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Account of Bethlehem in Pennsylvania.

279 placed above 100 beds, regularly dir- This particnlar account of the fingle pored in four ranges, two on each lifters Hoase has anticipated my obsorfide, ro as to leave a clear walk in the vations upon that of the single men; middle; this room has an open win- indeed they are both built upon the dow at each end, which serve as ven. same plan, and in general the same tilators ; a large lamp is suspended ceconomy observed ; what is most refrom the centre of the Cieling, with an markable in the latter, is the want of opening over it to let out its smoke. that extreme neatness ro much adTwo young women watch here every mired in the former. This want of night ; this duty is performed in ro- neatness in the men's apartments tation, so that each undergoes ao arises, principally, from a reclution equal Mare of fatigue.

from the females, and I think proves After your curiosity has been gra- the advantage, if not the neceility of tified by a fight of these appartments, a social intercourse between the sexes. it is their constant cuftom to lead yon We made but a thort visit to the ininiinto a room, where a number of wo- fter's house, there being nothing a men are buried in embroidery, and bout it that merits particular attenother delicate work. Here they spread tion, except the garden ; which was before you many neat and curious laid out on the declivity of a steep bill, pieces of nun's work; and so great is but has been made quite level by the the general admiration of every thing industry and indefatigable persevebelonging to this enchanting spot, rance of the single fifers ; who, with that few depart without purchasing their own hands, railer! the lower part some tribe or other, and are perfeitly many feet. satisfied at paying double its value. Each of the public buildings has 2

Such is the fingle fifter's House ; large garden, where nature maintains neatness and fimplicity are its peculiar her place, and fuffers no encroachcharacteristicks, and piety and induftryment from her handmaid art. We atdiftinguish its inhabitants ; but not tended them at their devotions in the withfanding the pleasure received church. This is built with the - from this vifit, I cannot say that I fame disregard to ornamental archiformed a fingle wila to partake of such tecture as the rest of the town; about a life; they do not appear happy. twenty, paintings, representing the

To them the luxuriant valley and the principal passages of our Saviour's romantick river seem to have 110

life, are hung upon the walls ; but, charms; the want of exercise and a that ir mould not appear that they continual sedentary occupation has were placed there rolely with a view given their countenances a most death.

to ornament the building, they are like paleness. Their dress, though without frames, even of the simplest perfectly neat, does not at all serve io kind. The service was in German, adorn their persons. Their habit is a

and you may suppose, not very edify. Thort waistcoat which covers the neck, ing to me ; but the ofic was excel*and a petticoat of white linnen ; their lent ; this being; if I may be allowed hair is carried back from the forehead, the expression, the language of nature, covered by a linnen cap of a moft on- and addrested to the feelings, is intelbecoming form ; contrived to set close ligible to every nation. The church to the head, to cover the ears, and tye is built near the single fuiter's house, under the chin, their only ornament and the paffage between t'iem is inis a plain strip of mulin of about two clored with a very high wali, that the inches wide, surrounding the head and women may go into the church untyed in a small bow behind; this I call observed. "Tue feats for the neen are their only ornament, for though the diftin&t from those of the women, and caps of the fingle women are tied vn. this attention to keeping the lexes ao der the chin with a red ribbon, and, part from each other is ohrerved even those of the married women with blue, after death ; for even the buying yet I found this was not intended as ground is divided into two parts; one an ornament, but merely as a d. fin. for the males, and the other for the goishing badge.

females. This repo:ory of the dead NR.

ia

is laid out with the most exact uni. fion is made for them in the young formity, into beds of turí of about se- men's house. ven fett in length. It is the custom Industry is no less a characteriftic of upon the death of any member of the men than of the women. They Their fociety, to place the body in a have established a brewery for strong imall building at the corner of the beer, which they sell to a profit, lower burying ground, till certain marke down the river ; they have a fulling of putreiaction take place ; then the mill, an oil mill, and moft handicraft body is interred in one of these beds. trades are carried on here. They are The smallest infant is allowed the

