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Mations of the earth continue to behold their full confidence. But it is plain with admiration!

that this confidence cannot last long, It was said, that in a free republic, unless their be the fame ability of the It became important, that they, who subje&s to judge of the propriety of were governed, mould approve of the public measures, which firft produced measures of their rulers. This appro- their approbation. · These qualificatibation, must be the result of judgment ons for judging muf diminish or in or implicit confidence. Judgment, creare, in the proportion to the ftate pre-supposes knowlege, and this kind of knowlege, among the main body of of knowlege, must be acquired by a the people, and this, we have fewny free examination of the proceedings will have a very close connexion with of government, which seems to be the the encouragement given to the suponly way of obtaining it. The utility Port of grammar schools, in each of the public newspapers has been great town of the Commonwealth. in this view, by those, the moft remote prasant in the Commonwealth, reinrning from the field, has been in. On Man.---- his present fiate, ftructed in the proceedings of the Hale; upon them, he converses freely and future destination. at home with his family and associates, and returning to the plough, they be IT fecumh, tohle See existence of man come the subject of his meditation, These were the causes, which produ. in his present imperfc& fate, thought ced, the attention to politics, which

attended with many infirmities, and has so universally prevailed in the subject to a very great variety of cas United States. These very men, who la mities, is upon the whole, a privia have been the pillars of the State,and ledge ; and that were the period of hu: the guardians of its rights, but, for, mon life to terminate his existencé,no the inftrution of public towa schools, io juftice would be done him, since the would probably, bave been so igoo. som of his enjoyment upon the whote tant of letters, as not to have been

muft have been in his favour able to read a common newspaper. Were it, on the contrary, efablith. Since the war began, these schools

ed, that the amount of natural evit in have been neglected, so that bút few the world, was more than sufficient towos have any such among them; to equipo aderate with the good, it from this omission, many valuable men would necessarily follow, that an all! will be loft to the community, who

wile and infinitely juft Creator, muft wight have thone with lustre, in the have designed a furure flate as the senate, forurn, or desk.

only means left for compensating his But, wisat patriot does not tremble creatures for the fufferings of the at the prospect ? Wiren a few men

paft. Mall p offers the learning, the wealth, It is repugnant to every idea of rece did the control of their fellow citi. titude, to create a being whose exiftzeds, who, by their own inattention, ence muft necessarily, upon the whole, have fuffered themselves to get into be productive of a redundancy of evil. the power of thore, who will forever If therefore, in this life the existence be retain and support the of man is generally a scene of such diftin&tion, occafiuned by the impro- miseries, as render it an evil instead of vidence and indiscretion of their an- a bləlling, linser the certainty of a cestors ?

future flate. That one of the stronge Implicit confidence in the rectitude est arguments in favour of such a ftare; of those who legitlate, and execute the is to be drawn from this fource, I am affairs of state, can hardly be conceive fully of opinion, and though I fall in ed, unless it exist in an absolute go- eftabl Ming the truth, as a basis for vernment, or in a fate which was such arguments, combat the general ouce free, to eximine for themselves, sentiments of mankind on the subject, and who, from long experieace of the I presume no candid enquirer after wisdom and goodies of their rulers, truth will condemn me for placing han confirmed their proceedings with ibc subject in a clear point of vient


The hus

On Man.

179 and Aripping it of those concealment' It allows that the period most void of which the consent of men seems to reason is the mot happy, that is the have cloached it with.

least miserable. Does not the same In this in veftigation I shall carea principle of reasoning admit, that a fully avoid the common place lan- iotal absence of reason is the summit guage of disappointment and cynis of negative happiness ; that is, is not cím, and tail endeavour to take a at all miserable. - This is to be confifair and impartial view o. human life: dered only as affecting the feelings of And let me here once for all be per- the mind, because from these feelings mitted to observe, that general laws the comparison of happiness in the are to be investigated folely from ge- first, and the more advanced ftages aeral facts; and that in our present was drawn. · It seems then, that the defigo, a juft eftimate is to be form. common observation of men has proed ONLY from a general view of man, duced a general agreement, before as affected by the influence of namu- they were aware of it, that the nearer ral evil in the world; I shall even they approached to non-existence, the leave out of the estimate the infinite greater freedom they enjoyed from variety of human ills which are the the natural evils of life ; for what is copfequence of vicious indulgences. the new born infant but a mere auto

