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royal ordering of gardens, there ought to come late, hollyhocks, and such like. be gardens for all the months in the year; These particulars are for the climate of in which, severally, things of beauty may London; but my meaning is perceived, be then in season. For December and that you may have ver perpetuum, as the January and the latter part of November, | place affords. you must take such things as are green And because the breath of flowers is 170 all winter: holly, ivy, bays, juniper, far sweeter in the air (where it comes and cypress-trees, yew, pine-apple-trees, fir- goes, like the warbling of music) than in trees, rosemary, lavender, periwinkle, - the hand, therefore nothing is more fit the white, the purple, and the blue,– (20 for that delight, than to know what be the germander, flags, orange-trees, lemon- flowers and plants that do best perfume trees, and myrtles, if they be stoved, and the air. Roses, damask and red, are fast sweet marjoram, warm set. There fol- flowers of their smells, so that you may loweth, for the latter part of January and walk by a whole row of them, and find February, the mezereon-tree, which then nothing of their sweetness; yea, though blossoms, crocus vernus, both the yellow it be in a morning's dew. Bays like- 180 and the gray, primroses, anemones, the wise yield no smell as they grow. Roseearly tulippa, hyacinthus orientalis, cha- mary little; nor sweet marjoram. That mairis, fritillaria. For March, there come which above all others yields the sweetest violets, specially the single blue, which (30 smell in the air, is the violet; specially are the earliest, the yellow daffodil, the the white double violet, which comes twice daisy, the almond-tree in blossom, the a year, about the middle of April, and peach-tree in blossom, the cornelian-tree about Bartholomewtide. Next to that in blossom, sweet briar. In April follow is the musk-rose. Then the strawberrythe double white violet, the wall-flower, leaves dying, which yield) a most exthe stock-gillyflower, the cowslip, flower- cellent cordial smell. Then the flower (90 delices and lilies of all natures, rosemary
of the vines; it is a little dust, like the flowers, the tulippa, the double peony, dust of a bent, which grows upon the the pale daffodil, the French honeysuckle, cluster in the first coming forth. the cherry-tree in blossom, the dam- [40 sweet briar. Then wall-flowers, which masin and plum-trees in blossom, the are very delightful to be set under a parlor white-thorn in leaf, the lilac-tree. In or lower chamber window. Then pinks May and June come pinks of all sorts, and
and gillyflowers, specially the matted specially the blush pink, roses of all kinds, pink and clove gillyflower. Then the except the musk, which comes later, flowers of the lime-tree. Then the honeyhoneysuckles, strawberries, bugloss, col- suckles, so they be somewhat afar (100 umbine, the French marygold, flos Afri- off. Of bean flowers I speak not, because canus, cherry-tree in fruit, ribes, figs in they are field flowers. But those which fruit, rasps, vine flowers, lavender in perfume the air most delightfully, not flowers, the sweet satyrian, with the [50 passed by as the rest, but being trodden white flower, herba muscaria, lilium con- upon and crushed, are three: that is, vallium, the apple-tree in blossom. In burnet, wild thyme, and water-mints. July come gillyflowers of all varieties, Therefore you are to set whole alleys of musk-roses, the lime-tree in blossom, early them, to have the pleasure when you pears and plums in fruit, ginnitings, walk or tread. quadlins. In August come plums of all sorts in fruit, pears, apricocks, barberries, filberts, musk-melons, monks-hoods of For fountains, they are a great (110 all colors. In September come grapes, beauty and refreshment; but pools mar apples, poppies of all colors, peaches, [66 all, and make the garden unwholesome melocotones, nectarines, cornelians, war- and full of flies and frogs. Fountains I dens, quinces. In October and the be- intend to be of two natures: the one, ginning of November come services, that sprinkleth or spouteth water; the medlars, bullises, roses cut or removed to other, a fair receipt of water, of some thirty or forty foot square, but without natural plants, that need pruning by fish, or slime, or mud. For the first, the study; and studies themselves do give ornaments of images gilt, or of marble, forth directions too much at large, except which are in use, do well: but the main (120 they be bounded in by experience. (20 matter is, so to convey the water, as it Crafty men contemn studies; simple men never stay, either in the bowls or in the admire them; and wise men use them: cistern; that the water be never by rest for they teach not their own use; but discolored, green or red or the like, or that is a wisdom without them and above gather any