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sacred mysteries of poesy; no more to of Spain; and that the Spaniards, accordlaugh at the name of poets, as though they ing to their usual manner, fill the world were next inheritors to fools; no more to with their vain-glorious vaunts, making jest at the reverend title of a rimer; but [320 great appearance of victories, when on to believe, ... with me, that there are the contrary themselves are most commany mysteries contained in poetry which monly and shamefully beaten and dis- (10 of purpose were written darkly, lest by honored, thereby hoping to possess the profane wits it should be abused; to be ignorant multitude by anticipating and lieve, with Landin, that they are so be- forerunning false reports: it is agreeable loved of the gods that whatsoever they with all good reason (for manifestation of write proceeds of a divine fury; lastly, to the truth, to overcome falsehood and believe themselves, when they tell you untruth), that the beginning, continuthey will make you immortal by their ance, and success of this late honorable verses.

(330 encounter of Sir Richard Grenville, and Thus doing, your name shall flourish in other her Majesty's captains, with the the printers' shops. Thus doing, you Armada of Spain, should be truly set (20 shall be of kin to many a poetical preface. down and published without partiality or Thus doing, you shall be most fair, most false imaginations. And it is no marvel rich, most wise, most all: you shall dwell that the Spaniards should seek by false upon superlatives. Thus doing, though and slanderous pamphlets, advisos, and you be Libertino patre natus, you shall letters, to cover their own loss, and to suddenly grow Herculea proles,

derogate from others their due honors Si quid mea carmina possunt.

(especially in this fight, being performed

far off), seeing they were not ashamed in Thus doing, your soul shall be placed (340 the year 1588, when they purposed the with Dante's Beatrice or Virgil's Anchises. invasion of this land, to publish in (30

But if (fie of such a but!) you be born sundry languages, in print, great victories so near the dull-making cataract of Nilus, in words) which they pleaded to have that you cannot hear the planet-like obtained against this realm, and spread music of poetry; if you have so earth the same in a most false sort over all creeping a mind, that it cannot lift itself parts of France, Italy, and elsewhere. up to look to the sky of poetry, or rather, The Lord Thomas Howard, with six by a certain rustical disdain, will become of her Majesty's ships, six victuallers of such a mome as to be a Momus of po- London, the bark Raleigh, and two or etry; then, though I will not wish unto (350 | three pinnaces, riding at anchor near unto you the ass's ears of Midas, nor to be Flores, one of the westerly islands of [40 driven by a poet's verses, as Bubonax the Azores, the last of August in the afterwas, to hang himself; nor to be rimed to noon, had intelligence by one Captain death, as is said to be done in Ireland; yet Middleton, of the approach of the Spanish thus much curse I must send you in the Armada. Which Middleton, being in a behalf of all poets: that while you live very good sailer, had kept them company you live in love, and never get favor three days before, of good purpose both for lacking skill of a sonnet; and when to discover their forces the more, as also you die, your memory die from the earth to give advice to my Lord Thomas of their for want of an epitaph.

(360 approach.

He had no sooner delivered the news (50 SIR WALTER RALEIGH (1552?-1618)

but the fleet was in sight. Many of our

ships' companies were on shore in the THE LAST FIGHT OF THE REVENGE island, some providing ballast for their

ships, others filling of water and refreshBecause the rumors are diversely spread, ing themselves from the land with such as well in England as in the low countries things as they could either for money and elsewhere, of this late encounter be or by force recover. By reason whereof tween her Majesty's ships and the Armada our ships being all pestered, and rummag

ing, every thing out of order, very light have been answered in so great an imfor want of ballast. And that which (60 possibility of prevailing. Notwithstandwas most to our disadvantage, the one ing out of the greatness of his mind he half part of the men of every ship sick and could not be persuaded. utterly unserviceable. For in the Revenge In the meanwhile, as he attended those there were ninety diseased; in the Bona- which were nearest him, the great San venture, not so many in health as could Philip, being in the wind of him, and handle her mainsail. For had not twenty coming towards him, becalmed his (120 men been taken out of a bark of Sir sails in such sort as the ship could neither George Cary's, his being commanded to way nor feel the helm: so huge and high be sunk, and those appointed to her, she carged was the Spanish ship, being of a had hardly ever recovered England. 170 thousand and five hundred tons; who The rest, for the most part, were in little after laid the Revenge aboard. When he better state.

