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Having now considered the historical records of Hampton Court Palace, we proceed, before ascending to the state apartments, to give a short account of that strictly modern portion of the building in which they, together with the King's and Queen's staircases, are contained.
The Fountain Court, or EASTERN QUADRANGLE as it is also called, was built in 1690. Its dimensions are one hundred and ten feet by one hundred and seventeen feet. A beautiful colonnade of the Ionic order, with duplicated columns, encircles the quadrangle. The side opposite the grand entrance, which, it will be observed, is without the superincumbent attic of the others, is a portion of the old palace; the front only, occupied by a room called in the guide-books the Portrait Gallery, is the work of Wren. In the area is a grass plat railed in, with, in the centre, a circular basin, with a small fountain playing, and captive carp and gold-fish navigating their watery prison.
This court occupies the site of the chief or grand court, described by Hentzner, about one hundred years before, as "paved with square stone, and having in its centre a fountain which throws up water, covered with a gilt crown, on the top of which is a statue of Justice, supported by columns of black and white marble.” The pedestals, formerly supporting statues by Fanelli, still remain; the statues having been carried off to Windsor together with the vases of the gardens, and placed in the sunk garden opposite the east front of the Castle, where they yet remain.
Above the first floor windows are the Labours of Hercules, the work of Laguerre, in design very stiff, in composition meagre, in colouring tame and flat, and every way contemptible as works of art.
The general effect of the interior of this quadrangle is sombre and melancholy—that of an ornamental cloister : but this is the ordinary result of narrow spaces enclosed with lofty buildings on every side, dribbling fountains and little fishes-prisoners of state.
The Chapel, participating in the style of various epochs, and having undergone alterations in successive reigns, we cannot assign particularly to any one period; the description subjoined has been taken from the work of Mr. Lysons.
“To the north-west of the Fountain Court stands the chapel, which forms the south side of a small quadrangle; it appears to have been part of King Henry VIII.'s building, and to have been finished by that monarch in 1536 or 1537 : his arms impaled with Seymours', and the initials H. P. (joined together by a truelover's-knot), several times repeated, occur on each side of the door. Before the civil war, this chapel was ornamented with stained glass and pictures, which were demolished in 1645, as appears by the following paragraph taken from a weekly paper of that date :
—Sir Robert Harlow gave order (according to the ordinance of parliament) for the pulling down and demolishing of the Popish and superstitious pictures in Hampton Court, where this day the altar was taken down, and the table brought into the body of the church, the rails pulled down and the steps levelled, and the Popish pictures and superstitious images that were in the glass windows were also demolished, and order given for the new glazing them with plain glass; and among the rest, there was pulled down the picture of Christ nailed to the cross, which was placed right over the altar, and the pictures of Mary Magdalen, and others weeping by the foot of the cross, and some other such idolatrous pictures, were pulled down and demolished.'
“The chapel was fitted up in its present state by Queen Anne; it is paved with black and white marble, and pewed with Norway oak. The carving is by Gibbons. The original roof remains—a plain, gothic pattern, with pendent ornaments. Hentzner, who visited England in Queen Elizabeth's reign, speaks of the chapel as most splendid ; and says that the queen's closet was transparent, with windows of crystal.”
Notwithstanding our regret that the palace of Wolsey should have been interfered with, and that the glaring architectural anachronism of Wren should ever have been permitted to be raised upon its ruins, we must be content to take the palace as we find it, and direct the tourist to the grand staircase, painted by Verrio, of whose merit as an artist, when we have said that he had a free and ready pencil, we have said enough.
The subjects are, as usual in such cases, mythological, with supposed allusions to the marriage of the Thame and Isis : upon the ceiling we observe Jupiter and Juno seated upon a rich throne, with Ganymede riding upon Jupiter's eagle, and presenting him the cup. Juno's peacock is in the front, and one of the fatal sisters is waiting with her scissors in her hand, ready to cut the thread of life, should Jove give her orders. The reader will smile when he is told that this pictorial nonsense conceals a courtier's compliment to royalty: the peacock being an emblem of the grandeur of William and Mary; the Destiny denotes their influence over their subjects; and the Zephyrs represent their mild and courteous disposition towards them.
This is amusing-flattery laid on with paint, and both so very thick!
