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We haven't made much progress in metals for high temperatures. Over the last 10 years we may have gone up another 200° F. or so, but, for H-power, temperatures as high as these of the sun are involved-millions of degrees.”

3. Dr. Theodore Von Karman, world-famous pioneer in aerodynamics and senior missile adviser to NATO (interview in U. S. News & World Report, November 15, 1957) :

"* * * The United States has been slow, however in exploring new fuels and materials for rocket construction.

“The chief fault lies in the way our research and development programs are organized. It takes years and years before a new idea goes into development. Things seem to be better organized in Russia. * * *"

"* * * They (the Russians) have shown the world what they can do. In addition, the second satellite indicates they may have developed new fuels or discovered how to get greater efficiency out of existing fuels by developing rocket materials capable of resisting higher temperatures. If so, it can only be regarded as a great accomplishment. * * *

“The materials we are now using in rockets cannot stand very high temperatures. New materials are needed, and we have been a little slow in exploring these possibilities, such as new metals, plastics, and ceramics."

4. Gen. C. S. Irvine, Deputy Chief of Staff, Materiel, United States Air Force (statement to SAE convention in New York, April 2, 1957):

"Clearly then, improved use of engineering manpower and capabilities is an essential forward step in the production of air vehicles. But beyond this step lie many problems which must be solved if we are to progress as rapidly as necessary in the efficient design of future air vehicles.

"Foremost among these problems we must find ways of developing and using new materials capable of withstanding sonic vibration and high temperatures. * * *

"I realize that many of these factors are actually dependent upon much more basic research and laboratory data. But obtaining such information is extremely costly. Materials scientists lack funds to proceed when there is no apparent direct application to end items. This requires governmental support and direction, as well as long-term industry planning and support.

“For some time, designers have tended toward pushing the operating temperatures of available materials above their normal operating limits, then providing auxiliary cooling as a crutch. You need no reminder of what this entails in terms of additional equipment and weight. The tendency has been to substitute expediency for real advancement in design."

5. The Special Stockpile Advisory Committee to the ODM (in its report, "Stockpiling for defense in the nuclear age, dated January 28, 1958) : "High temperature and other special-property materials

"It is not possible to know with certainty at this time which of the high temperature or other special-property materials will be in greatest demand for specific applications, as new techniques develop from research and practice. Known world supplies of many of these materials are limited. Several, but not all, are on the stockpile list.

"Up to now, conventional practices have resulted in only relatively small uses of many of these materials. However, if they become important not just as minor alloys but as metals or mixtures composed exclusively of the materials themselves, demand could increase sharply.

"The Committee recommends that a mechanism be established to 'appraise the possible effects of research and development activities on requirements for high-temperature and other special-property materials. Instead of relying on past use patterns, possible needs 5 to 10 years hence must be surveyed and stockpiles built up as need is indicated.

“On Tuesday, July 15, I had the opportunity of talking about tungsten to Dr. Peter Kosting, head of the Metallurgical Division, Office of Ordnance Research, Durham, N. C. Dr. Kosting feels that tungsten still is to play an important part in the high temperature alloys to come and stated that more research with this metal should be done."

News RELEASE-PLEASE NOTE DATE

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, OFFICE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION

Washington, D. C. Hold for release until 6:30 p. m. (EDT)

No. 661-58 Saturday, July 12, 1958.

LI 5-6700 Ext. 71252 ARMY RESEARCH GROUP TO CON FEB WITH GENERAL ELECTRIC REPRESENTATIVES

More than 50 officers and civilian scientists of the Army Research Office and Army technical services will confer on Army research problems with representatives of the General Electric Co. at Schenectady, N. Y., on July 14, the Department of the Army announced today.

The Army group will be headed by Dr. William M. Martin, Director of Army Research and Development, and Lt. Gen. Arthur G. Trudeau, Chief of Army Research and Development.

Scientists representing the General Electric Co. at the conference will be Dr. G. L. Haller, Dr. C. G. Suits, Dr. J. B. Russell, C. M. Heiden, J. B. Young, and P. G. Kappus.

Briefings will consist of formal presentations by the Army team and discussions of research problems by both Army and General Electric personnel. On the agenda for discussion during the 2-day conference are nuclear energy, aerosol stability, infrared light amplification, power sources, high-temperature materials, human engineering, silicone rubber, generation of radio-frequency power, and upper atmosphere research.