It fee:ns necessary, in the prosecu- mation, totally void of any other tion of our euquiry, to confider the ideas than those which arise fimply circumstances of man, in the several from sensation ? Is the vital priaciple Aages of life, which I Mall divide into airy tving more than action and re-aco Intancy, Childhood, Youth, Adult tion, is this principle in the least deAge, and Old Age.

gree attended, in the firft moments of The two firit of these have perhaps life, wirli more reason than the brutal ia all ages been generally conceived as creation ? Certainly not. the happiest periods of human exift- man animal acquires ideas in the fame ence, as being free from care, from manner, only seems capable of great 70xiety and solicitude, confequently er degrees of improvemeni. Jafancy not attended with all that long trair and childhood then, are those two of anticipated evils which perpetually periods of human life, at which our infeft us in the more advanced periods. ípecies are neareft on a level with what This is at least an implicit acknow. we call the irrational species of beings, ledgment, that if happiness is not to and at which the greatest share of hapa be found in infancy and childhood, it piness is enjoyed. must be very difficult to determine Let us now enquire how far hapwhere to search for it. All mankind piness extends in the first period of feen readily to agree in this senti- lise. mént ; what is more frequent than Here it is highly probable, that to call those our happiest days which neither pleasure nor pain, can be said were the neareft our infancy, and to affect the mind; the whole fource which were the moft thoughtless and of both then is to be sought forin fentrifling? What is more common than fation, or in those ideas which are toto tell a child, he will never be fo hap- tally dependent on the affection of the py in any future age as the present. corporeal organs. To be more miIs it possible that man, with all the pute then, the question here is, wheboasted aid of reason, Mould place ther the mere animal sensations are human happiness in that part of life, mostly pleafurable, or on the contrary which is the moff deftitute of reason?' painful? The gratification of an appe. Are all the manly faculties of the tite for food, seenis evidently to confoul then to be cast away as of no Aitute the greater part of enjoyment Weight in the estimate of human hapo at this age. Whether the natural cir. piness, or rather are they to be ac- cumstances attendant on the appetite counted as acting against it? What is may jualy

callent an enjoyment, this fame acknowledgment or general let him whe confiders that the degree consent, bot admitting the fa èt, that of it is greater or less, in proportion limiting our views to the present life, to the uneasiness previously occafioned ous exiftence is on the whole an evilo by hunger, impartially answer. If


too frequent repetition of feeding an large, who hear of colleges like pålainfant is made use of, it palls the re. ces devoted to learning, of princely lith and diminishes the enjoyment, cfares bequeathed for the support of why but because oo space is admitted professors, of public libraries, and for the produdion of a senfation of schools for every science, are disposed hunger. If hunger is not allowed to to view the confecrated place in exift, there will be no enjoyment. which they abound, with peculiar The rel:th is always the greateft,whea veneration. Accidental visitors also, the hunger has been the most keen. who behold the superb dining halls, What then is the taking of food in an the painted cbapels, the luxuriou s infant, more than a negative enjoy. common rooms, the elegant chamment? That is, a means of removing bers, and a race of mortals, in a pethe painful sensation of hunger? For culiar dress, ftrutting through ihe here we are not to take into confider- ftreets with a solemn air of impor-. ation the refined arts of cookery, tance ; when they see all the doctors, wbich would even be a new source both the proctors, with all the heads of evil to the tender infant. Our by- of colleges and halls, in Colemo profiness is only concerning that fuften- ceffion, with their velvet fleeves,scarance which answers the purposes of · let gowns, hoods, black, red, and pure fimple nature, for nature undirguised ple--cannot but be struck with the is the object of our enquiry. We seem

appearance, and are naturally led to Row so far to have balanced the ac. conclude, that here, at length, wisdom, count, and have nothing to carry te science, learning, and whatever else the credit of happiness, again At the al is praise-worthy, for ever Aourish and moft infinite variety of bodily pains, abound. to which the tender infant is by the Without entering into an in vidious dela acy of his frame subjected. and particular examination of the sub-'

The body seems in this fate, to be jeat, we may cursorily observe, that susceptible of a thousand pains and after all this pompous oftentation, and tortures, with but a lingie avenue for this profuse expence, the public has a gratification, which scarcely can de- not, of late at least, been indebted ferve the name of pleasure. Who for the greatest improvements in scicould think of attributing happiness ence ani learning, to all the doctors, to lo weak and defenceless a being both the proctors, nor to all the heads as this!

of colleges and halls laid together. (To be continued.)

