taken information, bave purchased fuck out of a river, or out of the sea, then
Of Making Mortar.
two parts of it, and one of lime. He mortar fhould be well beaten with a also adds, that if to the river, or sea beater, three or four times over, be. sand, you put one third part of fore it is us'd by that means to break powder of tiles, or bricks,' it will all the knots of the lime well toge: work the better.
ther; and they say, that the air Bue Vitruvius's proportion of sand which the beater forces into the seems too much, tho' he should mean mortar at every fisoke, conduces very of lime, before it is flack ; for one much to the strength of it. buthel of lime, before 'tis tak’d, wilt 3. That when you design to build muke five pecks, after 'tis tlak'd. well, or use frong mortar for repairs,
About LONDON (where for the most you beat the mortar well, and let it part, lime is made of chalk) they put lie two or three days, and then beat it about thirty fix bushels of pit raud to well again, when it is to be us'd. twenty five bushels of quick lime, 4. That mortar be us'd as soft as that is, about a bushel and a half of may be in summer time; but prettye fand to a bushel of lime.
flitt or hard in winter. la come piaces they put after the As to mixing and blending of mor. proportion of three pecks of sand to tar, Mr. FELIBIEN observes, that the one butici of lime.
ancient masons were so very scrupu. In effet, the proportion of lime and lous herein, that the Greeks kepe ten fand in making of mortar, ought to be mea conftantly employ'd for a long according to the goodness or badness space of time, to each bason, which of these materials, and is therefore ra- renderest it of such prodigious hardther to be regulated by the judgmeat 'ness, that Vitruvius' tells us, the of experienc'd workmen in each par: pieces of plaisier falling off from old ticular country, than by any faced walls, servid to make tables. proportions of materials.
Aud Mr. FELIBIEN tells us, 'tis a As to the METHOD of making MOR. maxim amung old masons to tell their TAR....Some workmen are of opini. labourers, that they should dilute it on 'tis the best way not to use mor- with the sweat of their brow, i.e. laiar as soon as it is made ; nor (in bour it a long time, inftead of drownmakiag it) to make the lime run be- ing it with water, to have done the fore it is mix'd with the land (as some sooner. do) but rather to throw the land on Mr. WORLIDGE advises, that if the lime while it is in the stones, before you would have your mortar Arong, it is run, and so to mx it together, when you cannot have your choice of and then to wet it; by which means lime, but can chule your fand and (they say, it will be the fronger, and water, not to use that sand that is when it has lain a while beiore it is full of duft ; for all dusty fand makes uz'd, will not be subject to blow and the mortar weaker; and the rounder blifter.
the sand is, the strooger the mortar Others advise, to let mortar (when will be, as is usually observ'd in water made) lie 10 a heap,two or three years drift land ; that it makes better morbefore it is us’d, which they say, will tar than sand out of the pit. Theresender it the stronger and better ; they fore he advises, that if you have occa. likewise say, the using of mortar as fion for extraordinary mortar, to wailz Soon as 'lis inade, is the caule of so your fand in a tub, till the water, after many infufficient buildings.
much stirring comes off clear, and to Otners advise, that in Making of mix that with new lime, and the more lime to wet it every where but a little tar will be very strong and durable. (and not to over wet it) and to cover And if the water be foul, dirty or every laying or bed of lime (about muddy, the mortar will be the weaker. the quantity of a bushel) with land, as WOLFius observes, that the fand you neck it ; that ro the steam or should be dry and harp, so as to prick spirit of the lime may be kept in, and the hands when rubbed ; yet not not fly away, but mix itself with the earthy, so as to foul the water it is sand; which will render the mortar wath'd in. considerably fronger, than if it were He also finds fault with marons and all tlak'd at first, and the fand thrown Bricklayers, as committing a great on altogether ai lafl. 2. Thas all the error,in letting their lime slacken and
cool,"before they make up their mor
more important, he would never have tar, and also, in lecting their portar become a powerful eogine, to Make a cool, and die, before they use it ; great Empire, and to ere& a congeries tberefore, he advices, that if you ex. of Republics, from its dismembered pect your work to be well door, and parts; por could he have had the ap. to continue long, to work up the lime
propriated diftin&tion of being the quick, and but a little at a time, that principal agent, to introduce a new the mortar may not lie long before it
æra, into the history of mankind, which be used.
inay prove as important as any which So illat it appars, men differ in the's
have yet elapsed, by procuring a le opinions in this point ; some affirming gislative power to the western beri it to be best to work op the mortar (phere.--In this view, he may be con new, and other, not till it has lain'a fidered as a greater enemy toEoglan long time. A certain author tells us, that an
than even Philip II. or Louis XIV
His love of science marked his ea experienced Mason told him, that be.
ly years ; and as if no event of his li ing at work at Er!DGE-PLACE, (at
was destined to be unimportant, thi the Lord ABERGAVENY's) at FARIT
which caused him to quit Boston a inSussix, they would have him make settle in Philadelphia, brought him i use of mortar, that had been made
to a wider sphere of action, and plac four years. But when he came to try him in a more respe&able fituation, it, he said it was good for nothing, be- had, however, palled the meridian cause it was so very had that there of life, before he rendered himself a was no tempering it. Upon which a
ip cuous as a politician. As his in certain Jesuite (wlio resided in the ence became extensive, it was exei house, and had been a great traveller) to inculcate among the feople the told bim, that to his knowledge, at tucs of frugal ty, temperance and feveral places beyond sea, they always duftly; and all his labours were kept their mortar 20 years,before they rected to advance the essential used it ; put ia cisterus for the purpose, selts of humaniiy. and always moit.”
Trammelled in no syftem, he ma (To be continued.)
said to be a philosopher without
rules, a polician without adoptin Anecdotical notices of Dr. Franklin, Roman pandects, and a ftate irim iba Wifi minfler Magazine. without having sacrificed to th
HIS man, who for many years
ces : pofseffing a diverfity of a carried on the business of a without a versatility of temper. Printer ac Philadelphia, may be cen.
Such was the man, thoughtfu fidered as the firit fruits of American Liberate, collected and circumspe gegius : and perhaps no man ever who, when more than seventy owed more to the time and place of of age,appeared at theCourt of F his birth: had be been a native of firft, as an Agent, and afterwa London instead of Boson, and born a Plenipotentiary, from the new into the same rank of society, the
rican States. All ranks vie world would probably have never each other, in paying their co heard his naine either as a philosopher this hoary beaded Sage. or politician. Pent within a populous Among the subjects of an a city, his occupation would have been monarch, it became fashionabi more laborious, aud bis incentives to mire the spirit of freedom, cultivate speculative science, would
new member of the CORPS have been ruppressed by every cog- MATIQUE. Public admiration fideration of intereft or ambition. He ever, is no proof of merit ; the might have distinguished himself as an lous frequently obtain it, wh ingenious author; but he would nei- denied to the wise. His nego ther have formed an Hypothefis to with the Court of France, account for the phænomanon of the vocommon abilities, and tha AURORA BOREALIS, nor have traced succeeded in the arduous work out the principles and operations of that during his long life, he ha the elearic Auid ; and what is much tically Auded the Philosophy