This symposium represents expanded Army attempts to communicate its plans and needs to industry. By so doing, the Army hopes to generate research effort among the Nation's industry to produce newer and more effective methods of meeting Army needs.

Col. John A. Ord is Director of the Army Research Office, which operates under Brig. Gen. Theodore J. Conway, Director of Research.

The Army Research Office was established last March to promote and coordinate the growing Army research effort in the sciences. It guides the efforts of the Army's technical services, which continue to direct actual research projects in fields for which they are responsible.

Tungsten concentrates
[In thousands of pounds of contained metal]

Year

Production

Imports

Consump

tion

Domestic

price

Import price
(less duty)

1958 (2 months)
1957
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951

757
7, 549
14, 701
15, 833
13, 166
9, 259
7, 233
5,914

1, 509 13, 971 20, 860 20, 700 24, 092 28, 060 17, 416 6,376

1,080
8, 544
9,061
8, 967
4,037
7, 734
8, 634
11, 410

$20.00
22.00
55.00
61. 79
62. 61
62. 46
63. 44
61. 02

$12.00-$10.00
27. 25– 12.00
33. 50- 28. 75
25. 75- 33. 50
21. 00- 27.75
46. 50- 28.00

[blocks in formation]

MEMBERS OF THE TUNGSTEN INSTITUTE (DURING THE PERIOD SEPTEMBER 1, 1956,

TO JUNE 1, 1958) Boulder County Mining Association, 420 Pine Street, Boulder, Colo. Class A

member. George Cowdery, president. Climax Molybdenum Co., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. Class B member.

Arthur H. Bunker, president. Consolidated Uranium Mines, Inc., Post Office Box 2578, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Class B member. Edward Frawley, president. Engel, Rene, Post Office Box 96, Wofford Heights, Calif. Class A member. Getchell Mine, Inc., Post Office Box 2520, Reno, Nev. Class B member. Roy A.

Hardy, vice president. Idaho Maryland Mines Corp., 983 Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. Class B

member. Bert C. Austin, president. Minerals Engineering Co., Post Office Box 1951, Grand Junction, Colo. Class B

member. Blair Burwell, president. Nevada-Massachusetts Co., Post Office Box 996, Sonora, Calif. Class B member.

Charles H. Segerstrom, Jr., president. New Idria Mining & Chemical Co., Strawberry Tungsten Division, 1950 Tyler

Street, Fresno, Calif. Class B member. M. C. Richardson, manager. Surcease Mining Co., 214 30th Street, Sacramento, Calif. Class B member.

John W. Hoefling, president. The Wolfram Co., Lovelock, Nev. Class B member. John M. Heizer, president. Tungsten Mining Corp., Headquarters: 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y. Class

B member. William M. Weaver, Jr., president. Wah Chang Mining Corp., Woolworth Building, New York, N. Y. Class B member. K.C. Li, president.

Mr. Rogers. Do we have another? Mr. Bruce Manley, president, California-Oregon Chrome Producers Association. Is Mr. Manley here?

Mr. ULLMAN. Could I ask that all of the chrome producers come up to the table at one time?

Mr. ROGERS. You may. Mr. Bruce Manley, president, CaliforniaOregon Chrome Producers Association; J. R. Holman, vice president, California-Oregon Chrome Producers Association; Mr. John D. Hoff man, San Luis Obispo, Calif., chrome producer; Mr. Durand A. Hall, president, Castro Mining Co. Berkeley, Calif.; Mr. William Gardner, president, Grant County Mining Association, John Day, Oreg. Are there any others who would care to join this group?

If not, gentlemen, you may pull chairs around there and have a seat and we will proceed.

Mr. MILLER. May I ask a question here?
Mr. ROGERS. The gentleman from Nebraska.

Mr. MILLER. I wanted to ask a question of Mr. Romney and the gentleman who followed him, whether they had read Senate bill 4036 and whether they were in general agreement with the provisions of S. 4036 as well as S. 3817, which passed the Senate. Mr. Romney?

Mr. ROMNEY. Would you repeat the question? Mr. MILLER. I wondered whether you were in agreement with the bills that passed the Senate, S. 4036 and S. 3817.

