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57. So on the morrowe the mayde them 65. This was the hontynge off the Cheviat, byears
that tear begane this spurn, off birch and hasell so g[r]ay;
Old men that knowen the grownde Many wedous, with wepyng tears,
well yenoughe cam to fache ther makys' away.
call it the battell of Otterburn. 58. Tivydale may carpe? off care,
66. At Otterburn begane this spurne Northombarlond may mayk great uppone a Monnynday;
Ther was the doughtë Doglas slean, mon, For towe such captayns as slayne wear
the Persë never went away. thear, on the March-parti’ shall never be 67. Ther was never a tym on the Marche
sen the Doglas and the Persë met, 59. Word ys commen to Eddenburrowe,
But yt ys mervele and the rede blude to Jamy the Skottische kynge,
ronne not, That dougheti Duglas, lyff-tenant of
as the reane? doys in the stret. the Marches,
68. Jhesue Crist our balys bete!" he lay slean Chyviot within.
and to the blys us brynge!
Thus was the hountynge of the Chiv60. His handdës dyd he weal" and wryng,
yat: he sayd, “Alas, and woe ys me!
God sent us alle good endying!
BONNIE GEORGE CAMPBELL 61. Worde ys commyn to lovly Londone,
Hie upon Hielands till the fourth Harry our kynge,
And low upon Tay
Bonnie George Campbell
Rade out on a day.
Saddled and bridled
And gallant rade he; 62. "God have merci on his solle," sayde
Hame came his gude horse,
But never cam he!
Out cam his auld mither londe," he sayd,
Greeting fu' sair, 10 "as good as ever was he:
And out cam his bonnie bride But, Persë, and I brook my lyffe,
Rivin'll her hair. thy deth well quyte shall be.”
Saddled and bridled
And booted rade he; 63. As our noble kynge mayd his avowe,
Toom12 hame cam the saddle, 15 lyke a noble prince of renowen,
But never cam he! For the deth of the lord Persë he dyde the battell of Hombyll “My meadow lies green down;
And my corn is unshorn;
My barn is to big, 13 64. Wher syx and thrittë Skottishe
And my babie's unborn." knyghtes
Saddled and bridled on a day wear beaten down:
And booted rade he; Glendale glytteryde on ther armor Toom hame cam the saddle, bryght,
But never cam he! over castille, towar, and town.
• This line is unintelligible. 7 rain. 8 misfortunes. 1 mates, husbands. ? talk. 3 the border-lands.
10 weeping sorely. . clench.
13 to be built.
the Fourth. The said noble gentlemen inSIR THOMAS MALORY (1400?-1470) stantly required me to imprint the his- (50
tory of the said noble king and conqueror From LE MORTE DARTHUR
king Arthur, and of his knights, with the PREFACE OF WILLIAM CAXTON
history of the Saint Greal, and of the
death and ending of the said Arthur; afAfter that I had accomplished and fin- firming that I ought rather to imprint his ished divers histories, as well of contem- acts and noble feats, than of Godfrey of plation as of other historial and worldly Boloine, or any of the other eight, conacts of great conquerors and princes, and sidering that he was a man born within this also certain books of ensamples and doc- realm, and king and emperor of the same; trine, many noble and divers gentlemen of and that there be in French divers and [60 this realm of England came and demanded many noble volumes of his acts, and also me many and ofttimes, wherefore that I of his knights. To whom I answered, that have not do made and imprint the noble divers men hold opinion that there was no history of the Saint Greal and of the (10 such Arthur, and that all such books as most renowned Christian king, first and been made of him be feigned and fables, chief of the three best Christian, and because that some chronicles make of him worthy, king Arthur, which ought most no mention, nor remember him nothing, to be remembered among us Englishmen nor of his knights. Whereto they antofore all other Christian kings; for it is swered, and one in special said, that in notoriously known through the universal him that should say or think that there 170 world that there be nine worthy and the was never such a king called Arthur, best that ever were, that is to wit three might well be aretted great folly and Paynims, three Jews, and three Christian blindness. For he said that there were
As for the Paynims they were 20 many evidences of the contrary. First tofore the Incarnation of Christ, which ye may see his sepulchre in the monastery were named, the first Hector of Troy, of of Glastingbury. And also in Polichroniwhom the history is come, both in ballad con, in the fifth book the sixth chapter, and in prose; the second Alexander the and in the seventh book the twenty-third Great, and the third Julius Cæsar, Em- chapter, where his body was buried, and peror of Rome, of whom the histories be after found, and translated into the (80 well known and had. And as for the three said monastery. Ye shall see also in the Jews, which also were tofore the incar- history of Bochas in his book De Casu nation of our Lord, of whom the first was Principum part of his noble acts, and also