was thus bereft of his sails, the ships that The names of her Majesty's ships were were under his lee, luffing up, also laid these, as followeth: the Defiance, which him aboard; of which the next was the was Admiral; the Revenge, Vice Admiral; admiral of the Biscayans, a very mighty the Bonaventure, commanded by Captain and puissant ship commanded by (130 Crosse; the Lion, by George Fenner; the Brittan Dona. The said Philip carried Foresight, by Thomas Vavisour; and the three tier of ordinance on a side, and Crane, by Duffield. The Foresight and eleven pieces in every tier. She shot eight the Crane being but small ships only; (80 forthright out of her chase, besides those the other were of middle size. The rest, of her stern ports. besides the bark Raleigh, commanded by After the Revenge was entangled with Captain Thin, were victuallers, and of this Philip, four other boarded her, two small force or none.

on her larboard, and two on her starboard. The Spanish fleet, having shrouded The fight thus beginning at three of the their approach by reason of the island, clock in the afternoon continued very [140 were now so soon at hand as our ships had terrible all that evening. But the great scarce time to weigh their anchors, but San Philip, having received the lower some of them were driven to let slip their tier of the Revenge, discharged with crosscables and set sail. Sir Richard Gren- (90 barshot, shifted herself with all diligence ville was the last weighed, to recover the from her sides, utterly misliking her first men that were upon the island, which other- entertainment. Some say that the ship wise had been lost. The Lord Thomas foundered, but we cannot report it for with the rest very hardly recovered the truth, unless we were assured. wind, which Sir Richard Grenville not The Spanish ships were filled with combeing able to do, was persuaded by the panies of soldiers, in some two hun- (150 master and others to cut his mainsail and dred besides the mariners, in some five, cast about, and to trust to the sailing of in others eight hundred. In ours there his ship: for the squadron of Seville were were none at all besides the mariners, but on his weather bow. But Sir Richard (100 the servants of the commanders and some utterly refused to turn from the enemy, few voluntary gentlemen only. After alleging that he would rather choose to many interchanged volleys of great ordie, than to dishonor himself, his country, dinance and small shot, the Spaniards and her Majesty's ship; persuading his deliberated to enter the Revenge, and made company that he would pass through the divers attempts, hoping to force her by two squadrons in despite of them, and the multitudes of their armed soldiers (160 enforce those of Seville to give him way. and musketeers, but were still repulsed Which he performed upon divers of the again and again, and at all times beaten foremost, who, as the mariners term it, back into their own ships or into the seas. sprang their luff, and fell under the (110 In the beginning of the fight, the George lee of the Revenge. But the other course Noble of London, having received some had been the better, and might right well shot through her by the armados, fell

under the lee of the Revenge, and asked Revenge, was hunted like a hare among Sir Richard what he would command him, many ravenous hounds, but escaped. being but one of the victuallers and of All the powder of the Revenge to the small force. Sir Richard bade him (170 last barrel was now spent, all her pikes save himself, and leave him to his for- broken, forty of her best men slain, and tune.

the most part of the rest hurt. In the After the fight had thus without inter- beginning of the fight she had but one mission continued while the day lasted hundred free from sickness, and fourscore and some hours of the night, many of our and ten sick, laid in hold upon the ballast. men were slain and hurt, and one of the A small troop to man such a ship, (230 great galleons of the Armada and the Ad and a weak garrison to resist so mighty miral of the Hulks both sunk, and in an army! By those hundred all was susmany other of the Spanish ships great tained, the volleys, boardings, and enterslaughter was made. Some write that (180 ings of fifteen ships of war, besides those Sir Richard was very dangerously hurt which beat her at large. On the contrary almost in the beginning of the fight, the Spanish were always supplied with and lay speechless for a time ere he re soldiers brought from every squadron, covered. But two of the Revenge's own all manner of arms, and powder at will. company brought home in a ship of Lime Unto ours there remained no comfort from the islands, examined by some of at all, no hope, no supply either of (240 the Lords and others, affirmed that he ships, men, or weapons; the masts all was never so wounded as that he forsook beaten overboard, all her tackle cut asunthe upper deck, till an hour before mid- der, her upper work altogether razed; and, night; and then being shot into the (190 in effect, evened she was with the water, body with a musket, as he was a-dressing but the very foundation or bottom of a was again shot into the head, and withal | ship, nothing being left overhead either his surgeon wounded to death. This for flight or defence. agreeth also with an examination, taken Sir Richard finding himself in this disby Sir Francis Godolphin, of four other tress, and unable any longer to make remariners of the same ship being returned, sistance,-having endured in this fif- (250 which examination the said Sir Francis teen hours' fight the assault of fifteen sevsent unto master William Killigrew, of eral armados, all by turns aboard him, her Majesty's Privy Chamber.

