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Are we going to have the same thing under this bill? The CHAIRMAN. No. Mr. KOWALSKI. Will men be broken down? The CHAIRMAN. No. Mr. KOWALSKI. So they have to put in their 20 years? The CHAIRMAN. No. This corrects that very thing. I know case after case

Mr. KOWALSKI. Yes, sir The CHAIRMAN. Men who were majors and lieutenant colonels that went back to sergeants.

Mr. KOWALSKI. Yes, sir.

The CHAIRMAN. Now he will make a contract and he will make the contract at the beginning of his military career. Then if the Government keeps him on, if it wants to keep him on

Mr. KOWALSKI. Mr. Chairman, I am worried about the man who is now 55 and has 18 years' service. Will he go out tomorrow and become a sergeant for the 2 more years? Mr. Rivers. You are talking about the man now? Mr. KOWALSKI. Yes. Mr. RIVERS. On active duty now? Mr. KOWALSKI. Yes, sir.

Mr. RIVERS. If they give him an indefinite status 1 day after 14 years' service, between 14 and 18–because under the law when he gets to 18 he is home free anyway. Did you know that? When he hits 18

Mr. KOWALSKI. I know. I thought it was 1712.

Mr. RIVERS. If they fail to give him a contract 1 day after that, we give a constructive contract and they have to pay him just as though he had a contract.

Mr. Kowalski. The paying is one thing, but it doesn't take care of the thing of dropping a colonel down to a sergeant. This disrupts all the noncommissioned officers. They are mad at the situation.

Mr. RIVERS. He doesn't have to do that.
Mr. Kowalski. Is this going to happen again?

Mr. RiVERs. He can get paid for this, until he gets to 20, under a computed contract.

Mr. KOWALSKI. I understand that. But I am worried about the morale of the Army, where men are being reduced from colonels to sergeant ranks.

The CHAIRMAN. Well, if you don't hit a man's pocketbook, you don't disturb his morale.

Mr. KOWALSKI. Sir, I know that is not so. I know men have been terribly disturbed by it and the Army is disturbed by it.

The CHAIRMAN. There is a quorum and without objection we act favorably upon the bill.

Mr. Rivers will take such parliamentary steps necessary to present the bill to the House.

In that connection, Mr. Durham and Mr. Rivers will appear before the Rules Committee tomorrow to obtain rules on bills pending there for consideration now.

Now, I want Mr. Rivers and his staff to get this report written up just as early as possible. I hope to be able to get this bill considered

by the House and clean up all of our work, including this public-works bill, before the Easter recess.

Now, members of the committee, an invitation has been extended by the Department of Defense to our seven new members—isn't it seven in our committee? How many new members?

Mr. SMART. Seven.
The CHAIRMAN. Seven new members.
The Department

of Defense would like for you to make a trip to Europe during the Easter recess.

After consultation with the Department of Defense, the proper ones about this matter, I think it is highly in the interest of the committee work that you seven new members try to arrange your affairs so you can go to Europe during the Easter recess.

I am writing a letter to each one of you pointing out how important it is for you to become conversant with the general situation in Europe.

I hope you will come back and then file, as usual, a report.

(Whereupon, the committee proceeded to further consideration of H.R. 4414, the military-construction bill).

SEP 1 5 1959 ! Como

(No. 16]




Washington, D.C., Monday, February 2, 1959. The committee met at 10 a.m., Hon. Carl Vinson, chairman, presiding.

The CHAIRMAN. Let the committee come to order.

Members of the committee, you will recall at the outset of our organization, we stated that the first order of business ordinarily is a briefing from the Department of Defense. But as the Secretary and General Twining were engaged before other committees, we proceeded to the consideration of the draft bill, which we concluded fast Friday.

I want to state that I will appear before the Rules Committee in the morning at 10 o'clock to ask for a rule, and if the rule is granted, then it is the intention to call it up on the floor Wednesday.

So I hope all the members will be on hand Wednesday and participate in the debate. The report will be at your desk today. We are anxious to finish it Wednesday or Thursday. At the end of it there will be a rollcall vote.

Now, after discussion with some of my colleagues in the Department of Defense the method of our briefing, I have reached the decision that the proper way to commence it will be first to permit Secretary McElroy to present his views, publicly, and then we will go in executive session. Then we will have the views of General Twining. And then later on, we will go back in public session to question Secretary McElroy.

Now, with that understanding, we will proceed. Members of the committee, all of you know our distinguished Secretary of the Department of Defense, Mr. McElroy. It is a pleasure to have you here this morning. The committee welcomes this opportunity for you to present to the committee and the public your views with reference to our military posture, the defense of the Nation.

Now let the Secretary proceed without any interruption. Then after General Twining has finished his statement, we will go back and question the Secretary.

You may proceed, Mr. Secretary.

Secretary McELROY. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I want to thank you first, Mr. Chairman, for that gracious introduction.