duke Joshua which brought the chil- [30 of his fall. Also Galfridus in his British dren of Israel into the land of behest, the book recounteth his life; and in divers second David king of Jerusalem, and the places of England many remembrances be third Judas Maccabæus. Of these three yet of him and shall remain perpetually, the Bible rehearseth all their noble his- and also of his knights. First in the abbey tories and acts. And since the said incar- of Westminster, at Saint Edward's shrine, nation have been three noble Christian remaineth the print of his seal in red (90 men stalled and admitted through the uni- wax closed in beryl, in which is written versal world into the number of the nine Patricius Arthurus, Britannie, Gallie, Gerbest and worthy. Of whom was first the manie, Dacie, Imperator. Item in the noble Arthur, whose noble acts I pur- [40 castle of Dover ye may see Gawaine's pose to write in this present book here fol- skull and Cradok's mantle: at Winchester lowing. The second was Charlemain, or the Round Table: in other places LaunceCharles the Great, of whom the history is lot's sword and many other things. Then had in many places, both in French and all these things considered, there can no in English. And the third and last was man reasonably gainsay but that there Godfrey of Boloine, of whose acts and life was a king of this land named Arthur. [100 I made a book unto the excellent prince For in all places, Christian and heathen, and king of noble memory, king Edward | he is reputed and taken for one of the
nine worthy, and the first of the three ness, and chivalry. For herein may be Christian men. And also he is more spoken seen noble chivalry, courtesy, humanity, of beyond the sea, more books made of friendliness, hardiness, love, friendship, his noble acts, than there be in England, cowardice, murder, hate, virtue, and [160 as well in Dutch, Italian, Spanish, and sin. Do after the good and leave the evil, Greekish, as in French. And yet of record and it shall bring you to good fame and remain in witness of him in Wales, in the renown. And for to pass the time this town of Camelot, the great stones (110 book shall be pleasant to read in; but for and the marvelous works of iron lying to give faith and belief that all is true that under the ground, and royal vaults, which is contained herein, ye be at your liberty; divers now living have seen. Wherefore but all is written for our doctrine, and it is a marvel why he is no more renowned for to beware that we fall not to vice nor in his own country, save only it accordeth sin, but to exercise and follow virtue, to the Word of God, which saith that no by the which we may come and at- (170, man is accepted for a prophet in his own tain to good fame and renown in this life, country.
and after this short and transitory life to Then all these things aforesaid alleged, come unto everlasting bliss in heaven; I could not well deny but that there (120 the which He grant us that reigneth in was such a noble king named Arthur, and heaven, the blessed Trinity. Amen. reputed one of the nine worthy, and first and chief of the Christian men. And
BOOK XXI many noble volumes be made of him and of his noble knights in French, which I
CHAPTER IV have seen and read beyond the sea, which
HOW BY MISADVENTURE OF AN ADDER THE be not had in our maternal tongue. But
BATTLE BEGAN, WHERE MORDRED WAS in Welsh be many and also in French, and
SLAIN, AND ARTHUR HURT TO THE DEATH some in English, but nowhere nigh all. Wherefore, such as have late been (130 Then were they condescended that king drawn out briefly into English I have after Arthur and Sir Mordred should meet bethe simple conning that God hath sent to twixt both their hosts, and every each of me, under the favor and correction of all them should bring fourteen persons. And noble lords and gentlemen, enprised to im- they came with this word unto Arthur. print a book of the noble histories of the Then said he, I am glad that this is done. said king Arthur, and of certain of his And so he went into the field. And when knights, after a copy unto me delivered, Arthur should depart, he warned all his which copy Sir Thomas Malorye did take host that and they see any sword drawn, out of certain books of French, and re Look ye come on fiercely, and slay (10 duced it into English. And I, accord- (140 that traitor, Sir Mordred, for I in no wise ing to my copy, have done set it in print, trust him. In like wise Sir Mordred to the intent that noble men may see and warned his host that, And ye see any learn the noble acts of chivalry, the gentle sword drawn, look that ye come on fiercely, and virtuous deeds that some knights and so slay all that ever before you standused in those days, by which they came eth: for in no wise I will not trust for this to honor, and how they that were vicious treaty, for I know well my father will be were punished and oft put to shame and avenged upon me. And so they met as rebuke; humbly beseeching all noble lords their pointment was, and so they were and ladies, with all other estates of what agreed and accorded thoroughly; and (20 estate or degree they been of, that (150 wine was fetched, and they drank. Right shall see and read in this said book and so came an adder out of a little heath work, that they take the good and honest bush, and it stung a knight on the foot. acts in their remembrance, and to follow And when the knight felt him stungen, the same. Wherein they shall find many he looked down and saw the adder, and joyous and pleasant histories, and noble then he drew his sword to slay the adder, and renowned acts of humanity, gentle- and thought of none other harm. And