exceedingly ingenious, and well verfame space wito the tallest adult, to sed in the principles of Mechanicks ; avoid breaking in upon their much the water works are a proof of this. loved regularity. Perhaps you have A stream of water turns a large wheel 10 idea or childien in this fociety, or with great rapidity, which, working of the distinction between married and four forcing pumps, raises a body of single filters ; the keeping the sexes water into a reservoir more than 100 fo entirely seperate you look upon as feet high; from this the water is conan insuperable bar to marriage, in. veyed, by leaden pipes, into every ceed this is one of their most peculiar house in the town. There useful works customs. Their ministers or priets were contrived and executed by a ruie over them with an unbounded German, one of the society, and fo Iway, and their decisions are regarded fimple is the machinery, that they as infallibly tending to the best. It is have continued free from obftru&ion, the custom for the abbess to inquire and without needing repair, upwards of the women if any of them with to of thirty years. marry; the minister does the same

Thus I have given you as accurate with the men. The names of the can. and just an account of every thing redidates are placed on iwo lifts, and markable in this place, as my fhort the first of eich list proposed as com- acquaintance here will allow ; you panions for life ; is the parties do not

may depend upon it I have not exageapprove of the proposed match, they

rated in a fingle instance, but have hivua right to dillent ; but have no

given you plain truths, with my real other choice till the next is formed.

sentiments upon them. We expect to This privilege of refusal is seldom ex- be detained here a few days longer; if, ercised. So great is their veneration during that time, I can colleat any of the commands of their superiors, and so form is their reliance upon

particulars of the history of this settie

ment, and of their principal tenets, you Providence, 'that they think the perfons thus pointed out mun be, in eve.

may depend upon my communicating

them to you. Ty relpecl, befit suited lo them. I am informed there has never happened an johance of an

I be following observations were unhappy marriage. This must arre, in a great metsure written by a gentleman for from ineir high sense of duty; for we

bis cten inspection, without cannot íupfoie, inai persons thus arbitrarily joined can feel any love for any thought of their meeting each other. As soon as a couple is ibe eye of the public, and are married, the rocery build them a finall houle, and advance fome money

printed at the request of the to enable them to maintain a family. friend, who defired him to Their children pass the first years of clieir lite with ther parents, and are

employ his mind upon the subinllructed at the public school. At a

ject. proper age the girls are admitted a

The author begs that they may be mong the fogle shers, and the boys are appienticed to various trades ; considered, rather as observebut, till marriage, the greater proportion of the fruits of their induftry

tions upon the question, than is added to the public funds, as provi

a full answer io it.

or burtful to mankind ?

281

I

..... Nec fit terris

ture of sugars, indigo, coffee, &c. Ultima Thule.

Seneca. and by the exportation of these, and Q. Has the discovery of America

various other natural productions, with been useful or hurtful to mankind ?

which these fertile regions abound.

On the Northea Continent, the N answering this question, man.

English Celonists have derived advan

tages from the furs and fimeries of a general view, or as distinguished

those immense regions, as well as by into several classes, viz.

the culture of corn, rice, tobacco, &c. The emigrants from Europe to the breeding of cattle, and the manuAmerica, and their pofterity.

fadure of iron. The inhabitants of the Old World,

It has been supposed that the trade The Aboriginal Americans, and

in lumber, has been greatly serviceable The Negroes of Africa and the

to the Northern Colonies, but except. advantages, or disadvantages, either

ing that which is cut and drawn in COMMERCIAL, POLITICAL OR MORAL,

the winter: the lumber trade has been which have arisen to each class, must

rather a damage, as ti e spring, which be diftin&tly Atated.

on account of the swelling of the rivers To mankind in general, considered

is the proper time for sawing boards, as subjects of their Creator, and ob.

is also the time for inclofing and preservers of his works, it may be said,

paring the fields for seed, the benefit that the discovery of America, has

arising from which, far exceeds that produced benefits of a philosophical

from the exportation of lumber. Since kind. It has given them more

1775, it has been found by experience fublime apprehenfions of the works of

that the fopping of the lumber trade, God, by leading them the better to

has driven the people to the cultivatiunderftand the frame and balancing,

on of their lands, which has much im. of the terraqueous globe, by opening

proved their substance, and rendered to their view, many species of anim is

the necessaries of life more plenty.

