Plastic Injection Molding: Material Selection and Product Design Fundamentals

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Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 1997 - Technology & Engineering - 380 pages
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The second book in the Plastic Injection Molding series addresses the basics and the fine points of plastics materials and product design phases of the thermoplastic injection molding process. Complex technical matter is presented in clear, sequential narrative bites.
 

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Contents

Project Chart Samples
208
Why Projects Fail
215
SUMMARY
219
TYPICAL PROJECT EXAMPLE
223
Phase 0
224
Phases 3 Through 8
225
DETERMINING ACTUAL REQUIREMENTS
226
Physical and Mechanical Aspects
230

THE SETUP SHEET
23
CONTROLLING SHRINKAGE
25
The Effects of Temperature Adjustments
28
The Effects of Pressure Adjustments
29
MINIMIZING MOLDEDIN STRESS
31
SUMMARY
32
QUESTIONS
33
THERMOPLASTICS VERSUS THERMOSETS
41
Amorphous versus Crystalline
42
Elastomers
43
HOW PLASTICS ARE MADE
44
MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND DISTRIBUTION
45
SUMMARY
46
QUESTIONS
47
Reinforcements and Fillers
48
Fillers
52
SUMMARY
56
QUESTIONS
57
Comparing Amorphous and Crystalline Materials
58
Process Temperature Requirements Injection Unit
60
Process Temperature Requirements Mold
62
Liquid Crystalline Materials
65
SUMMARY
66
Basic Material Properties
68
Mechanical Properties
73
Thermal Properties
82
Electrical Properties
84
Environmental Concerns
87
SUMMARY
91
QUESTIONS
92
Elastomers
102
STAR DIAGRAMS
105
SUMMARY
106
Material Costs
135
Labor Costs
138
Tooling Costs
143
Adding It All Up
145
SUMMARY
146
QUESTIONS
147
Secondary Operations
148
WHEN TO CONSIDER SECONDARY OPERATIONS
149
When a Laborheavy Environment Exists
150
Hot Gas Welding
156
Induction Electromagnetic Bonding
157
Spin Welding Friction Welding
158
MACHINING OPERATIONS
159
Drilling and Tapping Thermosets
163
AUTOMATED SHAPE CUTTING
164
Laser
165
Applied Finishes
166
Inprocess Finishes
172
SUMMARY
176
Testing and Failure Analysis
178
Physical Testing
180
Mechanical Testing
185
Thermal Testing
188
FAILURE ANALYSIS
194
Differential Scanning Calorimeter
195
Calculating Glass Content
198
SUMMARY
200
QUESTIONS
201
The Product Design Session
202
What Takes Place?
203
Thermal Aspects
247
Electrical Aspects
248
Weather and Exposure Limits
249
Safety and Environmental Issues
250
SUMMARY
251
QUESTIONS
252
Uniform Wall Thickness Requirement
256
Knit Lines
257
Sharp Corners
258
Sink Marks
260
Warpage and Bowing
261
Draft
263
Ejector Pin Marks and Gate Location Restrictions
268
Gate Marks
269
Dimensions and Drawing Notes
270
WHAT THE VENDOR NEEDS
271
COMMON DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
275
PRODUCT DESIGN CHECKLIST
278
SUMMARY
280
QUESTIONS
282
MATERIAL HANDLING REQUIREMENTS
285
PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS
286
TESTING REQUIREMENTS
287
SUMMARY
288
QUESTIONS
289
WHAT TO LOOK FOR
294
Basic Investigation
295
Familiarity
296
Capabilities
297
Responsibilities
298
QUALIFICATION FORM
299
SUMMARY
303
Fit
307
The Prototype Option
308
Casting
309
Which is Best?
311
SUMMARY
312
THE INJECTION HALF OF THE MOLD
315
The Sprue Bushing
316
Flash
317
Ejector Plates
318
MOLD DESIGN BASICS
319
Runner Crosssection
320
Typical Tool Life
323
Ownership of the Mold and Other Tools
325
SUMMARY
327
QUESTIONS
328
WHAT CAUSES DEFECTS?
331
COMMON DEFECTS AND REMEDIES
332
Blisters
333
Brittleness
334
Clear Spots
335
Contamination
336
Crazing
337
Flash
338
Jetting
339
Shrinkage Excessive
340
Splay Silver Streaking
341
SUMMARY
342
Common Material Acronyms and Their Meanings
354
Answers to Chapter Questions
360
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