Staircases being made to ascend or descend, and few things being more unpleasant than to stand on a step craning one's eyes to the ceiling or the walls, where we have not light to see nor time to criticise, we shall not dwell further upon explanation of the paintings of the staircase, but pass forward at once to
THE GUARD CHAMBER; A large and well-proportioned room, sixty feet long, forty feet wide, and thirty feet high, containing arms for a thousand men, and halberts for the yeomen of the guard, disposed in fanciful forms by one Harris, a gunner, who also arranged those in the Little Armoury in the Tower of London; a mode of making instruments of death subservient to purposes of decoration pretty enough, and even useful, if one could have assurance that their ornamental arrangement might never more be disturbed.
The pictures in each room, with the name of the master, we give in the order in which they are placed in the official catalogue of the place.
The lower pannels contain:1 The Battle between Constantine and Max- | 45 Calumny, an Allegory. T. Zucchero. entius. Giulio Romano.
46, 47 Two Landscapes, with figures. Schiavone. 2 Admiral Sir Stafford Fairbourne. Bockman. 48 Italian Lawyer. P. Bordone. 3 Admiral Beaumont. Bockman.
49 A Portrait of a Gentleman. Tintoretto. 4 Admiral Benbow. Bockman.
50 A Portrait of a Man. Bassano. (Cortona. 5 Admiral Sir Thomas Dilkes. Bockman. 51 Augustus consulting the Sibyl. P. da 6 Admiral Churchill. Bockman.
52 Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia. W. 7 Admiral Sir John Jennings. Bockman.
Vandevelde, 8—15 Eight Military Subjects. Rugendas. 53 Robert Boyle. Kersboom. 16 Ruins of the Colosseum. Canaletto. 54 Mrs. Elliott. Riley. 17 Queen Elizabeth's Porter. Zucchero. 55 Venus. Titian.
56 De Bray and his family, by himself.
57 Admiral Sir J. Gradin. Bockman. THE KING'S PRESENCE CHAMBER 58 Admiral Lord Anson. Contains the canopy of King William's
59 Admiral Sir G. Byng. Bockman. throne, with the arms, and the motto, “ Je 60, 61 Over the doors are pieces of Ruins.
Rousseau. maintiendray ; ” also the pictures numbered as follows :
The next apartment is called 18 King William III. Kneller. 19 Mary, his Queen. Wissing.
TIIE SECOND PRESENCE CHAMBER. Around the room are full-length portraits 62, 63, 64 Over the doors are pieces of Ruins. of the Female Beauties of their Court.
Rousseau. 20 THE DUCHESS OF ST. ALBANS. Kneller. 65 The Doge of Venice. Fialetti. 21 The COUNTESS OF Essex. Kneller.
66 Jupiter and Europa. Giulio Romano. 22 The Countess OF PETERBOROUGH. Kneller. 67 The Sculptor, Baccio Bandinelli. Correggio. 23 THE COUNTESS OF RANELagh. Kneller.
68 A Sculptor. Bassano. 24 Miss Pitt. Kneller.
69 Mrs. Lemon. Vandyke. 25 THE DUCHESS OF Grafton. Kneller. 70 An Italian Knight. Pordenone. 26 THE COUNTESS or DORSET. Kneller. 71 A Holy Family. F. Vanne. 27 LADY MIDDLETON. Kneller.
72 The Annunciation. Paul Veronese. 28 Over the fire-place is a portrait of James 73 St. Michael. Sir J. Reynolds, after Guido.
first Marquis of Hamilton. Mytens. 74 Christ in the house of the Pharisee. Bassano. 29 Admiral Russell. Kneller.
75 An Italian Lady. Parmegiano. 30 Boys with a boat and swans.
76 Virgin and Child. Bronzino. 31 Boys with a boat. Polidoro.
77 A Warrior. Giorgione. 32 A Portrait. Pordenone.
78 Artemisia Gentileschi, by herself. 33 An old Woman blowing Charcoal. Holbein. 79 Alexander de' Medici. Titian. 34 A Portrait. Dobson.
80 Charles I. on horseback. Vandyke. 35 The Overthrow of Pharaoh and his Host. 81, 82 Philip IV. of Spain, and Queen. Jordaens.
[avone. Velasquez. 36, 37 Two Landscapes, with figures. Schi. 83 Jacob's departure from Laban. F. Laura. 38 St. William divesting himself of his armour, 84 Joseph and Mary. G. Honthorst.
to take upon himself the monastic order 85–88 The Seasons. Breughel and Rothenof the Carthusians.
(Veronese. 39 A Saint's Head. Lanfranco.