and by estimation eight hundred shot of But to return to the fight, the Span- [200 great artillery, besides many assaults and ish ships which attempted to board the entries, and that himself and the ship Revenge, as they were wounded and beaten must needs be possessed by the enemy, off, so always others came in their places, who were now cast in a ring round about she having never less than two mighty him, the Revenge not able to move one way galleons by her sides and aboard her. So or other but as she was moved by the that ere the morning, from three of the waves and billow of the sea,-com- (260 clock the day before there had fifteen manded the master gunner, whom he knew several armados assailed her; and all so to be a most resolute man, to split and sink ill approved their entertainment, as they the ship, that thereby nothing might rewere by the break of day far more will- [210 main of glory or victory to the Spaniards, ing to hearken to a composition than has- seeing in so many hours' fight, and with tily to make any more assaults or entries. so great a navy, they were not able to But as the day increased, so our men de- take her, having had fifteen hours' time, creased; and as the light grew more and fifteen thousand men, and fifty and three more, by so much more grew our discom sail of men-of-war to perform it withal; forts. For none appeared in sight but and persuaded the company, or as (270 enemies, saving one small ship called the many as he could induce, to yield themPilgrim, commanded by Jacob Whiddon, selves unto God, and to the mercy of none who hovered all night to see the success; else, but, as they had, like valiant resolute but in the morning, bearing with the (220 | men, repulsed so many enemies, they

should not now shorten the honor of their dissuade men from death to life. The nation by prolonging their own lives for a master gunner finding himself and Sir (330 few hours or a few days.

Richard thus prevented and mastered by The master gunner readily conde- the greater number, would have slain scended, and divers others. But the Cap- himself with a sword had he not been by tain and the Master were of another [280 force withheld and locked into his cabin. opinion and besought Sir Richard to Then the General sent many boats aboard have care of them, alleging that the the Revenge, and divers of our men, fearing Spaniard would be as ready to entertain Sir Richard's disposition, stole away a composition as they were willing to offer aboard the General and other ships. Sir the same, and that there being divers Richard, thus overmatched, was sent sufficient and valiant men yet living, and unto by Alfonso Bassan to remove (340 whose wounds were not mortal, they out of the Revenge, the ship being marmight do their country and prince ac- vellous unsavory, filled with blood and ceptable service hereafter. And that bodies of dead and wounded men like a where Sir Richard had alleged that (290 slaughter-house. Sir Richard answered the Spaniards should never glory to have that he might do with his body what he taken one ship of her Majesty's, seeing list, for he esteemed it not; and as he was that they had so long and so nota- carried out of the ship he swooned, and bly defended themselves) they answered reviving again, desired the company to that the ship had six foot of water in

pray for him.

The General used Sir hold, three shot under water which were Richard with all humanity, and left (350 so weakly stopped as, with the first work- nothing unattempted that tended to his ing of the sea, she must needs sink, and was recovery, highly commending his valor besides so crushed and bruised as she could and worthiness, and greatly bewailed the never be removed out of the place. [300 danger wherein he was, being unto them

And as the matter was thus in dispute, a rare spectacle, and a resolution seldom and Sir Richard refusing to hearken to approved, to see one ship turn toward so any of those reasons, the Master of the many enemies, to endure the charge and Revenge (while the Captain won unto boarding of so many huge armados, and him the greater party) was convoyed to resist and repel the assaults and entries aboard the General Don Alfonso Bassan. of so many soldiers. All which, and 360 Who finding none over hasty to enter the more, is confirmed by a Spanish captain Revenge again, doubting lest Sir Richard of the same Armada, and a present actor would have blown them up and himself, in the fight, who, being severed from the and perceiving by the report of the (310 rest in a storm, was by the Lion, of LonMaster of the Revenge his dangerous dis- don, a small ship, taken, and is now prisposition, yielded that all their lives should oner in London. be saved, the company sent for England, The General Commander of the Armada and the better sort to pay such reasonable was Don Alfonso Bassan, brother to the ransom as their estate would bear, and Marquis of Santa Cruce. The Admiral in the mean season to be free from galley of the Biscayan squadron was Britan (370 or imprisonment. To this he so much Dona; of the squadron of Seville, Marquis the rather condescended, as well, as I have of Arumburch. The Hulks and Fly-boats said, for fear of further loss and mischief were commanded by Luis Cutino. There to themselves, as also for the desire he (320 were slain and drowned in this fight well had to recover Sir Richard Grenville; near two thousand of the enemies, and whom for his notable valor he seemed two especial Commanders, Don Luis de greatly to honor and admire.