mossiness or putrefaction. them, won by observation. Read not to Besides that, it is to be cleansed every contradict and confute; nor to believe day by the hand. Also some steps up to and take for granted; nor to find talk and it, and some fine pavement about it, doth discourse; but to weigh and consider. well. As for the other kind of fountain, Some books are to be tasted, others to which we may call a bathing pool, it (130 be swallowed, and some few to be [30 may admit much curiosity and beauty, chewed and digested: that is, some books wherewith we will not trouble ourselves: are to be read only in parts; others to be as, that the bottom be finely paved, and read, but not curiously; and some few with images; the sides likewise; and withal to be read wholly, and with diligence and embellished with colored glass, and such attention. Some books also may be read things of lustre; encompassed also with by deputy, and extracts made of them fine rails of low statues. But the main by others; but that would be only in the point is the same which we mentioned in less important arguments, and the meaner the former kind of fountain; which is, sort of books; else distilled books are like that the water be in perpetual motion, (140 common distilled waters, flashy things. (40 fed by a water higher than the pool, and Reading maketh a full man; conference delivered into it by fair spouts, and then a ready man; and writing an exact man. discharged away under ground, by some And therefore, if a man write little, he equality of bores, that it stay little. And had need have a great memory; if he confor fine devices, of arching water without fer little, he had need have a present wit; spilling, and making it rise in several and if he read little, he had need have forms (of feathers, drinking glasses, much cunning, to seem to know that he canopies, and the like), they be pretty doth not. Histories make men wise; things to look on, but nothing to health poets witty; the mathematics subtile; and sweetness.
(150 natural philosophy deep; moral, grave; 150
logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt
studia in mores. Nay, there is no stond ESSAY L.-OF STUDIES
or impediment in the wit, but may be
wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases Studies serve for delight, for ornament, of the body may have appropriate exerand for ability. Their chief use for de- cises. Bowling is good for the stone and light is in privateness and retiring; for reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, gentle walking for the stomach; riding is in the judgment and disposition of for the head; and the like. So if a man's business. For expert men can execute, wit be wandering, let him study the (60 and perhaps judge of particulars, one by mathematics; for in demonstrations, if one; but the general counsels, and the his wit be called away never-so little, he plots and marshalling of affairs, come must begin again: if his wit be not apt to best from those that are learned. To (10 distinguish or find differences, let him spend too much time in studies is sloth; study the schoolmen; for they are cymini to use them too much for ornament is sectores: if he be not apt to beat over mataffectation; to make judgment wholly by ters, and to call up one thing to prove their rules is the humor of a scholar. They and illustrate another, let him study the perfect nature, and are perfected by ex- lawyers' cases: so every defect of the mind perience; for natural abilities are like may have a special receipt.
Why so dull and mute, young sinner?
Prithee, why so mute?
Saying nothing do 't?
When, like committed linnets, I
With shriller throat shall sing The sweetness, mercy, majesty, And glories of my king;
When I shall voice aloud how good
He is, how great should be, Enlarged winds, that curl the flood,
Know no such liberty.
Stone walls do not a prison make, 25
Nor iron bars a cage;
That for an hermitage;
30 Angels alone, that soar above,
Enjoy such liberty.
I sing of May-poles, hock-carts, wassails,
The garlands wither on your brow; Get up, get up for shame, the blooming
Then boast no more your mighty deeds; Upon Death's purple altar now
Upon her wings presents the god unshorn. See where the victor-victim bleeds:
See how Aurora throws her fair
Fresh-quilted colors through the air: To the cold tomb;
Get up, sweet slug-a-bed, and see 5 Only the actions of the just
The dew bespangling herb and tree. Smell sweet, and blossom in their dust. Each flower has wept and bowed toward
Above an hour since: yet you not dressed; ROBERT HERRICK (1591-1674) Nay! not so much as out of bed ?
When all the birds have matins said 10 THE ARGUMENT OF HIS BOOK And sung their thankful hymns, 'tis sin,
Nay, profanation, to keep in, I sing of brooks, of blossoms, birds and Whenas a thousand virgins on this day bowers,
Spring, sooner than the lark, to fetch in Of April, May, of June and July-flowers; May.