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What is the tendency there? Is your Indian population increasing or decreasing?
Mr. BENNETT. I would have to study that, Mr. Marshall, a little. It certainly is not letting up any. The idea that jurisdiction over the Indians has changed this, if that is what you are referring to, to have them transferred to the States, is not working out. They are still remaining pretty much under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government.
Mr. MARSHALL. That was one of the questions you foresaw I was going to lead up to. That is what I was interested in.
Mr. BENNETT. The tribal council are taking care of a few of the minor cases, but by and large they are remaining in Federal custody and unless a fellow goes into town and commits rape, that is one thing; but if it is on an Indian reservation, and among other Indians, we get them.
FACILITIES AT SANDSTONE
Mr. MARSHALL. I wonder if you could tell me what situation exists at Sandstone in connection with the chapel. What facilities do you have there?
Mr. BENNETT. There is no chapel there, Mr. Marshall. The institution has never been fully completed and we are looking forward some day to bringing before this committee an estimate for a multipurpose building which would include a visiting room, a chapel, and the expansion of our office space there. Unfortunately, there is no item in the budget for that this year.
Mr. MARSIIALL. I could not help but notice the day I was there that there were a number of visitors coming to see the inmates in a very crowded corridor where there was no privacy. I also commented on the security problem the institution had and they told me that it was quite a problem to maintain discipline under those kinds of conditions. They told me that in connection with some of their recreational work and their training they were quite handicapped. I am glad to hear you mention that in some of your future planning you are going to make some provision to take care of that.
I would also like to comment on one other thing, Mr. Bennett.
While I was there, I observed some of the work you were doing in providing food for the people in the institution, and I saw some pigs being raised for food for the institution that I thought were some of the best quality hogs I have ever observed anywhere. I think one of the benefits of the prison institution there is that you do have facilities available where you can produce food not only for that institution but no doubt, in time, for some of the rest of the institutions.
PRISON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
Mr. BENNETT. As you know, we have a very close cooperation with the Department of Agriculture on our dairy production. We think we probably have the finest herd of Holstein cattle anywhere in the country. We co-operate with the Department of Agriculture in their breeding programs on Landrace hogs and Tamworth hogs. I guess the hogs up at Sandstone were Durocs.
Mr. MARSHALL. The hogs at Sandstone were Landrace.
Mr. BENNETT. Our total agricultural production is over $2 million a year, with a net advantage to the Government of about a million and a quarter dollars. That is the value of the food over and above the cost of feed, fertilizer, and so on.
Mr. MARSHALL. Thank you, Mr. Bennett.
DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM-INSTITUTIONAL TREATMENT OF JUVENILE
AND YOUTH OFFENDERS
Mr. ROONEY. With regard to the supplemental request that we spoke of a while ago, amounting to $618,000, to finance a demonstration program for institutional treatment of juvenile and youth offenders, this proposed supplemental to the pending budget has not as yet officially been received on Capitol Hill, but since we have the facts with regard to it before us, I should like to ask some questions about it.
When were these justifications prepared?
JUSTIFICATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL ESTIMATE
Mr. ROONEY. This is a pretty loose document, as will be evident when we insert at this point in the record pages 4 through 15 of these justifications.
(The pages referred to follow :)
PROPOSED 1962 BUDGET AMENDMENT TO FINANCE A DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM FOR
INSTITUTIONAL TREATMENT OF JUVENILE AND YOUTH OFFENDERS
In this proposed program for the institutional treatment of juvenile and youth offenders, four of the basic treatment programs have been selected for intensive demonstration on an experimental basis. The essential purpose of these demonstration projects is to apply the best available knowledge to comparatively small groups of juvenile delinquents and youth offenders and to test out the results. The projects themselves and the results obtained would become available to all professional and lay persons concerned with the problems of delinquency control and prevention and would provide a pattern of treatment which could be adopted by institutions throughout the country.
Institutional treatment programs for juvenile and youth-summary Demonstration release guidance centers.
$300,000 Demonstration vocational training program.
75, 000 Demonstration counseling program..