when the host on both parties saw that live, and with Sir Mordred is none on liv sword drawn, then they blew beames, And if ye leave off now, this wicked da trumpets, and horns, and shouted (30 of destiny is past. Tide me death, beti grimly. And so both hosts dressed them me life, saith the king, now I see hir together. And king Arthur took his horse, yonder alone, he shall never escape min and said, Alas, this unhappy day, and so hands, for at a better avail shall I neve rode to his party; and Sir Mordred in like have him. God speed you well, said Si wise. And never was there seen a more Bedivere. dolefuller battle in no Christian land. For Then the king gat his spear in both (90 there was but rushing and riding, foining his hands, and ran toward Sir Mordred, and striking, and many a grim word was crying, Traitor, now is thy death-day there spoken either to other, and many a
And when Sir Mordred heard Sir deadly stroke. But ever king Arthur (40 Arthur, he ran until him with his sword rode throughout the battle of Sir Mordred drawn in his hand. And then king Arthur many times, and did full nobly as a noble smote Sir Mordred under the shield, king should, and at all times he fainted with a foin of his spear throughout the never. And Sir Mordred that day put him body more than a fathom. And when in devoir, and in great peril. And thus Sir Mordred felt that he had his death's they fought all the long day, and never wound, he thrust himself, with the (100 stinted, till the noble knights were laid to might that he had, up to the bur of king the cold ground, and ever they fought still, Arthur's spear. And right so he smote till it was near night, and by that time his father Arthur with his sword holden in was there an hundred thousand laid (50 both his hands, on the side of the head, dead upon the down. Then was Arthur that the sword pierced the helmet and the wroth out of measure, when he saw his brain-pan, and therewithal Sir Mordred people so slain from him.
fell stark dead to the earth. And the noble Then the king looked about him, and Arthur fell in a swoon to the earth, and then was he ware of all his host, and of there he swooned oft-times. And Sir all his good knights, were left no more on Lucan the Butler, and Sir Bedivere, (110 live but two knights, that was Sir Lucan oft-times heaved him up, and so weakly the Butler, and his brother Sir Bedivere, they led him betwixt them both, to a little and they were full sore wounded. Jesu chapel not far from the sea side. And mercy, said the king, where are all my [60 when the king was there, he thought him noble knights becomen? Alas, that ever well eased. I should see this doleful day. For now, Then heard they people cry in the field. said Arthur, I am come to mine end. But Now go, thou, Sir Lucan, said the king, would to God that I wist where were that and do me to wit what betokens that traitor Sir Mordred, that hath caused all noise in the field. So Sir Lucan departed, this mischief. Then was king Arthur ware for he was grievously wounded in (120 where Sir Mordred leaned upon his sword many places. And so as he went, he saw among a great heap of dead men. Now and hearkened by the moonlight, how the give me my spear, said Arthur unto Sir pillers and robbers were come into the Lucan, for yonder I have espied the (70 field to pill and to rob many a full noble traitor that all this woe hath wrought. knight of brooches and beads, of many Sir, let him be, said Sir Lucan, for he is a good ring, and of many a rich jewel; and unhappy; and if ye pass this unhappy day, who that were not dead all out, there ye shall be right well revenged upon him. they slew them for their harness and their Good lord, remember ye of your night's riches. When Sir Lucan understood this dream, and what the spirit of Sir Gawaine work, he came to the king as soon as (130 told you this night, yet God of his great he might, and told him all what he had goodness hath preserved you hitherto. heard and seen. Therefore by mine adTherefore, for God's sake, my lord, leave vice, said Sir Lucan, it is best that we off by this. For, blessed be God, ye (80 bring you to some town. I would it were have won the field, for here we be three on so, said the king.