Wherever the lumber trade is followed and vegetables, with which they were before vnacquainted, with the wise

to the exclusion of the husbandry, the and bountifulajprovision, which the people are more dependent for their author of nature has made for their living, and more depraved in their preservation and defence. It has

morals, than where husbandry is the proved the source of many learned

principal employmeot. enquiries, in which the human under

The trade of America has been inftanding has been exercised and ing.

timately connected with that of Europe. proved. It has also enriched the me- All the produétions of America, have dical art with divers valuable acquisi

brought COMMERCIAL ADVANTAGES tions before unknown. In a word, the

into the hands of the EUROPEANS. The discovery of America has much enlarg

fisheries, the furs, the sugars, the toed the field of science, and there is yet

bacco, the indigo, the corn of the new ample scope for the lons of science to

world, have filled the European mar. ezpatiate in, and make new disco- kets; and the gold and silver drawa veries for ages to come.

from the mines of America, have cirBut let us attend to the abovemen. culated thro' Europe, and rendered tioned diftinctions.

those precious metals more common The principal view of the EUR CPEAN

and easy to be procured. In some EMIGRANTS.. in coming to America,

instances herhaps, these treasures have was to obtain COMMERCIAL ADVAN

been misapplied. Charles sth. by the

afliltance of his American revenue, TAGES, and they have in a great de. gree been successful. In SouthAmerica,

extinguished the last gleam of liberty the Spaniards, and Portuguese have

in Caftile. Burgundy fell under the found immense mines of gold, silver

weight of the same power, in the hands apd diamonds, with which they have

of Philip 2d. The kingdom of Spain greatly enriched themselves. In the

has been drained of inhabitants, and ilands and on some parts of the Con

its cultivation and manufactures greattinent, the English, French and Dutch

ly impaired, by means of its connexion have raised great fortuges by the cul wish America, but the other maritime nations of Europe, have enriched them terposition of the Arms of France. felves thereby, America has been a The door of Liberty being opened, market for every species of European and the atterr.pts to shut it defeated, manufacture or production, and, by

nations exhibited

it will be wide enough to receive all the influence, which ihe European

who for succeeding generations may governments have had over their A- reek an Assylum on these Western mer can Culonies, the advantages of Mores. The best part of the Amerithis trade have been made to centre can Terra Fırma, is yet-not only un in Europe, so that tho' the American cultivated, but unappropriated. If it planter has been growing rich by cul- mould be granted in large tra&s, to tivating and exporting the productions private persons it may of them be of the new World, the European mer. purchased at such easy rates as will chant guarded by the laws of his invite enrigrants from every part of country, has drawn that additional Europe. wealth into his own coffers, which the

The transition from political to American might have accumulated,

MORAL advantages is natural and eaif his commerce had not been under sy... Literature and Liberty have a such reftrations.

vast influence in forming men to rati. By means of the American commerce onal religion and good manners. and naval ftores, the Acets of Europe This influence is felt in the North A. have been immensely increased, and

merican States. The mistaken notithe navalspecies of defence has been ons of intolerance are exploded. No so vastly improved as even to decide persecuting (werd is drawn againft the superiority of nations.

Hereticks. No Councils thunder their The trade on the western side of A- Anathemas. No Inquisition searches merica, has not proved su extensively Hell lor torments. No inequality of advantageous as on the eaftern. One Seets and Parties is allowed, but the or two pipe only paffing annually,be. Government savours all equally whose tween the Afian islands and the new principles and pra&ice are not deftrucContinent.

tive of it. In this respect the descenWith respect to POLITICAL advan- dants of the first Fmigrants have imtages or disadvantages..-It must be proved on the principles of their emi. acknowledged that the European e- gration, and have established more migrants carried the Laws, Cuftoms, Fully,that Liberty which was the proManners and Prejudices of their na

fefled object of their fearch. tive countries w'th them. The Span.

The Catholic air of this climate has iards translated Despotism and the In

infuence

on foreigners. quifition and both they and the They imbibe the generous spirit of the French carried their Monaftic Infti country and improve their native tutions into the new World, where principle of philanthropy perhaps, to Liberty and Population ought to have a much greater degree, than if they been the principal objects of their had remained in Europe.