75,000 Demonstration correctional education program
45, 000 Training manuals and institutes for correctional personnel.
50, 000 Comprehensive statistical program--
618, 000 Demonstration release guidance centers ($300,000)
One of the marked deficiencies in existing institution programs for juveniles and youth is the absence of any kind of constructive program for the transition from institution to community. The great proportion of these youngsters are released without adequate financial resources and without the guidanre they need to make the necessary readjustments to the economic and social demands they must face after a period of institutionalization. Most of these juveniles must return to the same substandard living conditions which contributed to their delinquencies; they face extremely difficult problems in finding employment; and few social or welfare agencies are geared to handle the special problems of the delinquent in the community after release. Experience has shown that the critical period for the delinquent is during the first 3 to 6 months when assistance, guidance, and counseling is most essential and if these are not available, a relapse into delinquency becomes highly probable.
It is proposed to establish on an experimental basis four release guidance centers. These would be located in major metropolitan areas such as New York, Chicago, Cincinnati, Denver, and Los Angeles. Selected juvenile and youthful offenders would be transferred to these centers approximately 90 days before their expected release date. The program of the center would be geared to (a) finding suitable employment, (b) developing contacts with agencies and individuals who can assist the offender after release, (c) arranging for housing, (d) establishing contacts with the Supervising Parole Officer and (e) providing intensive counseling on the opportunities and responsibilities of the releasee.
The centers would be expected to accommodate a daily average of 12–15 men. The possibility of operating these centers under contract is being explored. Each center if operated by the Bureau would have a staff consisting of: 1 supervising counselor, GS-10.
$6, 995 1 caseworker research, GS-9..
6, 435 1 employment specialist," GS-9-
6, 435 4 correctional counselors, GS-7 (to provide round-the-clock supervision)-
21, 420 1 cook-housekeeper, WBS-6_
6,000 1 secretary, GS-5.
51, 630 5, 170
56, 800 5, 000 2, 500 2,500 2, 500 5, 000
300,000 1 Will also service nonresident releasees. Demonstration Vocational Training Program ($75,000)
The records of juvenile delinquents and youth offenders reveal a highly consistent pattern of school failures and a high rate of school drop outs at a prematurely early age. One of the major reasons for this high rate of school failures, aside from the economic factor, is the fact that many high school programs are geared to too high a level for the youth with poor background or motivation. Even special vocational programs do not have the degree of special coaching and personal counseling needed to reach some youngsters. Untrained and therefore unemployable youth are always potential candidates for the ranks of the delinquent.
Many institutions for juvenile delinquents do not have the facilities for ade quately training their wards in the various trades and occupations so that they may look forward to becoming economically self-sustaining.
A demonstration vocational training program will be established at the Englewood, Colo. institution. It would make available to approximately 60 boys annually, full time vocational training in the fields of auto-body repair, auto mechanics, machine shop, and radio-television repair.
Each course would be supplemented by related trades training.
These types of training would provide opportunities for individuals of both low and high intelligence. Very little previous education would be required. The intensity of this program is comparable to the highly successful aircraft mechanics school which has been operated at Chillicothe for many years.
A case worker-researcher would carry out a continuous study of participants. so that the results of accelerated vocational training can be accurately eraluated and compared to those who do not receive training. Reports would be prepared and distributed for use by State, local, and private institutions.
The cost of establishing and operating the program would include: 5 instructors, GS-9----
$32, 175 1 case worker-researcher, GS-9_.
6, 435 Total..
38, 610 Allowance for retirement and insurance.
2, 700 Total
41, 310 Materials.
8, 500 Textbooks_
3, 500 Machinery and tools (largely nonrecurring).
21, 690 Total..
75,000 Demonstration counseling program ($75,000)
In recent years, individual and group counseling for the treatment of personality maladjustment and emotional problems have been developed into highly specialized techniques by psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers. Juvenile offenders as a group present a great variety of maladjustments which only intensive counseling directed by professional personnel can hope to reach and redirect. Very few institutional programs throughout the country have been in a position to experiment with this relatively new treatment approach to the juvenile or youth offender. In view of the reported success of counseling with various forms of mental illness, the application of these methods with juveniles in the institutional setting gives considerable promise of success.