Also, before I begin my formal statement, I would like to express the appreciation of the Department for the expeditious action taken by this committee in approving and reporting out of committee a most important bill from our standpoint, the extension of the Selective Service Act.


34066-59-No. 16



Because of appearance before other committees of the Senate and of the House, I personally was not able to appear. I did, of course, , send a letter which expressed my thorough agreement with the action that was being considered here.

But in my opinion, the committee has taken action in a way which should make it very clear to the country that this is of the great importance that we in the Department have considered it to be. And I congratulate the committee on this action.

Now with respect to this report, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee. A year has passed since I first appeared before you to discuss matters pertaining to the Nation's defenses. It has been an active year. I believe that much has been accomplished. I am glad to be here again to present to you a review of where we stand today, some of the major steps which have been taken, and some of the problems that still face us.

In advance of our meeting this morning, Mr. Chairman, you were good enough to present us with certain questions which you would like to have answered in the course of these hearinys. I shall try to cover these in my statement with the knowledge that you, of course, and other members of the committee may wish to go into them in considerably more detail later.

And I would emphasize that, Mr. Chairman, because there has been no attempt really to give completely comprehensive answers to all of these in my statement. I thought it would stretch it out too much.

I can tell you with confidence that this country not only remains strong but is increasing its defense capabilities. We are improving our forces; we are moving ahead faster than we had expected in many important areas such as the intercontinental ballistic missiles and Polaris; we are steadily building up the quality of the personnel required in our Armed Forces and achieving a better utilization of our manpower; we are stronger organizationally than we were a year ago.

The basic policy of the Department of Defense continues to have the following principal elements:

1. We consider our first responsibility to be that of protecting the ability of this country to retaliate with large weapons in case of an outbreak of general war.

2. We consider as our second but equally pressing responsibility that of providing a capacity to apply military force promptly in various local conflict areas of the free world similar to Lebanon and Taiwan of the past year.

3. We seek these objectives without in any way overlooking the need of continental air defense and for maintenance of open sealanes.

Let me discuss in some detail our program in each of these areas.

First, our deterrent ability. Recognizing that manned bombers will continue to be an important element of our retaliatory forces for some years to come, the fiscal year 1960 budget includes funds for the procurement of additional B-52 heavy jet bombers, B-58 supersonic medium bombers, and the supporting KC-135 jet tankers. This will permit us to start replacing some of the older B-47 medium jet bombers.

Funds are included for an additional quantity of the Hound Dog air-to-ground missile which, nised by the B-52, will permit the bomber to stand hundreds of miles away from the target and deliver a weapon with very large destructive power. Provision is also made for the continued development of the B-70, a very high performance intercontinental jet bomber, and for the development of advanced penetration aids to be employed by the B-52 and B-58 as well as the B-70.


As I have indicated, the Atlas missile is moving ahead even faster than originally expected. It has successfully completed a full-range test and is well along in production. Construction has started on a number of launching sites and by the end of the current fiscal year the first few operational missiles will be in position in the hands of trained military personnel.

The development of the Titan, an advanced liquid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missile , is proceeding on a high priority basis. Large scale testing of this missile has begun and work has already started on the design and engineering of the launching facilities.

Development work on a “second generation” solid propellant intercontinental ballistic missile, the Minuteman, is progressing rapidly and on the expanded scale proposed by the Congress last summer.

One of the very promising elements in our retaliatory system in the future is, as you know, the Polaris system. The first five of the submarines equipped to fire the Polaris solid fuel ballistic missile are well along in construction and the contract has been awarded for a sixth Polaris submarine of a still more advanced design. We plan to start three more in 1960. Additional funds are included in the fiscal year 1960 budget for the advance procurement of long lead time components for 3 more Polaris submarines, making a total of 12. Actual construction of these latter three will be started in fiscal year 1961. This will give us a program of three Polaris submarines in each year 1958 through 1961, without prejudging the number of additional submarines needed thereafter.

Development of the missile, itself, and other elements of the system is moving forward on schedule. We anticipate the first firing of the first complete Polaris missile this summer, and expect to have the first fully operational Polaris submarine, at sea ready to fire, in the latter part of calendar year 1960. These submarines, each carrying a number of missiles, able to launch their weapons while surfaced or submerged, will constitute a most effective means of responding vigorously to an attack on this country, and will be very difficult for an enemy to keep track of.

I have already mentioned other elements in our deterrent capability. These include the intermediate range missiles based in allied countries, the first units of which have already been deployed to the United Kingdom with additional units planned for deployment within the next 18 months. They include also our carrier task forces, which carry medium range bomber type craft to provide a strategic weapon delivery capability to supplement their primary function associated with limited war situations. They include also the fighter bombers of the Air Force tactical command. With SAC as the present backbone, we have today a deterrent capability of impressive magnitude and will have for as far ahead as we can see.

The second essential element in our defenses is the ability to apply the necessary degree of force in limited war situations. "We must

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