The English inhabitants of the But what effe A have these politiNothern Continent, though fubje& to cal and moral advantages, or disad. the charge of transporting their Eu- vantages, on the ABORIGINAL AMETopean prejudices have enjoyed more RICANS? freedom by their early and effettual In the Kingdom of Peru, at the

to the enabl flment of Spanish Invasion, there was as fair an S hools and Seminaries. Literature opeding for the cultivation and im. has been diffused, prejudices eradica- provement of the benevolent princited and exploded ; juff ideas of Law, ples of religion, as perhaps ever was Liberty and Government eftablifhed, offered. How caly would it have and a warch ful jealousy maintained been by gentle infinuation to have Oi er the encroachments of arbitrary transferred the homage of the Peruvi. power; and the attempts to enforce it ans, from the fun to its author; and to have been nobly, perseveringly and have Mewn them that the reason and fuccessfully repelled. They owe grourd of their Philanthropy, needed however much of their late success to only to be traced up to a higher the seasonable and well directed in- source. But the sanguinary terrors

an

even

care.

attention

or burtful to mankind ?

283 exhibited by their Conquerers have Will the Europeans who have taftmoft effettually prejudiced them a- ed the sweets of refined luxury and gainst their Religion. Tyranny has extensive commerce, forced out of the in this instance proved an antidote to earth by the labour of the unhappy Superftition.

Naves, permit the restoration of them It was one part of the profeffed de- to their native country, or disallow Sigo of settling America, to endeavour the future transportation of them? the conversion of the natives, and it Not so long as the love of gain is such must not be forgot that some very zeal- a prevailing principle in the human ous and well meant endeavours have mind. But has not the American Con. been used, by men who had neither greis advanced a step in this desirable wealth nor power in view. But it is reformation? Is not the future impor. equally true that the numbers who tation of blacks, by their solemn alt have been converted from Paganism prohibited ? Let us wait till time and to the rational worship of the Deity, experience hall prove this regulation and a regular practice of morality, is as politic, as it is juft. not by far equal to those, who have Shall we liberate those who are al. either retained their native fuperftiti- ready here? Justice would plead for ons, or changed them for fome more the measure, but let justice be guided glittering and refined. The Ameri• by wisdom and benevolence. The caps have more fancy than judgment, aged nave, who has exhaufted his their ancient prejudices are fixed and ftrength in the service of a master, has inveterate; and they are jealous of the a natural claim on him, for a support attempts of strangers to remove them: during the remainder of his life ; hav. nor are they void of penetration, for ing never been used to provide for himwhile they see diversities of opinions self in his younger years, he is now too among those who call themselves old to learn that art ; having always Christians and some of the more zeal. been under the restraints of authority, ous endeavouring to propagate the hę would scarcely koow how to go. peculiarities of their respezive seats vern him elf. Lettnele therefore expeamong them, they are ready to say, rience the lenity of a gradual release « Go Christians, and agree among from their labours, but let the hand u yourselves what Religion is, be- which has upheld them all along, not ut fore you pretend to teach it to us." be allowed to withdraw its support

The N-GĦORS OF AFRICA have from their infirm old age. Let the exper enced the moft fatal Disap. young and vigorous be indulged with VANTAGES by the discovery of Ame- the prospea of freedom, at a certaia rica. Before that event, they either age, but let care be taken, that this enjoyed domestic peace, or if taken freedom do not plunge them into licaptive in war, were sacrificed at once centiousness. Let there be not only at the Mrine of vi&orious despotism. wages, but rewards for industry, and But the AURI SACRA FAMES has chan- let ihe return to savery, be the sancged their fate ; the wars which belore tion of these laws, whose direa end is rarely raged among them have been the preservation of their liberty, and increased, and the defire of taking their morals. By some indulgence of victims for Mammon exceeds the hor- their native inclinations, to mirth and sid thirst of blood. They are deftin. festivity on proper occasions, their laed to be transported to the American bours might be so sweetned, that they Illands, and finger out a wretched might never have reason to complain life in servitude. Iands ! did I say? of their transportation from another ---An, the American continent, and country, and even in time their pofthat part of it, where the love of Li- terity, might lose the remembrance berty has burned with a bright Mame, of it. is tinged with the horrid inconfftency

What Mall be done to civilize and of fighting for its own Liberty with improve the morals of the SAVAGE one haod, and holding fast its navés AMERICANS? with the other !

If we are to judge from experience, a How shall these disadvantages be plan similar to that adopted by the remedied?

Jesuits in Paraguay bids the faireft

for

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