What sawest thou there? said the king.
Sir, he said, I saw nothing but waves (50 HOW KING ARTHUR COMMANDED TO CAST
and winds. That is untruly said of thee, HIS SWORD EXCALIBUR INTO THE WATER,
said the king; therefore go thou lightly AND HOW HE WAS DELIVERED TO LADIES
again, and do my command, as thou art IN A BARGE
to me lief and dear, spare not, but throw But I may not stand, mine head works it in. Then Sir Bedivere returned again, SO. Ah, Sir Launcelot, said king Arthur, and took the sword in his hand; and then this day have I sore missed thee. Alas, him thought sin and shame to throw áway that ever I was against thee, for now have that noble sword; and so eft he hid the I my death, whereof Sir Gawaine me sword, and returned again, and told to warned in my dream. Then Sir Lucan the king that he had been at the [60 took up the king the one part, and Sir water, and done his commandment. Bedivere the other part, and in the lifting What saw thou there? said the king. Sir, the king swooned, and Sir Lucan fell in he said, I saw nothing but the waters a swoon with the lift, that the part of (10 wap and the waves wan. Ah traitor, his bowels fell out of his body, and there untrue, said king Arthur, now hast thou with the noble knight's heart brast. And betrayed me twice. Who would have when king Arthur came to himself again, wend that thou that hast been to me so he beheld Sir Lucan, how he lay foaming lief and dear, and thou art named a noble at the mouth, and part of his bowels lay knight, and would betray me for the richat his feet. Alas, said the king, this is ness of the sword. But now go again (70 unto me a full heavy sight, to see this lightly, for thy long tarrying putteth me noble duke so die for my sake, for he would in great jeopardy of my life, for I have have holpen me that had more need of taken cold. And but if thou do now as help than I. Alas, he would not com-  I bid thee, if ever I may see thee, I shall plain him, his heart was so set to help me. slay thee with mine own hands, for thou Now Jesu have mercy upon his soul. Then wouldest for my rich sword see me dead. Sir Bedivere wept for the death of his Then Sir Bedivere departed, and went brother. Leave this mourning and weep to the sword, and lightly took it up, and ing, said the king, for all this will not avail went to the water side; and there he me; for, wit thou well, and I might live bound the girdle about the hilts, and (80 myself the death of Sir Lucan would then he threw the sword as far into the grieve me evermore; but my time hieth water as he might; and there came an arm fast, said the king. Therefore, said and an hand above the water, and met Arthur, take thou Excalibur, my good (30 it, and caught it, and so shook it thrice sword, and go with it to yonder water and brandished, and then vanished away side, and when thou comest there, I the hand with the sword in the water. So charge thee throw my sword in that water, Sir Bedivere came again to the king, and and come again, and tell me what thou told him what he saw. Alas, said the there seest. My lord, said Bedivere, your king, help me hence, for I dread me I have commandment shall be done, and lightly tarried over long. Then Sir Bedivere (90 bring you word again.
took the king upon his back, and so went So Sir Bedivere departed, and by the with him to that water side. And when way he beheld that noble sword, that the they were at the water side, even fast by pommel and the haft were all of pre- (40 the bank hoved a little barge, with many cious stones; and then he said to himself, fair ladies in it, and among them all was If I throw this rich sword in the water, a queen, and all they had black hoods, and thereof shall never come good, but harm all they wept and shrieked when they saw and loss. And then Sir Bedivere hid king Arthur. Now put me into the barge, Excalibur under a tree. And as soon as said the king; and so he did softly. And he might he came again unto the king, there received him three queens with (100 and said he had been at the water, and great mourning, and so they set him had thrown the sword into the water. down, and in one of their laps king Arthur