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The Issue before Us
Terminology and Historical Precedent
Government by Consent and Council
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accordance action activities administrative affairs allegiance amir answer Apostle Apostle of God assembly authority of Abū basis become bound Caliphs centuries citizens claim Companions concept concerned consequently considered constitution course decide decisions detailed discussion Divine duty elected enactment entirely established executive existence fact follows freedom give hand historical human ideology individual instance interests Islamic legislation live majlis majlis ash-shūrā majority man's matters means ment method moral Muslim nature never non-Muslim obey obligation obviously opinion particular person political position possible practical principle problems Prophet question Qur'ān and Sunnah reason reference regard relating religion religious representative requirements responsible result rule sense shar'i shari'ah social society spiritual thought Traditions truly Umar unless Western whole wrong إن الله على لا من