89 Judith and Holofernes. Teniers, after P. 40 A Man Reading. A. Catalani.
90 The Last Supper. Young Palma. 41 A Landscape, with figures. Schiavone. 91 Conversion of St. Paul. V. Malo. 42 A Portrait. Titian.
92 Tobit and the Angel. Schiavone. 43 A Portrait. Giorgione.
93 Guercino, by himself. 44 A Man showing a trick. L. da Vinci. 94 Diana and Actæon. Titian.
95 The Marriage of St. Catherine. P. Vero- ! 138 Triumph of Venus. G. Romano.
139 A Sibyl. C. Cignani. 96 St. Francis and the Virgin. Carlo Maratti. 140 Flora. L. da Vinci. 97 Christian IV., K. of Denmark. Van Somer. 141 Diana. 98 Cupids and Satyrs. Polidoro.
142 An Old Man with a Large Beard. 99 Jacob, Rachael, and Leah. Guido Cagnacci. | 143 Buildings, with figures. 100 Jacob's Journey. Bassano.
144 A Female with a Helmet. Pordenone. 101 Peter Oliver, the Painter. Hannemann. 145 Holy Family. Pordenone. 102 A Dutch Gentleman. Vander Halst. 146 The History of Argus. F. Floris. 103 Joseph brought before Pharaoh.
147 Head of a Young Man. C. Cignani. 104 A Portrait.
148 Death of Adonis. Van Orlay. 105 Joseph's Departure from Jacob.
149 Roman Emp. on Horseback. G. Romano. 106 A Portrait.
The fifth chamber in succession is The fourth chamber is termed
THE KING'S DRAWING ROOM.
THE AUDIENCE CHAMBER.
150 David with Goliah's Head. D. Fetti. 107 Our Saviour in the Rich Man's House-151 A Holy Family. Dosso Dossi.
Mary Magdalen anointing his feet. 152 The family of Pordenone, by himself. 108 CHRIST HEALING THE SICK.
153, 154 Christ's Agony in the Garden. N. 109 THE WOMAN TAKEN
S. Ricci. 155 Nabob Walajah of Arcot. Willison. 110 The Woman Of Faith.
156 Cupids and Goats. Polidoro. 111 THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA.
157 Apotheosis of a Saint. Bassano. 112 The Nursing of Jupiter. Giulio Romano. 158 A Venetian Senator. Pordenone. 113 Ignatius Loyola. Titian.
159 A Knight of Malta. Tintoretto. 114 Jupiter and Juno. Giulio Romano. 160 The Presentation of Queen Esther. 115 Titian's Uncle. Titian.
Tintoretto. 116 The Birth of Jupiter. Giulio Romano. 161 The Muses. Tintoretto. 117 A Ruin. Viviani and Jan Miel.
162 The Offering of the Magi. Luca Gior118 Venus and Cupid. Rubens, after Titian.
dano. 119 The Battle of Forty. P. Snayers. 163 The Wise Men's Offering. Carlo Cagliare. 120 The Departure of Briseus. Schiavone. 164 The Cornaro Family. Old Stone, after 121 Over the fire-place, the Queen of Bohemia, Titian.
daughter of James I. G. Honthorst. 165 Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. Gentileschi. 122, 123 Two Landscapes. Swaneveldt. 166 George III. reviewing the 10th Light 124 Venus and Cupid. Titian.
Dragoons (now Hussars). The Prince 125 Death and the Last Judgment. M. of Wales on his right, giving the word Hemskerck.
of command; the Duke of York is on 126 Diana and Actæon. Giorgione.
the left of his Father; Sir William 127 The Shepherds' Offering. Palma.
Fawcett is on the ground, and General 128 The Expulsion of Heresy. Tintoretto.
Goldsworthy and Sir David Dundas are 129, 130 The Heads of St. Peter and Judas. on horseback beside the Duke of York. Lanfranco.
Sir William Beechey. 131 Virgin and Child. Andrea del Sarto. 167 A Holy Family. Parmegiano. 132 A Spanish Lady. Sebastian del Piombo. 168 A Holy Family. Giorgione. 133 A Holy Family. Correggio.
169 Our Saviour in the House with Mary and 134 The Virgin and Child, with St. Andrew Martha. Bassano. and St Michael J. de Mabuse.
170 Fruit, with a Monkey. 135, 136 Madonna and Child. Parmegiano. 171 Landscape, with Ruin. 137 Roman Emperor on horseback. G. 172 A Lady Playing on the Virginal. PorRomano.