A demonstration counseling program will be established at Ashland, Ky., which has a population of juvenile and youthful offenders. While both group and individual counseling has been used for years in this and other Federal institutions, there has never been enough staff to experiment with intensive counseling. The amount of time devoted to each boy has, at best, been in the range of 1-2 hours per month.
The model program will use both group and individual counseling under several degrees of intensity. One group, for example, may be given 15 hours per month throughout their confinement; another group may receive 10 hours per week for the first 3 months; and, a third group may receive 10 hours per week for the last 3 months. The results of these differing patterns of counseling will be carefully observed and recorded so that valid comparisons may be made. An average of 75 boys will be under intensive counseling.
The funds required for this program will be used as follows: 1 psychiatrist, senior grade-
$14, 515 2 clinical psychologists, GS-12
17, 910 3 caseworker-researchers, GS-9
19, 305 2 secretaries, GS-5---
60, 420 4, 200 5, 000 5, 380
75,000 Demonstration correctional education program ($45,000)
For the most part, educational programs in institutions today are limited to the more traditional curriculum of the public schools. Juvenile delinquents are as a group public school failures. Furthermore, these delinquents have absorbed a set of social values and developed attitudes which are essentially so antisocial as to place them in conflict with more acceptable norms of behavior. A new approach to the redirection of these attitudes and values would be the use of more experimental educational techniques and curriculum. Also, the professional training of teachers is directed toward the more normal youth and in the use of public school methods. However, there is a great deal in modern education, both in materials and techniques, which can be adapted to the development of a specialized curriculum to help instill in these youngsters a more realistic point of view toward themselves, society, and their place in the community.
It is proposed to experiment with new techniques at the Ei Reno Reformatory in Oklahoma. Approximately 120 young men would be selected to participate in a specially designed curriculum of social sciences, literature, biographical history and rudimentary science.
As is the case with our other proposals research and evaluation would be an integral part of this project.
The funds requested are as follows: 1 master teacher, GS-11--
$7, 560 3 teachers, GS-9_-.
19, 305 1 psychologist, GS-11.
7, 560 1 secretary, GS-5_
38, 770 2, 700
41, 470 1,000 2, 530
45, 000 Preparation of training manuals and institutes for institutional correctional
In addition to the scarcity of professionally trained personnel in the juvenile and youth institutions throughout the country, it is the nonprofessional personnel who present the greatest need for training. These are the people who come into daily and intimate contact with the youth in these institutions and therefore have the greatest impact upon them. There is at present little published instructional or informational material on which adequate training programs could be based. An untrained corps of institutional employees who lack the insight into the be havior of delinquents and the understanding of the goals of the formal and professionally oriented treatment programs can easily undo all of the good which these programs are intended to accomplish.
As a first step it is proposed to develop and publish a series of manuals. These will describe rehabilitation programs and techniques which have been successfully used during the confinement of juvenile and youthful offenders.
The manuals will be designed so that they may be used as text or reference materials for formal training programs. Experimental institutes will be held at which the materials can be tried out on Federal correctional personnel. Other correctional personnel from State, local, and private institutions may be invited to participate. Funds required for these projects are: 1 correctional training officer, GS-12_
SS, 935 1 correctional training officer, GS-9
6. 435 2 staff assistants, GS-7_.
10, 710 2 secretaries, GS-5_
34, 790 1, 800
36, 590 3. 000 5, 000 4,000 1, 410
50,000 Comprehensive statistical program ($73,000)
One of the very difficult problems faced by correctional administrators has been their inability to judge results. Under present arrangements wardens do not generally know how well men succeed after they leave the institution. In those few cases where they do know there is no procedure or system for relating success or failures to the type of treatment the man has received.
With the increased emphasis being put on experimental and demonstration programs it becomes critical to have a system which will tell us how well the job is being done. These problems can be attacked by keeping relatively simple