Sant John, and Don George de Prunaria de When this answer was returned, and Malaga, as the Spanish Captain confesseth, that safety of life was promised, the com

besides divers others of special account, mon sort being now at the end of their whereof as yet report is not made. 1380 peril, the most drew back from Sir Richard The Admiral of the Hulks and the and the gunner, being no hard matter to Ascension of Seville were both sunk by

the side of the Revenge; one other re count it a bondage to fix a belief; affectcovered the road of Saint Michaels, and ing free-will in thinking, as well as in sunk also there; a fourth ran herself with acting. And though the sects of philosthe shore to save her men. Sir Richard ophers of that kind be gone, yet there died, as it is said, the second or third day remain certain discoursing wits which aboard the General, and was by them are of the same veins, though there be greatly bewailed. What became of his not so much blood in them as was in (10 body, whether it was buried in the sea (390 those of the ancients. But it is not only or on the land, we know not: the com the difficulty and labor which men take fort that remaineth to his friends is, that in finding out of truth, nor again that he hath ended his life honorably in respect when it is found it imposeth upon men's of the reputation won to his nation and thoughts, that doth bring lies in favor; country, and of the same to his posterity, but a natural though corrupt love of the and that, being dead, he hath not out lie itself. One of the later school of the lived his own honor...

Grecians examineth the matter, and is at A few days after the fight was ended, a stand to think what should be in it, and the English prisoners dispersed into that men should love lies, where (20 the Spanish and Indian ships, there [400 neither they make for pleasure, as with arose so great a storm from the west and poets, nor for advantage, as with the northwest that all the fleet was dispersed, merchant, but for the lie's sake. But I as well the Indian fleet which were then cannot tell: this same truth is a naked and come unto them, as the rest of the Armada open day-light, that doth not show the which attended their arrival. Of which,

Of which, masks and mummeries and triumphs of fourteen sail, together with the Revenge the world, half so stately and daintily as (and in her two hundred Spaniards), were candle-lights. Truth may perhaps come cast away upon the isle of St. Michaels. to the price of a pearl, that showeth best So it pleased them to honor the burial of by day; but it will not rise to the price (30 that renowned ship the Revenge, not [410 of a diamond or carbuncle, that showeth suffering her to perish alone, for the great best in varied lights. A mixture of a lie honor she achieved in her lifetime. . doth ever add pleasure. Doth any man

To conclude, it hath ever to this day doubt, that if there were taken out of pleased God to prosper and defend her men's minds vain opinions, flattering Majesty, to break the purposes of ma hopes, false valuations, imaginations as licious enemies, of forsworn traitors, and one would, and the like, but it would of unjust practises and invasions. She leave the minds of a number of men poor hath ever been honored of the worthiest shrunken things, full of melancholy and kings, served by faithful subjects, and shall indisposition, and unpleasing to them- (40 by the favor of God resist, repel, and (420 selves? One of the Fathers, in great confound all whatsoever attempts against severity, called poesy vinum dæmonum, her sacred person or kingdom. In the mean because it filleth the imagination, and yet time, let the Spaniard and traitor vaunt of it is but with the shadow of a lie. But it their success; and we, her true and obedient is not the lie that passeth through the vassals, guided by the shining light of her mind, but the lie that sinketh in and virtues, shall always love her, serve her, settleth in it, that doth the hurt, such as and obey her to the end of our lives. we spake of before. But howsoever these

things are thus in men's depraved judg

ments and affections, yet truth, which 150 FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626) only doth judge itself, teacheth that the From THE ESSAYS

inquiry of truth, which is the love-making

or wooing of it, the knowledge of truth, ESSAY I.–OF TRUTH

which is the presence of it, and the belief What is truth? said jesting Pilate, and of truth, which is the enjoying of it, is would not stay for an answer. Certainly the sovereign good of human nature. The there be that delight in giddiness, and first creature of God, in the works of the

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