That populous univerfity, London, and that region of literary labour, Scotland, have seized every palm of

literary honour, and left the sons of Ejay on tbe English Universi- Oxford and Cambridge to enjoy fub

ftantial comforts, in the smoke of the ties.

common or combination room. The OR

UR English universities are beld bursar's books are the only manu.

in high eftem among foreign. fcripts of any value produred in many ers; and, indeed, coofidering ine colleges; and the sweets of pensions, number of great men, who have re-exhibitions, fines, fellow seips, and ceived a part of their education in perry offices, the chief objects of acathem, and their opulent establish demical pursuit. ments of colleges and professorships, If I were to enter into the many they are really respectable. I have laughable absurdities of college life therefore been the more disposed to and univerfity inftirutions, as they lament, that the public exercises now ftand, I thould exceed the limits should be so futile and absurdgas tode. of my paper. It is my intention at serve not only the severity of ceofure, present only to acquaint the public but the futmott poignancy of ridi- with the exercises, which one celebracule.

ted seat of the muses requires, of thole * Reverence, it has been jully re- who seek the envied honour of a malmarked, is always eacreared by the ter of arts degree. I speak not from diftance of the object. The world at displeasure or resentment; but volun.


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English Universities.

18 tarily incor the odium of many per. and insignia of Sophs ; but not before fons attached by interest and connec- they they have been formally created tions to the universities, with no other by one of the regent-masters, before motive, thao the defire of removing whom they kneel, while he lays a vothe disgrace of those noble eftablish- lume of Aristotle's works on their meats, by exposing the futility of the heads, and puts or a hood, 4 piece exercises to public animadverfion. of black crape, hanging from their

The youth, whose heart pants for necks, and down to their heels; which the honour of a Bachelor of Arts de

crape, it is exprellly ordained by a gree, muft wat patiently till near statute made and provided, thall" be four years have revolved.

But this plain, and unadorned either with wool time is not to be spent idly. No ; he or with fur. is obliged, during this period, once to And this work done, a great prooppose, and once to respond, in dir- greis is made towards the wiMed for putations keld in the public schools... honour of a bachelor's degree. There á formidable found, and a dreadful remain only one or two trifing forms, idea ; but, on closer attention, the and another difputation almost exa&. fear will vanih, and contempt suppłyly fimilar to doing generals, bu: callest its place..

aufwering under bachelor, previous This oppofing and refponding is to the awful examination. termed, in the cant of the place, do. Every candidate is obliged to be ing generals. Two boys, or men, as examined in the whole circle of the they call themselves, agree to do ge- fciences by three masters of arts, of nerals together. The firft liep in this his own choice. The examination is mighty work is to procure arguments. to be held in one of the public schools, There are always handed down, from and to continue from pine o'clock generation to generation, on long till eleven. The mafters take a most dips of paper, and consist of foolit folemn oath, that they will examine Syllogisms on fool. M subjects, of the properly andımpartially. Dreadful formation or the signification of which, as all this appears, there is always the respondent and opponent seldom found to be more of appearance in it know more than an infant in rwad. than reality ; for the greatest dunce dling cloaths. The next step is to go usually gets his teftimonium "ligned for a liceat to one of the perry officers, with as much cach anu credit as the called the Regent Master of the finest genias. The manner of pro. Schools, who subscribes his name to ceeding is as follows: The poor young the questions, and receive fix pence as man to be exaipined in the sciences, bis fee. When the important day often knows no more of them than arrives, the two doughry difputanis his bedmaker, and the masters who go into a large dusty room, full of dirt examine are sometimes equally unac and cobwebs, with walls and wain- quainted with fuch myfteries. But scot decorated with the names of for schemes, as they are called, or little mer disputants, who, to divert the books, containing forty or fifty, queftitedious hours, cut out Their names ons on each science, are handed down, with their penkoives, or wrote verses from age to age, from one to another. with a pencil. Here they fit in mean The candidate to be examined emdeiks, oppofite to each other, from ploys three or four days in learning one o'clock till three. Not once in a there by heart, and the examiners, hundred times does any officer enter ; having done the same Before him and, if he does, he hears one syllogism when they were examined, know or two, and then makes a bow, and what questions to ask, and so all goes, deparıs, as he came, and remained, in on (inoothly. When the candidate folema silence The disputants then has displayed his universa! knowledge return to the amorement of cutting of the fciences; he is to display his the desks, carving their names, or fill in philology. One of the masters, reading Sterne's Sentimental Journey; therefore, delires him to confrue a or some edifying novel. When this paffage in rome Greek or Latin classic, exercise is duly performed by both which he does with no interruption, parties, they have a right to the title jult as he pleares, and as well as he