Mr. ROMNEY. I am familiar with S. 4036. The Utah Mining Association is in general agreement for the purposes of legislation with that legislation as passed by the Senate. The DMPA bill, S. 3817, the Utah Mining Association supports the DMPA principles. There are some reservations that I do not think it is necessary to go into but in general principle we do support the DMPA legislation.

Mr. MILLER. Thank you.

STATEMENT OF BRUCE MANLEY, PRESIDENT, CALIFORNIA-OREGON

CHROME PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION

Mr. MANLEY. We have been trying quite hard to find some kind of program that will keep our chrome mines going for they cannot compete with the low-cost foreign ores. Any kind of program that will keep the mines open means everything to us. It also means much to our communities for they are faced with the problem of supporting a rapidly expanding population in a country largely mountainous. Development of our mineral deposit is one hope we have for vitally needed industrial development and we know the development of one mineral will lead to the development of others.

We have been repeatedly told by our Representatives in Congress that they are willing to help us but we should work out our own solution to the chrome problem. We had a survey made by Ivan Bloch Associates, industrial and economic consultants, Portland, Oreg., on the feasibility of pearl chrome production from a plant located in the West to utilize domestic chrome ores. Study showed there was enough profit in the processed chrome to pay chrome miners a sufficient profit to operate their mines.

Based on this study and what we believe to be the future expansion of the steel industry on the west coast, we thought that by uniting in a cooperative marketing association we would have a solution for our problem which would return to the Government full value for any money that might be advanced to us and would not injure or interfere with the foreign policy in any way.

We have talked about this idea when we came here to members of the Department of the Interior, members of this committee, and our Representatives. They have all been most helpful in working with us on this plan which is set forth in H. R. 13280. We believe that H. R. 13280 is a good bill and offers a proper solution to the chrome program

and that the arguments against it by the Department of the Interior are fallacious.

However, we realize time is short and that the committee may need to go more closely into these matters. Therefore, we now advocate the suggestion made by Congressman Engle that we follow the program approved by the administration.

The chrom mines have been closed since May. We do not know for what price we can sell our ore or whether we can sell it at all. There is testimony before this committee that industrial inventories are filled for the next year. Within a year our mining organizations will be gone, many of our mines will be caved, filled with water, and roads washed out. In taking our present position we are relying on testimony by the Department of the Interior on July 3 that if we cannot work under this plan they will come back in January and ask for increased price.

I thank the committee for the time and consideration they have given us and I know it is appreciated by the chrome miners of California,

Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Thank you. Mr. Rogers. Mr. Manley, I think it is very important for the purpose of the record if you sum up rapidly the uses to which chrome is put and the need you have for that in our general economy:

Mr. MANLEY. Chrome is one of our most important alloying minerals in this way. It is a part of nearly every alloy that exists. You have steel alloys made with perhaps tungsten and chrome or molybdenum, cobalt, or something else, but whatever alloy is made it requires some chrome. Its effect in steel is to make it tougher. They tell me if you get enough chrome in steel you could almost lace your shoes with it.

It is also used in making high-temperature steels a great deal. I think every jet engine requires something like 1,500 pounds of chrome. I may

be wrong on that figure but it requires a good deal. That I do know.

Mr. ROGERS. The reason for that is that you know lots of people represent lots of other people in the Congress of the United States. We get talking in terms of our own industry or profession and forget the other fellow doesn't know it. The best way to short cut these things is to simplify the language in relation to it and it makes it so much easier for us who are usually friendly to you to explain these matters on the floor.

Mr. MANLEY. I would like to add to that answer this. I was thinking of steels. Chrome is also used in what we call chemical chrome, the chrome you see on your car. It is used in paints, refining leather, and also as what they call a refractory chrome used in high-heat furnaces and so on. I neglected those.

Mr. ASPINALL. I think much of this that we have before use is for national security. Tungsten is a high-temperature metal, chrome is used more or less for the purpose of providing toughness and tensile strength. Is that right?

Mr. MANLEY. That is right; yes, sir. My point is whatever alloy you have usually requires some chrome. I don't know of any that does not but there

may

be some. Mr. ROGERS. Thank you, Mr. Manley. Do any of the other gentlemen have a statement ?

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