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çan. The flatptes next require, that do austins, he nut declaim twice, he
he should iranslate familiar English must read fix folemo le&ures, aod be
phrases into Latin. And now is the must be again examined in the sci-
time when the masters Mew their wit ences, before he can be promoted to
and jocularity: Droll questions are the degree of Master of Arts.
put on any subiect, and the puzzled None but the initiated can know
Candidate furn Mes diversion by his what determining, doing quodlibets,
auk ward embarrassment. I have and doing aufins mean. I have not
known the questions on this occafion room to enter into a minute descrip-
to confilt of an enquiry into the pe- tion of such contemptible minutix.
digree of a race-horse. And it is a Let it be sufficient to say, that these
coirmon question, after asking what exercises confift of disputations, and
is the summum banum of various feats the disputations of syllogisms, pro-
of philosophers, to ask what is the cured and uttered nearly in the same
fummum bonum, or chief good,among places, time and manner, as we havo
Oxoniaus; to which the answer is already seen them in doing generals.
tuch as Minermus would give. This There is, however, a great deal of
familiarity, however, only takes place trouble in little formalities, such as
when the examiners are pot compa. procuring fix penny liceats, ficking
nions of the candidate, wirich indeed up the names on the walls, fitting in
is usuaily the cale ; for it is reckoned large empty rooms by yourself, of
good management to get acquainted with some poor wight as ill employed
with two or three jolly young mailers as yourself, without any thing to say
of arts, and supply them well with or do, wearing boods, and a little
port, previously to the examination, piece of lambskin with the wool on
If the vice-chancellor and prostors ii, and a variety of other particuları
bappen to enter the school, a very too tedious apdioo tribing to enumer.
uncommoli event, then a solemnity

is put on, very much to the confusi- The declamations would be an afe-
on of the millers, as well as of the fulexercise, if it were not always per-
boy, who is sitting in the little box formed in a careless and evalve man-
oppofie to them.

As peither the ner. The ledures are always called officer, nor any one else, usually en- Wall Lectures, because the ledurer ters the room flor it is reckoned very has no other audience but the walls. ungenteel), the examiners and the Indeed ne usually steals a sheet o candidates often converse on the last two of Latin out of some old book drirking-bout, or on horses, or read no matter on what subject, though the newspaper, or a novel, or divert ought to be on natural philosoph themselves as well as they can in any Toese he keeps in his pocket, in o manner, till the clock strikes eleven, der to take them out and read awa when all parties defcent, and the tel- if a proćłor should come in ; timonium is signed by the masters. otherwise, he fits by himself, and With this testimonium in his pofleflion laces himself with a book, not fr the candidate is sure of success. The the Bodleian but the circulating day in which the honour is to be con• brary. ferred arrives ; be appears in the The examination is performed Convocation house, he takes an abunadly in the saine manner as be dance of oaths, pays a sum of money described ; and, though represe in fecs, and, after kneeling down be- as very formidable, is such an fore the vice chancellor, and whisper- as a boy from a good school ju ing a lie, rises up & Bachelor of tered, night go through as well Arts.

ter'a seven years residence. And now, if he aspires at higher however, reside ; for the majori honours (and what emulous (pirit can what are called term-trotters fit down without aspiring at them?) is, persons who only keep the new labours and new dimiculties are for form fakç, or spend fix or to be encountered during the space weeks in a year in ihe univers of three years.

He mult determine quality them for degrees, acc in Leat, he mus do quodlibets, de mult to che letter of the statutcs.

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